PROCESS: elementary
A paperr on prrocess and busiiness prrocess modelliing…
A pape on p ocess and bus ness p ocess mode ng...
Table of Contents
PROCESS… WHAT? ............................................................................................
PROCESS… EXAMPLES ...........................................................................................................
BPR - Business Process Redesign .............................................................................................
PROCESS… WHAT?
WIKIPEDIA (2013) says…
… “a process, business process or business method is a collection of related, struct...
PROCESS… 3 Types of Processes
There are three basic types of processes. Exceptions to this elementary, wide and general st...
Decisions
There are points in many processes that require a judgment or decision to be made. Using the cake
recipe analogy...
Avoiding Waste
Operational Ambiguity
Effectiveness… Satisfaction
Efficiency… Cost Reduction… Productivity
Continuous Proce...
2. Events — An event is something that happens during the course of a business process which
affects the sequence or timin...
Event Based / Exclusive Event Based
The Event-Based Gateway represents a branching point in the Process where the alternat...
1. Sequence Flow — A sequence flow is used to show the order in which activities are performed
within a process. A sequenc...
Swimlanes in BPMN consist of two types:
Pool
Represents major participants in a process, typically separating different or...
Annotations
An annotation is a mechanism for the BPMN modeler to provide additional information to the audience
of a BPMN ...
Step 4
Determine who has the biggest effect on change within the process. This means that you have to
understand who is re...
In this process diagram (Visio), roles, responsibilities and activities are described in narratives
(corresponding by numb...
Process Numbers (Flow)
The narratives below describe the process numbers on the previous graphic.
1.

Developers use “ORAC...
and/or appended are moved into the new Oracle Turnover System (O7TS)
class (native) and the TDD$NEW directory.
12. SQL_PAR...
Example w/Swimlanes
Software Configuration Management Process Recommendation
In this information technology related proces...
PROCESS… METHODOLOGIES
In defining a successful process, it would seem only logical to follow a successful process modelin...
Verifying and Validating — Ensuring manufacturability of the product. Effective transfer from bench to
production. Validat...
VERIFY — Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the
process owner(s).
...
Rules for implementing SIPOC
Acquaint Suppliers — A large number of issues arise in the process because the suppliers are ...
definitions of CMMI. This generalization of improvement concepts makes CMMI extremely abstract. It is
not as specific to s...
PROCESS… CONCLUSION
There are analysis and redesign methodologies designed to help business managers, others to help
peopl...
GLOSSARY… a few selected terms and acronyms
Different organizations refer to the elements related to Business Process Mode...
Business Process Model
A representation - usually computer-generated and diagrammatic, but can be a low-tech whiteboard or...
BPM - Business Process Mapping
Often used interchangeably with Business Process Modeling, Business Process Mapping is also...
Value-added/Added-value
The principle of increasing the usefulness, attractiveness and benefits of a product or service, w...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
“The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.”
Albert Einstein
BPMN (OMG) - http://www.b...
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PROCESS: elementary

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A paper on elementary PROCESS and BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING

PLEASE NOTE:
This paper is a work in progress and not publication ready. I'll update the paper and include a presentation (.PPT) on the contents shortly... very shortly. I'm in the process:-)

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  1. 1. PROCESS: elementary A paperr on prrocess and busiiness prrocess modelliing… A pape on p ocess and bus ness p ocess mode ng… … “IIff you can''tt expllaiin iitt siimplly,, you don''tt underrsttand iitt welll enough..” … “ you can exp a n s mp y you don unde s and we enough ” Allberrtt Eiinstteiin A be E ns e n Michael A. Evens – Creative Consulting michael_evens@unforgettable.com Fall 2013 – Work in progress PROCESS elementary.docx
  2. 2. Table of Contents PROCESS… WHAT? ........................................................................................................................................ 5 WIKIPEDIA (2013) says… ........................................................................................................................... 5 RUMMLER & BRACHE (1995) says….......................................................................................................... 5 DAVENPORT (1993) defines a (business) process as….............................................................................. 5 JOHANSSON et al. (1993) says… ............................................................................................................... 5 WE (CREATIVE CONSULTING… and Business Services) say… .................................................................... 5 PROCESS… 3 Types of Processes ............................................................................................................... 6 Management Processes ........................................................................................................................ 6 Operational Processes .......................................................................................................................... 6 Supporting Processes (Sub-Processes) ................................................................................................. 6 PROCESS… Components and Characteristics ............................................................................................ 6 Input / Output ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Customer ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Beginning/End… Scope ......................................................................................................................... 6 Activities (or Steps) ............................................................................................................................... 6 Decisions ............................................................................................................................................... 7 Organization / Cookbook ...................................................................................................................... 7 PROCESS MODELING… WHY? ....................................................................................................................... 7 PROCESS… Business Process Modeling ..................................................................................................... 7 PROCESS MODELING TECHNIQUES… HOW?................................................................................................. 8 Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) ......................................................................................................... 8 Modeling Elements (Notation) ................................................................................................................. 8 Flow Elements ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Connections ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Swimlanes (Partitions) ........................................................................................................................ 11 Artifacts ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Creating a Business Process Model (BPM).............................................................................................. 13 What do we need to know? ................................................................................................................ 13 Simple Steps ........................................................................................................................................ 13 'As Is' or Baseline Model ..................................................................................................................... 14
