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Line is the most basic building block of formal analysis. Line can be used to
create more complex shapes or to lead your eye from one area in the
composition to another. Line is the path of a moving point through space or a
mark drawn by a tool such as a pencil moving across a surface. Lines can be
thick, thin, wavy, straight, horizontal, etc.
Tobey: Calligraphy in White
Shapes are created when lines are combined to form a square,
triangle, or circle. Shapes can be organic (irregular shapes found in
nature) or geometric (shapes with strong lines and angles such as
circles, triangles, and squares).
Picasso: The Three Musicians
Forms are three-dimensional shapes with length, width, and depth.
Balls, cylinders, boxes, and pyramids are forms.
Hepworth: Assembly of Sea Forms
Space is the area between and around objects. Increasing or
decreasing the amount of space around an object affects the way we
view that object. Space can be implied, as in a painting, or real, as in a
sculpture. Space can be negative or positive.
Rousseau: New York City Snow Scene
Color & Value differentiates and defines lines, shapes, forms, and
space. Even black and white images have a huge number of different
shades of gray. The “value” of color refers to the lightness or
darkness of a color or object.
Renoir: Fruits from the Midi
Texture is the surface quality that can be seen and felt. Textures can
be rough or smooth, soft or hard. Textures are often implied. For
instance, a drawing of a rock might appear to have a rough and hard
surface, but in reality is as smooth as the paper on which it is drawn.
Raoult: The Old King
Balance is created in a work of art when textures, colors, forms, or
shapes are combined harmoniously. Balance can be symmetrical,
asymmetrical, or radial.
Winslow Homer: The Carnival
Rhythm & Movement is the way a viewer's eye is directed to move
through a composition, often to areas of emphasis. Movement can be created
by lines, contrasting shapes, or colors within the artwork and in addition, the
repetition of lines, shapes, or colors create the feeling of movement.
Nude Descending Staircase
Variety & Emphasis is created in a work of art when the artist
contrasts colors, textures, or shapes to direct your viewing towards a
particular part of the image.
Variety creates interest through use of different lines, shapes, and
colors in a work of art. Contrast is the use of several elements of
design to hold the viewer's attention and to guide the viewer's eye
through the artwork.
De Toulousse Lautrec:
At the Moulin Rouge
Proportion is created when the sizes of elements in a work of art are
combined harmoniously. Proportion refers to the size relationships of
one part to another. Scale refers to size measured against a standard
reference, like a person.
Fernando Botero: A Family
Harmony & Unity is created when the principles of analysis are
present in a composition and in harmony (a pleasing relationship with
the elements in the artwork). Color, shapes, patterns, and textures are
just some examples of elements that can be harmonious. Some images
have a complete sense of unity, while some artists deliberately avoid
formal unity to create feelings of tension and anxiety.
Van Gogh: Starry Night