MSMC PPT Lecture Authentic leadership and women in leadership- ppt 2.19.14
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MSMC PPT Lecture Authentic leadership and women in leadership- ppt 2.19.14 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 2  Authentic Leadership Description  Authentic Leadership Defined  Approaches to Authentic Leadership Practical Theoretical How does Authentic Leadership Theory Work?
  • 2. 3 Authentic Leadership (video 4:58) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5go-mT_1QvA Unprecedented global challenges  Sustainability  Social Issues  Business Competitiveness  Economic Uncertainty  Difficult to motivate people  Work Life Balance
  • 3. 4 Robust Leaders Innovation and Creativity Empowering Others Self Motivated Self Knowledge Purpose, Passion Let go of control Love
  • 4. 5  Authentic Leadership – focuses on whether leadership is genuine  Interest in Authentic Leadership  Increasing in recent times due to social upheavals  People longing for trustworthy leaders  Identified earlier in transformational leadership research but not studied separately
  • 5.  Three Authentic Leadership Characteristics:  ALs exhibit genuine leadership  ALs lead from conviction  ALs are originals, not copies 6
  • 6. “A pattern that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development.” Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008 7
  • 7. FOUR COMPONENTS Self-awareness Reflecting on one’s core values, identity, emotions, motives Being aware of and trusting your own feelings Internalized moral perspective Self-regulatory process using internal moral standards to guide behavior Balanced processing Ability to analyze information objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision Relational transparency Being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others 8
  • 8.   Positive psychological capacities Confidence - Hope - Optimism - Resilience Moral Reasoning Capacities - Deciding right and wrong  - Promoting justice, greater good of the organization or community 9
  • 9. Critical Life Events - Positive or negative  Act as a catalyst for change  People attach insights to their life experiences  When people tell life stories they gain clarity about who they are  Stimulate personal growth 10
  • 10.  Strengths  Criticisms  Application 11
  • 11.  Fulfills society’s expressed need for trustworthy leadership. Fills a void in an uncertain world.  Provides broad guidelines for those who want to become authentic leaders. Both practical and theoretical approaches provide a map.  Like transformational and servant leadership, AL has an explicit moral dimension.  Unlike traits that only some people exhibit, everyone can learn to be more authentic.  Can be measured using an established instrument (ALQ). 12
  • 12.  The theory is still in the formative stages, so some concepts in the practical approaches are not fully developed or substantiated.  The moral component of AL is not fully explained. It’s unclear how higher values such as justice inform authentic leadership.  The rationale for including positive psychological capacities as a part of AL has not been clearly explained by researchers.  The link between authentic leadership and positive organizational outcomes is unclear. It is also not clear whether AL is sufficient to achieve organizational goals. 13
  • 13.  People have the capacity to become authentic leaders. It is a lifelong learning process.  Human Resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions.  Leaders are always trying to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good.  Leaders are shaped by critical life events that lead to growth and greater authenticity. 14
  • 14. 15  Women and Leadership Perspective Gender, Leadership Styles, and Leadership Effectiveness   The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth  Understanding the Labyrinth  Women and Leadership Approach
  • 15.  People have the capacity to become authentic leaders. It is a lifelong learning process.  Human Resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions.  Leaders are always trying to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good.  Leaders are shaped by critical life events that lead to growth and greater authenticity. 16
  • 16.  Gender and Leadership  Popular press reported differences between women and men …  Women inferior to men (1977) Women lacked skills & traits necessary for managerial success  Superiority of women in leadership positions (1990)  Researchers ignored issues related to gender & leadership until the 1970s 17
  • 17. Gender and Leadership  Scholars started by asking “Can women lead?”  Changed by women in leadership Presence of women in corporate & political leadership  Highly effective female leaders – PepsiCo’s CEO, Avon’s CEO, General Ann Dunwoody, etc.  Current research primary questions “What are the leadership style and effectiveness differences between women and men?”  “Why are women starkly underrepresented in elite leadership roles?”  18