  3. 3. PROCESS… EXAMPLES ................................................................................................................................. 14 Example w/Narratives............................................................................................................................. 14 Create Major Release (Diagram) ......................................................................................................... 14 Create Major Release (Legend and Narrative).................................................................................... 15 Example w/Swimlanes ............................................................................................................................ 18 Software Configuration Management Process Recommendation ..................................................... 18 PROCESS… METHODOLOGIES ..................................................................................................................... 19 Six Sigma (DFSS, DMAIC and DMADV) .................................................................................................... 19 DFSS..................................................................................................................................................... 19 DMAIC ................................................................................................................................................. 20 DMADV................................................................................................................................................ 20 SIPOC METHOD ....................................................................................................................................... 21 CMMI ...................................................................................................................................................... 22 CMMI for Development ...................................................................................................................... 23 CMMI for Services ............................................................................................................................... 23 CMMI for Acquisition .......................................................................................................................... 23 PROCESS… CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................ 24 GLOSSARY… a few selected terms and acronyms....................................................................................... 25 'As is' and 'To be' models .................................................................................................................... 25 Brainstorming...................................................................................................................................... 25 Business Architecture ......................................................................................................................... 25 Business Model ................................................................................................................................... 25 Business Process ................................................................................................................................. 25 Business Process Model ...................................................................................................................... 26 Business Process Modeling ................................................................................................................. 26 Business Process Change Cycle ........................................................................................................... 26 Business Reference Mode ................................................................................................................... 26 BPR - Business Process Re-engineering (also known as BPI - Business Process Innovation) .............. 26 BPI - Business Process Improvement .................................................................................................. 26 BPM - Business Process Management ................................................................................................ 26 BPM - Business Process Mapping ....................................................................................................... 27 BPMN - Business Process Modeling Notation..................................................................................... 27
  4. 4. BPR - Business Process Redesign ........................................................................................................ 27 Enterprise Architecture ....................................................................................................................... 27 Gateway .............................................................................................................................................. 27 Notation .............................................................................................................................................. 27 OBASHI ................................................................................................................................................ 27 UML - Unified Modeling Language ..................................................................................................... 27 What if? (scenario) .............................................................................................................................. 27 Value-added/Added-value .................................................................................................................. 28 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................................... 29 Disclaimer.................................................................................................................................................... 29
  5. 5. PROCESS… WHAT? WIKIPEDIA (2013) says… … “a process, business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a sequence of activities with interleaving decision points or with a Process Matrix as a sequence of activities with relevance rules based on the data in the process.” RUMMLER & BRACHE (1995) says… … “a definition clearly encompasses a focus on the organization’s external customers, when stating that… a business process is a series of steps designed to produce a product or service. Most processes (...) are cross-functional, spanning the ‘white space’ between the boxes on the organization chart. Some processes result in a product or service that is received by an organization's external customer. We call these primary processes. Other processes produce products that are invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective management of the business. We call these support processes.” DAVENPORT (1993) defines a (business) process as… … ”a structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market. It implies a strong emphasis on how work is done within an organization, in contrast to a product focus’s emphasis on what. A process is thus a specific ordering of work activities across time and space, with a beginning and an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs: a structure for action. ... Taking a process approach implies adopting the customer’s point of view. Processes are the structure by which an organization does what is necessary to produce value for its customers.” JOHANSSON et al. (1993) says… … “a process is a set of linked activities that take an input and transform it to create an output. Ideally, the transformation that occurs in the process should add value to the input and create an output that is more useful and effective to the recipient either upstream or downstream.” WE (CREATIVE CONSULTING… and Business Services) say… …In the context of this paper, we will expand on this definition to include the word “repeatable.” Our definition – Creative Consulting et al. (2013) further defines a process… “a repeatable set of activities documented to achieve a consistent result, output, product, or service …preferably successful.” For example, a recipe for baking a cake is a process that is simple, repeatable and consistent. It has a beginning and an end. It has input and output and a given set of steps or activities (sometimes including a decision) to create that output.
