MSMC BUS 3180 1.28.14 lecture ppt topic 2 leadership traits
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  • 1. Topic 1: Introduction to Leadership & Trait Approach 1
  • 2. What makes a great leader? Why are some people leaders while others are not? What makes people become leaders? Is it effective communication? Do leaders have certain traits? Or both? 2
  • 3. Communication How important is effective communication in leadership? Communication consists of a sender, a message, a channel whereby the message travels and the noise or interference of the receiver. 3
  • 4. Communication Process Often communicators blame the audience for not accepting a message, but it is often that the sender, the encoding process or channels chosen were not applied correctly. Examples? 4
  • 5. Communication Process Is the relationship of Communicator A to Communicator B important? How so? Will the social environment influence communication? How so? How important is feedback? Without it, we don’t know if the receiver received or understood our message. 5
  • 6. Communication Process There is no meaning to a message except what people put into it. To understand the human communication process, one must understand how people relate to each other. 6
  • 7. Communication Process Other considerations in the communication process: Opinion Belief Attitude Value Agenda Interest 7
  • 8. Communication Process Overcoming barriers to effective communication Design and deliver the message so that it gets the attention of the intended audience. Relate to common and easily understood experiences between the source and the destination. Offer a way to meet personality needs appropriate to the group situation the receiver is in at the time you want that receiver to respond. Other ways to overcome barriers? Source: http://www.praccreditation.org/secure/documents/APRSG_Comm_Models.pdf 8
  • 9. Leadership Traits 9
  • 10. Historical Leaders George Washington Harriet Tubman Eleanor Roosevelt Winston Churchill Mother Teresa Nelson Mandela Bill Gates Oprah Winfrey 10
  • 11. What do they all have in common? Visionary Strong-willed Diligent Inspirational Purpose-driven Role models Symbols of hope From these exceptional leaders we can gain a better understanding of the traits that are important for effective leadership. 11
  • 12. Five Major Traits for Effective Leadership Studies on leadership identified many important leader traits. o What specific traits are needed to be a successful leader? Research points to five traits: 1)Intelligence 2)Self-Confidence 3)Determination 4)Integrity 5)Sociability 12
  • 13. Eight Traits for Effective Leadership Stodgill (Ch. 2 black cover) identified 8 traits 1) Intelligence 2) Alertness 3) Insight 4) Responsibility 5) Initiative 6) Persistence 7) Self-confidence 8) Sociability 13
  • 14. Additional Traits 10 characteristics associated with leadership (Stogdill): 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 14 Drive for responsibility and task completion; Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals; Risk taking and originality in problem solving; Drive to exercise initiative in social situations; Self-confidence and sense of personal identity; Willingness to accept consequences of decision and action; Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress; Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay; Ability to influence other people’s behavior; and Capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand.