  • 18.  Meta-analysis (Eagly & Johnson, 1990)  Women were not found to lead in a more interpersonally oriented & less task-oriented manner than men in organizations  Only gender difference - women use a more participative or democratic style than men  Additional meta-analysis (van Egen, 2001) examining research between 1987-2000 found similar results 19
  • 19.  Meta-analysis of male & female leaders on all characteristics and behaviors  Women were devalued when they worked in maledominated environments and when the evaluators were men  Females evaluated unfavorably when they used a directive or autocratic style (stereotypically male)  Female and male leaders evaluated favorably when they used a democratic leadership style (stereotypically feminine)  Women are adapting by using the style that produces most favorable evaluations 20
  • 20.  Meta-analysis of gender differences in transformational leadership  Found small but robust differences between M and F leaders  Women’s styles tend to be more transformational than men’s  Women tend to engage in more contingent reward behaviors than men  Devaluation of women leaders by male subordinates extends to female transformational leaders 21
  • 21.  Meta-analysis comparing effectiveness of female & male leaders  Overall men and women were equally effective leaders  Gender differences  Women and men were more effective in leadership roles congruent with their gender  Women were less effective to the extent that leader role was masculinized 22
  • 22.  Gender differences  Women were less effective than men in military positions  Women were somewhat more effective than men in education, government, and social service organizations  Women were substantially more effective than men in middle management positions  Women were less effective when they were supervised or rated by a high number of males 23
  • 23.  Women  Currently outnumber men in higher education (57% of bachelor degrees, 60% of master’s degrees, more than 50% of doctorates, nearly half of professional degrees) (Catalyst, 2009)  Make up nearly half of the U.S. labor force - 47.2% (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010a)  Still are underrepresented in upper echelons of America’s corporations & political system 24
  • 24.  Women  Occupy more than half of all management and professional positions, and a quarter of all CEO positions (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010b)  Hold only 14.4% of highest titles in the Fortune 500  Represent less than 3% of Fortune 500 CEOs (Catalyst, 2011b)  Hold only 15.7% of Fortune 500 board seats 25
  • 25.  • • • • • Women in Politics 90 of the 535 seats in the U.S. Congress = 16.8% 17%: Senate; 16.8%: House of Representatives Women of color occupy just 24 seats (Center for Women and Politics, 2011) World average of women’s representation in national legislatures or parliaments is 19.4%. The U.S. is ranked 70th out of 188 countries (InterParliamentary Union, March 2009). High ranking U.S. women military officers = 6.1% (U.S. Dept. of Defense) 26
  • 26. 27
  • 27. 28
  • 28.  Human Capital Differences  Pipeline Problem - Women have less education, training, and work experience than men resulting in a dearth of qualified women.  Pipeline is not empty but leaking – Explanation that women haven’t been in managerial positions long enough for natural career progression to occur (Heilman, 1997) – not supported by research  Division of labor – Explanation that women selfselect out of leadership tracks by choosing “mommy track” positions that do not funnel into leadership positions (Belkin, 2003; Ehrlich, 1989; Wadman, 1992); not supported by research (Eagly & Carli, 2004) 29
  • 29.  Women  are more likely to quit jobs for family-related reasons and experience more losses after quitting than men do. (Keith & McWilliams, 1998)  still do most of the childcare and housework (Belkin, 2008; Craig, 2006)  who use flex time and workplace leave are often marginalized; taking time off from a career makes reentry difficult (Williams, 2010) 30
  • 30.  Women  Occupy more than half of all management & professional positions (Catalyst, 2011), but have fewer developmental opportunities  Fewer responsibilities in the same jobs as men  Are less likely to receive encouragement, be included in key networks, and receive formal job training than their male counterparts  Confront greater barriers to establishing informal mentor relationships  Are disproportionately represented in low-visibility positions, e.g. the “velvet ghetto” of HR  Are more likely to be put in precarious leadership situations associated with greater risk and criticism 31
  • 31.  Women  Show the same level of identification with & commitment to paid employment roles as men  Are less likely to promote themselves for leadership positions than men  Were less likely than men to emerge as group leaders, more likely to serve as social facilitators 32
  • 32.  Women  face  significant gender biases and social disincentives when they self-promote  are less likely than men to ask for what they want  are less likely to negotiate than men Psychological differences on traits often seen as related to effective leadership  However, leadership is marked by androgynous traits such as intelligence, social skills, initiative, and ability to persuade.  Men are more likely than women to ask for what they want (Babcock & Laschever, 2003).  Negotiations for higher level positions are often unstructured, ambiguous, and rife with gender triggers, which disadvantages women (Bowles & McGinn, 2005). 33