  6. 6. PROCESS… 3 Types of Processes There are three basic types of processes. Exceptions to this elementary, wide and general statement exist , but for purposes of a 10,000 foot overview and nature of this paper, we are making this claim. 1. Management Processes A Management Process is a process of planning, controlling, organizing and leading execution of any type of activity, such as a project (e.g. project management process), other process or group of processes. Typically, the senior or executive management in the organization is responsible for defining and executing its management process. But, in the case of “Project Management,” the project manager is typically responsible for executing the process. 2. Operational Processes Operational processes are those that encapsulate the core of the business and create the primary value stream. Examples of operational processes are budgeting, purchasing, manufacturing, advertising, marketing, and sales. Departmental kinda stuff vs. Corporate level stuff. 3. Supporting Processes (Sub-Processes) Supporting processes support the core processes. Examples include; technical support, accounting, call center, recruitment, etc. PROCESS… Components and Characteristics Processes have many components and characteristics outside of what we have listed. But, notice the word “must” in each of the items described. A process would not be a process without the following: Input / Output A process must have clearly defined boundaries, input and output. Similar to following the recipe for baking a cake, if you follow a defined process, over-and-over, you will achieve a constant result. If the recipe contains input that is erroneous or wrong, the output will be wrong… consistently. A cake with no milk would be a little on the dry side. Customer A process must have a recipient of the process' outcome, a customer. Beginning/End… Scope In this process for baking a cake, the hypothetical recipe asked us to start the process with preheating the oven. However, the process or recipe does not ask us to turn the oven off. The process for baking a cake is complete when the cake is taken out of the oven. So, defining the scope of the process is necessary. A process must define a specific beginning and end. Activities (or Steps) A process must consist of activities that are ordered according to their position in time and space. Furthermore, if the steps in the process or recipe are skipped or repeated, the process will fail to provide the desired result. If you neglect to cook the cake, it won’t become cake.
  7. 7. Decisions There are points in many processes that require a judgment or decision to be made. Using the cake recipe analogy, when the time comes where most cakes have achieved the desired degree of doneness, you are asked to make a decision. There is a test. A yes or no decision must be made. Bake the cake longer or take it out of the oven. Organization / Cookbook A process cannot exist in itself; it must be embedded in an organizational structure. Or, back to the simple cake example, a cookbook. PROCESS MODELING… WHY? Why do process modeling? This is a question that can only be answered by you and your organization. Processes don’t need to be modeled. However, there are many benefits in knowing what a process model has done and what it can do for your organization. PROCESS… Business Process Modeling Process Modeling or ‘Business Process Modeling’ (BPM) is a modern term and methodology which has evolved through different stages and names, beginning during the 'division of labor' of the late 1700s, when manufacturing first moved into factories from cottage industry. The term 'business' in Business Process Modeling is interchangeable with 'Organization'. Business Process Modeling is not only carried out in conventional businesses; the methodology is increasingly applicable to all sorts of other organizations, for example government agencies and departments, charities and cooperatives, etc. Business Process Modeling is a method for improving organizational efficiency and quality. Its beginnings were in capital/profit-led business, but the methodology is applicable to any organized activity. That is …any BUSINESS …any ORGANIZATION …any ORGANIZED ACTIVITY. A process mapping/modeling methodology for software application development would be the same as it would be for manufacturing widgets . The methodology is a focus on the business logic of the process (how work is done), instead of taking a product perspective (what is done). Business Processes are designed and developed to add value for the customer and should not include unnecessary activities. The outcome of a well designed business process is increased effectiveness (value for the customer) and increased efficiency (less costs for the company). Process Modeling also helps with… Communication and Comprehension Understanding / Visual Depiction Accountability Reliability Problem Solving Breaks Down the Barriers Avoiding Functional Silos Circumventing Departmental Autonomy