  • 15. Intelligence Intelligence includes having good language skills, perceptual skills, & reasoning ability. It is hard to change Intelligence Quotient (IQ). It is possible to: o obtain knowledge o learn about your job & environment o use information to become better leaders 15
  • 16. Self-Confidence Confidence is a trait that has to do with feeling positive about one’s self & one’s ability to succeed. Confident people: o feel self-assured o believe they can accomplish goals o do not second-guess themselves—they move forward with clear visions o they are positive about self & ability 16
  • 17. Confidence How do we build confidence? o Understanding what is required from us o Have a mentor to show the way & provide constructive feedback o Practice builds confidence & assures us that we can do what we need to do 17
  • 18. Determination Focused & attentive to tasks Know where to go & how to get there Includes initiative, persistence, & drive Persevere in the face of obstacles Easiest for leaders to acquire Focus on task, clarify goals, articulate vision, & encourage others to stay the course 18
  • 19. Integrity Honest & trustworthy with strong principles Inspire confidence because it creates trust Loyal, dependable, & not deceptive Undergirds all aspects of leadership To increase integrity—be honest & open Challenge: o To strike a balance between being open while monitoring what is appropriate to disclose 19
  • 20. Sociability The capacity to establish pleasant social relationships Friendly, outgoing, courteous, & diplomatic Sensitive to others & cooperative Easier for some than others Increasing sociability requires that we try to get along with our coworkers o be friendly, kind, & thoughtful 20
  • 21. Charisma (not listed in the top 5) Magnetic charm and appeal that gives leaders exceptional powers of influence Charisma is not a common personality trait. To increase charisma: o Be a strong role model for values o Be competent in leadership to gain trust o Articulate clear goals & strong values o Communicate high expectations & show confidence in followers’ abilities o Inspire others 21
  • 22. Emotional Intelligence (another assessment of leadership traits)  Emotional Intelligence can be defined as the ability to perceive and express emotions, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions, and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships with others.  Ability to perceive and: – apply emotions to life’s tasks – reason/understand emotions – express emotions – use emotions to facilitate thinking – manage emotions within oneself and relationships 22
  • 23. Emotional Intelligence (another assessment of leadership traits) Daniel Coleman and emotional intelligence One Life To Love: A candid chat with Daniel Coleman, whose work on emotional intelligence created a revolution. He suggested that people with emotional skills are more likely to succeed and be happy in life. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twJLI2C6R-Y&feature=related 23
  • 24. Strengths of Trait Approach  It is intuitively appealing  It fits our notion that leaders are different in that they possess special traits  People “need” to view leaders as gifted  Credibility due to a century of research support 24  Highlights leadership component in the leadership process  Deeper level understanding of how leader/personality related to leadership process  Provides benchmarks for what to look for in a leader
  • 25. Criticisms of Trait Approach  Fails to delimit a definitive list of  List of most important leadership leadership traits traits is highly subjective  Endless lists have emerged  Much subjective experience &  Doesn’t take into account situational effects  Leaders in one situation may not be leaders in another situation 25 observations serve as basis for identified leadership traits  Research fails to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes  Not useful for training & development
  • 26. Summary  Our personal traits inform our leadership.  Understanding your personal traits can provide a better recognition of your leadership.  Communication is essential to effective leadership. 26
  • 27. What Traits are exhibited? After twenty-seven months on the job, Tom saw his efforts pay off: the division had its best first quarter ever. By his thirty-first month, Tom felt he had finally mastered the situation; he finally felt he had the structure and management group in place to grow the division's revenues to $400 million and he now turned his attention to divesting a product group which no longer fit in with the growth objectives of the division. What TRAITS are exhibited by Tom?  Drive: achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative  Leadership Motivation (personalized vs. socialized)  Honesty and Integrity  Self-confidence (including emotional stability)  Cognitive Ability  Knowledge of the Business  Other Traits (weaker support): charisma, creativity/originality, flexibility 27
  • 28. What Traits are exhibited? / want to be able to demonstrate the things I learned in college and get to the top," said Al, "maybe even be president. I expect to work hard and be at the third level within 5 years, and to rise to much higher levels in the years beyond that. I am specifically working on my MBA to aid in my advancement. If I'm thwarted on advancement, or find the challenge is lacking, I'll leave the company. Al had been promoted to the district level [after 8 years] and certainly expected to go further. Although he still wouldn't pinpoint wanting to be president (his wife's dream for him), he certainly had a vice presidency in mind after his first promotion. What TRAITS are exhibited by Al? 28
  • 29. What Traits are exhibited? Even though Chet had the benefits of a college degree, his below-average scholastic performance did not fill him with confidence in his capabilities. He hedged a bit with his interviewer when asked about his specific aspirations, saying he wasn't sure what the management levels were. When pressed further, he replied, "I'd like to feel no job is out of my reach, but I really do not possess of a lot of ambition. There are times when I just want to say, 'To hell with everything.' "   What TRAITS are exhibited by Chet? 29
  • 30. In Class Case Studies Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank 30