  • 33.  Explanation for the leadership gap  gender bias stemming from stereotyped expectations – “women take care and men take charge”  Stereotypes = cognitive shortcuts that influence the way people process information regarding groups and group members.  Gender stereotypes include beliefs about the attributes of men and women and prescribe how men and women ought to be. 34
  • 34.  Gender Stereotypes  pervasive, to change  well documented, and highly resistant (Dodge, Gilroy, & Fenzel, 1995; Heilman, 2001)  men are stereotyped with agentic characteristics  confidence, assertiveness, independence, rationality, & decisiveness  Stereotypical attributes of women include communal characteristics  concern for others, sensitivity, warmth, helpfulness, & nurturance (Deaux & Kite, 1993; Heilman, 2001) 35
  • 35.  Gender Stereotypes  Pervasive, well documented, and highly resistant to change  (Dodge, Gilroy, & Fenzel, 1995; Heilman, 2001)  Men are stereotyped with agentic characteristics  Confidence, assertiveness, independence, rationality, & decisiveness  Stereotypical attributes of women include communal characteristics  Concern for others, sensitivity, warmth, helpfulness, & nurturance (Deaux & Kite, 1993; Heilman, 2001) 36
  • 36.  Gender stereotypes explain numerous findings  Women facing cross pressures to be tough but not too “manly”  Greater difficulty for women to be viewed as effective in top leadership roles (Eagly & Karau, 2002)  Penalties for women who violate gender stereotypes (Ex.Price Waterhouse vs. Ann Hopkins; media coverage of 2008 Hillary Clinton presidental run)  Decision-makers influenced by homosocial reproduction, a tendency for a group to reproduce itself in its own image (Ex. Male leaders choosing male successors) 37
  • 37.    How stereotypes affect women themselves Pressure of tokenism (Kanter, 1977) and being scrutinized. Women may assimilate to stereotype OR may counter the stereotype. Depends on: • Leader’s self-efficacy • Explicitness of the stereotype • Type of task • Gender composition of the group • Power of the leader • Whether stereotype threats are combined 38
  • 38.  Factors contributing to leadership effectiveness & rise of female leaders  Culture of many organizations is changing  Gendered work assumptions are being challenged  Organizations valuing flexible workers & diversity of top managers & leaders  Developing effective & supportive mentoring relationships  Increasing parity in domestic responsibilities  Negotiating for valued positions and resources 39
  • 39.  Factors contributing to leadership effectiveness & rise of female leaders  Women’s foray into entrepreneurship  Improving perceptions of women’s leadership by combining communal and agentic qualities  Adopting transformational leadership style  Becoming more assertive without losing their femininity 40
  • 40.  Labyrinth encompasses other non-dominant groups such as ethnic, racial, and sexual minorities.  Fulfill promise of equal opportunity by allowing everyone to take on leadership roles.  Promoting diverse women into leadership roles contributes to more ethical, innovative, and financially successful organizations. 41
  • 41.  Strengths  Criticisms  Application
  • 42.  Developing a more androgynous conception of leadership will enhance leadership effectiveness by giving people opportunity to engage in the best leadership practices  Research on gender and leadership is productive in both dispelling myths about the gender gap and shining a light on aspects of the gender barrier that are difficult to see and therefore are overlooked  Understanding many components of the labyrinth will give us the tools necessary to combat this inequality from many perspectives  Research addresses larger, more significant considerations about gender and social systems 43
  • 43.  Leadership researchers should put a greater emphasis on understanding the role of race and ethnicity (and other types of diversity) in leadership processes  Researchers should examine the differences in the impact of race or ethnicity and gender on leadership  Research into gender issues and leadership is predominantly in Western contexts and should be expanded into other global regions  Research on gender and leadership should be expanded to include closing the gender gap at home 44
  • 44.      Make it easier for women to reach top positions by  Understanding obstacles that make up the labyrinth  Initiating tactics to eradicate inequality Prejudice still a factor and needs to be addressed with awareness Women can manage biased perceptions of their leadership by enacting individualized consideration and inspirational motivation Using effective negotiation techniques can enhance leadership advancement Changes in organizational culture, women’s career development, mentoring opportunities, and increased numbers of women in strategic positions will increase presence of women in prominent leadership roles. 45