  8. 8. Avoiding Waste Operational Ambiguity Effectiveness… Satisfaction Efficiency… Cost Reduction… Productivity Continuous Process improvement Quality / Consistency / Compliance Reporting of Performance Transparency Aligning Operations with Strategy Control and Competitive Advantage PROCESS MODELING TECHNIQUES… HOW? There are many kinds of tools and techniques available to help in defining a business process or Business Process Model (BPM), such as computer software applications, but the basics can also be achieved by using a pen and paper or a bunch of sticky notes. In some cases, pen, paper and sticky notes are more effective ways of creating and communicating fundamental ideas than computers. Computers can get in the way and can exclude people. Defining process requires people to work. Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) Unified Markup Language (UML) has been associated more with software development and systems design than with analysis and modeling of business processes. However, UML provides a plethora of behavioral models which are useful in modeling the processes and it has become a familiar and useful tool to many in all areas of business. UML diagrams, however, are a notation without a methodology. (See the section ‘Process… Methodology’ later in this document). NOTE: Recently, process modeling vendors joined together to create a new Business Process Management Notation (BPMN). This notation, which is now administrated by the OMG (Object Management Group), is another example of a process notation that does not have an associated methodology. On the other hand, most of today’s methodologies – like the BPM vendors – use the BPMN notations. Modeling Elements (Notation) Models consist of simple diagrams constructed from a limited set of graphical elements for consistency in communication. For business owners, users and developers, they simplify understanding business activities' flow and process. These four categories enable creation of simple business process diagrams (BPDs). BPDs also permit making new types of flow objects or artifacts, to make the diagram more understandable. Flow Elements 1. Activities (Steps) — An activity is work that is performed within a business process and is represented by a rounded rectangle.
  9. 9. 2. Events — An event is something that happens during the course of a business process which affects the sequence or timing of activities of a process. Events are represented as small circles with different boundaries to distinguish start events (thin black line), intermediate events (double line) and end events (thick black line). Events can show icons within their shape to identify the trigger or result of the event. 3. Gateways — Gateways are used to control how sequence flows converge and diverge within a process. Gateways can represent decisions, where one or more paths are disallowed, or they can represent concurrent forks. Inclusive / Exclusive Gateways An Inclusive Gateway (Inclusive Decision) can be used to create alternative but also parallel paths within a Process flow. Unlike the Exclusive Gateway, all conditions are evaluated. Parallel Gateway A Parallel Gateway is used to synchronize (or combine) parallel flows and to create parallel flows. A Parallel Gateway creates parallel paths without checking any conditions. Complex Gateway The Complex Gateway can be used to model complex synchronization behavior. An Expression “Activation Condition” is used to describe the precise behavior.
  10. 10. Event Based / Exclusive Event Based The Event-Based Gateway represents a branching point in the Process where the alternative paths that follow the Gateway are based on Events that occur. An Exclusive Event Based Gateway is based on data that is not visible to Process, thus, requiring the use of the Event-Based Gateway. Parallel Event Gateway The Parallel Event Gateway will wait for all an event to occur before triggering the flow through its outgoing Sequence Flows. Exclusive Event Gateway An Exclusive Gateway (Decision) is used to create alternative paths within a Process flow. Only one of the paths can be taken, this means the gateway is exclusive. Connections Different connecting objects are necessary to represent different types of flows.
  11. 11. 1. Sequence Flow — A sequence flow is used to show the order in which activities are performed within a process. A sequence flow is represented by a line with an arrowhead. 2. Message Flow — A message flow is used to show the flow of messages between two entities, where pools are used to represent entities. A message flow is represented by a dashed line with a light-colored circle at the source and an arrowhead at the target. 3. Association — An association is used to associate information and artifacts with flow objects. An association is represented by a dashed line which may or may not have a line arrowhead at the target end if there is a reason to show directionality. 4. Data Association — A Data Association is used to show the flow of information (data) between activities in a business process. A data association is represented by a dashed line which may or may not have a line arrowhead at the target end if there is a reason to show directionality. Swimlanes (Partitions) A swim lane (or swimlane) is a visual element used in process flow diagrams, or flowcharts, that visually distinguishes responsibilities for sub-processes of a business process. Swim lanes may be arranged either horizontally or vertically. When used to diagram a business process that involves more than one department, swimlanes often serve to clarify not only the steps and who is responsible for each one, but also how delays, mistakes or cheating are most likely to occur. Many process modeling methodologies utilize the concept of swimlanes, as a mechanism to organize activities into separate visual categories in order to illustrate different functional capabilities or responsibilities (organizational roles).
