MSMC BUS3180 Class 2.11.14 lecture topic 3 leadership styles


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MSMC BUS3180 Class 2.11.14 lecture topic 3 leadership styles

  1. 1. Topic 3 Leadership Style Leadership: Theory and Practice: Chapter 4 Style Approach Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice: Chapter 3 Recognizing Your Philosophy and Style of Leadership © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  2. 2. Discussion Questions • What is your philosophy of leadership? • What are your beliefs about human behavior? • What sort of leader are you: authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire? © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  3. 3. Views of Human Behavior • Fundamental question of human behavior: Do people like work or do they try to avoid it? • Douglas McGregor believed managers had two views of human nature with very different assumptions: oTheory X oTheory Y © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  4. 4. Assumptions of Theory X 1. People dislike work & will try to avoid it. 2. People need to be directed & controlled. 3. People want security, not responsibility. What implications does Theory X have for leaders & organizations? © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  5. 5. Assumptions of Theory Y 1. People don’t inherently dislike work; doing work is as natural as play. 2. People will show responsibility & selfcontrol toward goals to which they are committed. 3. People accept & seek responsibility. What implications does Theory Y have for leaders & organizations? © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  6. 6. McGregor’s Theory X & Y Managers According to McGregor, managers can be grouped depending on how they view their workers. He called the two types of manager: • Theory X managers – these link closely to autocratic management • Theory Y managers – these link closely to democratic management © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  7. 7. Styles of Leadership • Autocratic/Authoritarian • Paternalistic • Democratic • Laissez-faire © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  8. 8. Autocratic (authoritarian) Features of autocratic management: • The manager retains control and takes all the decisions • There is little consultation with workers • Subordinates are expected to obey instructions Benefits: Drawbacks: • Autocratic management allows quick decisions to be made • Often necessary during crisis situations • Can ensure that the direction of the organisation remains in line with organisational objectives • Workers may become dependent on the managers • Little creativity is encouraged • Employees may not be given the opportunity to express their ideas • May lead to workers feeling ignored or demotivated
  9. 9. Authoritarian Style • Like Theory X, Authoritarian leaders perceive subordinates as needing direction. • Authoritarian leaders exert influence & control over group members. o Communication is top-down. o The agenda is set by the leaders. o Praise/criticism is given freely, but it is based on personal standards. © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  10. 10. Outcomes of Authoritarian Style • Positive Outcomes: o Efficient & productive o More can be accomplished in a short period of time • Negative Outcomes: o Fosters dependence, submissiveness, & decreases individuality o Can create hostility & discontent © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  11. 11. Paternalistic Features of paternalistic management: • Similar to autocratic management but the leader makes decisions based on the best interests of the workers • Managers take most of the responsibility for decision making although there may be some consultation with workers Benefits: Drawbacks: • Employees feel valued • The workers may be persuaded that the decisions made are in their best interests • Little scope for employees to make decisions • There is still a ‘them and us’ culture with paternalistic management
  12. 12. Democratic Features of democratic management: • Employees are encouraged to participate in and influence decision making e.g. through suggestions schemes, quality circles and worker directors • Information is shared with team members • A single-status culture is encouraged Benefits: Drawbacks: • Democratic management can gain commitment, especially during periods of change • Employees are more likely to buy into decisions • Motivation may improve • Decision making can become slower
  13. 13. Democratic Style • Resembles assumptions of Theory Y • Subordinates are capable of working on their own • Leader works with subordinates & treats them in an egalitarian manner • Leader does not speak down to group members; rather, they speak on the same level © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  14. 14. Outcomes of Democratic Style • Negative Outcomes: oIt takes more time & commitment than authoritarian leadership oCan result in inefficiencies & lower productivity © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  15. 15. Outcomes of Democratic Style • Positive Outcomes: o Greater group member satisfaction, commitment, & cohesiveness o More friendliness, mutual praise, & group mindedness o Stronger worker motivation & greater originality © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  16. 16. Laissez-faire Features of laissez-faire management: • Little direction is given to the workers • Broad guidelines may be provided but the day-to-day influence of managers is limited • Subordinates are free to make decisions Benefits: Drawbacks: • Useful for skilled, creative and well-trained employees • Can motivate workers as they have more control over their working lives • Decision-making can become very time-consuming and may lack direction • May lead to chaos if good teamwork, feedback and working relationships are not evident
  17. 17. Laissez-Faire Style • Dissimilar to both Theory X & Theory Y; typically considered to be non-leadership • The leader is nominal & only engages in minimal influence • Literally takes a “hands off” attitude • The leader does not try to influence or control the group © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  18. 18. Outcomes of Laissez-Faire Style • Very few, if any, positive outcomes • Negative outcomes: o Very little accomplished o Group members feel directionless o Group members become unmotivated & disheartened • When, if ever, do you think laissez-faire leadership is appropriate? Why? © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  19. 19. Styles of Leadership Leadership Styles – Geese, Eagles & Turkeys Complete 3.1 Leadership Styles Questionnaire Analyze results © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  20. 20. What Is Your Style? • No one is entirely one style or the other. • Our styles shift, depending on the situation. • Leadership lies along a continuum: o from high leader influence to low leader influence. © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  21. 21. Leadership That Gets Results (article) • Harvard Business Review (March-April 2000) Identifies six leadership styles … 1.The Coercive Style 2.The Authoritative Style 3.The Affiliative Style 4.The Democratic Style 5.The Pacesetting Style 6.The Coaching Style © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  22. 22. Leadership That Gets Results (article) © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  23. 23. Leadership That Gets Results (article) © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  24. 24. Leadership That Gets Results (article) © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  25. 25. Factors influencing leadership style • The personality of the manager • The skills and abilities of the manager • The skills and abilities of the team of workers • The tradition and culture of the organisation • The type of industry • Circumstances • The nature of the tasks being carried out
  26. 26. Styles of Leadership Identify Leadership Styles Complete Questionnaire Put into groups © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.
  27. 27. In Class Exercise • Case Studies • Review and discuss in your group and come to consensus on answers to the questions. • We will compare results. © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.