  12. 12. Swimlanes in BPMN consist of two types: Pool Represents major participants in a process, typically separating different organizations. A pool contains one or more lanes (like a real swimming pool). A pool can be open (i.e., showing internal detail) when it is depicted as a large rectangle showing one or more lanes, or collapsed (i.e., hiding internal detail) when it is depicted as an empty rectangle stretching the width or height of the diagram. Lane Used to organize and categorize activities within a pool according to function or role, and depicted as a rectangle stretching the width or height of the pool. A lane contains the flow objects, connecting objects and artifacts. Artifacts Data Objects A data object does not have a direct affect on a process but does provide information relevant to the process. It is represented as a rectangle with the top corner folded over. Groups A group is an informal means for grouping elements of a process. It is represented as a rectangle with a dashed line border (RED).
  13. 13. Annotations An annotation is a mechanism for the BPMN modeler to provide additional information to the audience of a BPMN diagram. It is represented by an open rectangle containing the annotation text. Creating a Business Process Model (BPM) This section provides a guide to creating an initial, 'as is' or baseline model … in other words - the current situation. A process model is essentially a breakdown of a process to determine how it flows and, ultimately, how effective it is. The focus is on the business logic of the process …how work is done, instead of taking a product perspective …what is done. What do we need to know? You will need the following information before you start to construct your model: The desired outcome of the process. The start and end points (customer need and customer need fulfillment). The activities that are performed. The order of activities. The people who perform the activities. The documents and forms used and exchanged between functions and from customers and suppliers. Simple Steps Step 1 Establish the boundaries of the activity or activities that you want to examine. In other words, identify the process that you are analyzing, and explain why. The boundaries might be a time frame, such as several months, or they might be all activity within a specific department, such as an organization’s sales department. Step 2 Establish the goals of the process. Ask yourself what the main objective is and why. Creating a clear statement about the process is useful when process mapping begins, because you then have an end result that must be reached. With the process map, you can see whether or not it is reached effectively. Step 3 Interview important players in the process to gain a clear understanding of their role and how they complete it. The process map analyzes a process that occurs within an organization, and these players are essential to explaining how the process occurs. Take careful notes, and be sure to apply these to the process map as it is being developed.
  14. 14. Step 4 Determine who has the biggest effect on change within the process. This means that you have to understand who is responsible for making the process happen. In other words, this is the customer whose activities in the marketplace have the greatest effect on the organization. Consider the direct impact of the customer as the “mover and shaker” of business and the way the customer responds to changes in the marketplace and the product. Step 5 Determine any risks that apply to the process. A process map must identify any hindrances that prevent the process from proceeding correctly, as well as how to overcome or avert them. 'As Is' or Baseline Model 1st Attempt – ‘As Is’ The first draft of the model will involve a lot of positioning and repositioning of events and activities. Make sure you use a method that is flexible and easily changed. As discussed earlier, this may be a good time to use the big sticky notes. If you're working with a group of users, everyone needs to be able to see it. 2nd Go Around – ‘As Is’ Once you have established an agreed sequence of events, you can create it as a flowchart using a more sophisticated tool, such as a generic software application …Microsoft’s Visio. Or you may choose a specialized proprietary software package …Enterprise Architect. Finalizing – ‘As Is’ At this stage, you may want to check your model with the users by doing ‘live observations’ of the process in action. People in meetings invariably forget the exact steps or actions or say what should be happening, rather than what really happens. …a live observation would be a ‘REALITY CHECK.’ PROCESS… EXAMPLES Example w/Narratives Create Major Release (Diagram)
  15. 15. In this process diagram (Visio), roles, responsibilities and activities are described in narratives (corresponding by number). DDL ORACLE Designer 2000 DML Source Files 1 4 2 5 3 DBCHGS$D REFDATA$D BCC_CMSLIB 7 6 6 8 BCCDML CMS_NODE ENV_NODE TDD$INPUT TDD DIRECTORIES 13 9 VOLUME LIBRARY Pre-process DDL & DML DDL & DML is processed 12 10 NATIVE LIBRARY 11 16 14 DATABASE COMPILE COMPILE BUILD.DIR 15 BCC ENVIRONMENT Create Major Release (Legend and Narrative) Connecting Lines (Flow) Green Line: Blue Line: Red Line: Development Process Protected Process (CMS) Unprotected Process
  16. 16. Process Numbers (Flow) The narratives below describe the process numbers on the previous graphic. 1. Developers use “ORACLE Designer” to generate the Data Definition Language (DDL) files. 2. Developers populate the DBCHGS$D directory with DDL files. These files are *.VEW, *.TAB, *.CON, *.IND, etc. These files can next be inserted directly into their respective TDD directories because they don’t require additional processing at this stage. 3. Developers also populate the REFDATA$D directory with DDL files. These files are *.SQL files that will require processing before they can be inserted into their respective directories in the TDD library. 4. Developers insert the Data Manipulation Language (DML) files directly into the CMS library. These are the files that control the database objects. 5. Developers also insert other source files directly into the CMS library. These are the *.COM, *.EXE, etc., files that are not database dependent. In other words, these files, although part of the BCC application, are not required at the time the database is built, but are brought in at the same time to be configured (versioned) as part of the application. 6. COPY_DDL.COM copies the files from the DBCHGS$D directory into the TDD$RAW directory, verifies that they have the correct syntax, and renames the directory TDD$INSTALL. It also copies the files from the REFDATA$D directory into the TDD$INPUT directory and runs DDL_SPLIT.COM. (CMT) 7. Forms, Reports, and menus (files, other than database objects) are fetched from the BCC CMS library directly into the BCC environment’s build directory. (CMT) Then, upon completion of the Fetch process, it is necessary to verify the BCC environment. The following command procedure is executed, @TDD$HOME:[COM]SELECT_DB.COM 'DB_NAME' and a manual verification is performed. See example of User Procedure for BCC Environment Verification in the main body of the O7TS documentation. 8. COPY_DML.COM fetches DML files from the CMS library to a temporary area. The BCCDML directory that acts as a buffer for the fetching of the scripts between two nodes (CMS_NODE and ENV_NODE). From the environment node in this temporary area, the files are copied to the TDD$INPUT and TDD$INSTALL directories depending on their type. 9. DDL_SPLIT.COM (called by COPY_DDL,COM) takes one or more DDL scripts and splits them into individual files with standard names. 10. DML_PARSE.COM (called by NATIVE.COM) identifies the name of the function, procedure, package, or trigger and optionally parameterizes the DML scripts. 11. NATIVE.COM first backs up the native library, then, fetches the scripts from the old CMS class and makes a copy of the input scripts. It loops through all of the files in the input area, differencing, parsing and renaming them where necessary and storing them in appropriately named directories for the type of file. The latest generation of scripts that have been reserved, replaced,
  17. 17. and/or appended are moved into the new Oracle Turnover System (O7TS) class (native) and the TDD$NEW directory. 12. SQL_PARM.COM (called by VOLUME.COM) is run to take SQL create/alter/drop scripts and parameterize them by splitting them into structure and driver files. Both DDL and DML files are handled and are placed in the TDD$VOL_ROOT directory structure. (also see #16 below) 13. VOLUME.COM is executed to parameterize scripts then, put the parameterized scripts into their respective volume directories. Then, populate the new volume CMS class created by TDD_CREATE.COM.  At this point, the Create a New Release process is completed and the release is ready to be applied (Apply a New Release). In other words, everything, according to its file requirement, has been backed up, preprocessed, parameterized, and copied to the CMS library and TDD directories in preparation of the actual installation process. 14. DBAs apply the database changes by executing the scripts that have been prepared and are residing in the TDD$INSTALL directory. 15. Compile all elements that need to be compiled against the constructed database (i.e. Apply a New Release). CMT submits the job, on HOLD, and SQA releases the job when notified. Then, upon completion of the Compile process, it is necessary to verify the BCC environment (CMT). The following command procedure is executed: @TDD$HOME:[COM]SELECT_DB.COM 'DB_NAME' then, a manual verification process performed. See the example in the User Procedure for BCC Environment Verification in main body of documentation. 16. The Native and Volume processes (#9 – #13) are not performed in the case of an Interim Release. In place of these processes, a process is selected, from the menu, invoking SQL_PARAM.COM. This processes both DDL and DML and invokes DML_PARSE.COM.
  18. 18. Example w/Swimlanes Software Configuration Management Process Recommendation In this information technology related process diagram (Visio), roles and responsibilities are illustrated within swimlanes. END-TO-END PROCESS – High Level ………………….……………………… SCM Process ………………………………………….…….. ……… Manual Processes ….... Team Lead Business Partners (SR Development) 1. Service Request 2. Incident 3. Problem 4. Change 5. Configuration 6. Service Levels IR&C Staff RTC Developer RTC Team Lead creates a Work Item (WI) and assigns to Developer Developer changes WI state to IN PROGRESS RTC Review Build Deploy RTC Specifications RTC Developer checks -in files – Automatically associates files with WI Developer changes state to IMPLEMENTED Documentation Unit Test Unit Test or Code Review RTC Team Lead creates “Deployment Request” RTC Done – ----------Ready to Deploy QA / Tester RTC Stakeholder / Analyst RTC Test Developer modifies artifact(s) under SCM Requirements Work Request Release Manager Change status of “Deployment Request” to APPROVED RTC Release Manager changes status to QA READY Changes “Deployment Request” to VALIDATED Deploy Release Manager deploys changes to PRODUCTION RTC Release Manager changes state to PROD READY RTC Changes “Deployment Request” to CLOSED
  19. 19. PROCESS… METHODOLOGIES In defining a successful process, it would seem only logical to follow a successful process modeling methodology. The following are selected methodologies based on their popularity, success, adaptability and other valuable attributes. Six Sigma (DFSS, DMAIC and DMADV) Six Sigma is all about improving efficiencies and reducing costs of existing products. Many companies like General Electric, Honeywell, Raytheon and IBM have realized billions of dollars in cost savings, and process and quality improvement. The goal of Six Sigma is to fix problems and produce products with extremely low defects (3.4 defects in 1 million opportunities equivalent to 99.9997% good product) based on those requirements that are critical to the customer. Rigorous root-cause analysis and statistical techniques identify the source of the defects, and corrective actions are taken to implement a solution, and ensure that the defect never occurs again. The Six Sigma process is a standardized problem solving methodology that can be incorporated into any business. This turn-key five step process is used universally around the world. Benefits of Six Sigma initiatives are realized within a matter of four to six months and directly hit the bottom line. DFSS Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a business process that is incorporated into a company’s existing product development process. It takes products from concept to commercialization using data-driven decision making processes, delivering high quality, consistent, capable, defect-free products by focusing on critical design and process parameters based on the customer and market needs. It uses quality and financial metrics, data and statistics, team dynamics, risk management, resource management and project management. Design for Six Sigma uses a systematic approach to drill down from the customer’s requirements, to detailed product properties and specifications, to product architecture and design (based on product requirements), and finally to detailed process control. All identified product and process critical parameters are controlled in production to ensure that the product is of high quality, is consistent every time, and meets the customer’s requirements. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) — The Basic Process Developing the Business Case — Determining market/ customer unmet needs. Understanding and quantifying the customer and market requirements. Evaluating the return on investment, growth, revenue and profitability. Evaluating the commercial risks. Formulating the Technical Requirements — Translating the customer requirements to quantifiable product specifications and performance standards. Conducting feasibility analysis and technical risk assessment. Developing the project plan. Designing and Developing — Product design and development. Determining the critical parameters in design and process that affect the product performance and critical customer requirements. Assessing viability, costs and profitability of prototype.
  20. 20. Verifying and Validating — Ensuring manufacturability of the product. Effective transfer from bench to production. Validating product with the customer and market. Manufacturing and Commercializing — Full scale production and product launch. Tracking product manufacturability and capability. Implementing the right sales and commercial strategy. Obtaining customer and market feedback. Controlling and Sustaining — Ensuring the systems, procedures and processes are in place to continue to produce high quality, consistent, profitable products. Using continuous improvement to improve the process. DMAIC The DMAIC process of Six Sigma is a proven successful model used in many industrial sectors. DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process. The DMAIC project methodology has five (and sometimes six) phases … DEFINE — Define the system, the voice of the customer and their requirements, and the project goals, specifically. MEASURE — Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. ANALYZE — Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation. IMPROVE — Improve or optimize the current process based upon analysis, using techniques such as design of experiments, mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability. CONTROL— Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such as statistical process controls, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuously monitor the process. … And sometimes, organizations add a RECOGNIZE step at the beginning, which is to recognize the right problem to work on, thus yielding an RDMAIC methodology. DMADV DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. The DMADV project methodology features five phases: DEFINE — Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. MEASURE — Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality), product capabilities, production process capability, and risks. ANALYZE — Analyze to develop and design alternatives DESIGN — Design an improved alternative, best suited per analysis in the previous step
  21. 21. VERIFY — Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s). Rules for Implementing the DMADV Define Customer Needs — The DMADV begins by helping define the customer needs better. The difference is not trivial. While methodologies like DMAIC begin by defining the process requirements, DMADV is customer focused. The orientation is towards studying the implicit and explicit needs of a customer. Customer need not be a person or even an organization. The process that uses your output as its input can also be your customer. Hence the emphasis is on backward induction. One starts be thinking how they want things to be and work backwards. Measure Specifications — At this stage, consumer needs are translated into metrics that can be measured. This is because unless something is measurable, it is difficult to objectively state whether any improvement has taken place. Specifications of the way needs are being met and they way they ought to be met give the BPM analysts an objective measure. Analyze the Problem — At this stage the problem is analyzed on a deeper level. The behavior of each activity in the process as well as the value it adds is observed. Finally the problem point is found out and/or better ways of organizing the process are looked at. Design to Meet Customer Needs Better — At this stage, many alternative processes are designed. These processes are then looked upon as alternative solutions and the one that meets the customer requirements best are chosen. Simulate to Verify — The DMADV methodology uses objective statements to verify whether consumer needs are being met better. Simulations are run after the new process is deployed. The measurements are then compared with the previous measurements to ensure that improvement has taken place and in the right direction. SIPOC METHOD SIPOC (sometimes COPIS) is a tool that summarizes the inputs and outputs of one or more processes in table form. The acronym SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers which form the columns of the table. It was in use at least as early as the Total Quality Management programs of the late 1980s and continues to be used today in Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. The SIPOC methodology is one of the most useful concepts in the hand of a BPM expert. The idea behind the SIPOC methodology is to view each process as a different organization in itself. Each process therefore has its own suppliers, inputs and corresponding customers and outputs. The aggregation of all these processes is the system. This helps define each process with clarity. It also helps find what exactly is going wrong where. For instance, if there is a system outage, then the process is not to blame. Corrective action must be taken to ensure that the infrastructure suppliers perform better. Here are some of the salient features of the SIPOC methodology. High Level Process Map — A SIPOC methodology is in-effect a high level process map. It does not have details regarding who is supposed to be doing what. Rather it defines the working relationships between the various stakeholders. Some steps are required to effectively implement the SIPOC methodology.
  22. 22. Rules for implementing SIPOC Acquaint Suppliers — A large number of issues arise in the process because the suppliers are not well versed with the requirements. The suppliers could be internal or external to the organization but that is not the point of contention. The idea is orient the suppliers and make them aware of the rules, policies and procedures set for them. The Service Level Agreements must be explicitly stated to ensure that the suppliers know exactly what is expected of them. Scheduling Inputs —Based on the negotiations and inputs from suppliers, one must carefully schedule inputs. Inputs can be in the form of men, money, material, machinery or information. The inputs must be provided to the process in the most optimum manner. There are many operations research techniques which can b e used in this regard to lower the cost levels and increase the service levels. Process: The SIPOC provided an effective methodology to get an in detail look at the process. Some things that are usually defined as the part of SIPOC are as follows: BOUNDRIES — The process boundaries must be explicitly stated. Blurred boundaries lead to ambiguity which further leads to non performance of tasks. SUB-PROCESSES — The intermediate processes and inputs and outputs must be clearly defined as a part of the process definition. PROCESS OWNER — One person must be made accountable to see end to end execution of the process. This person will take care of any intermediate challenges that come in the way. OUTPUTS — Outputs must be expresses in terms of deliverables which can be verified. Therefore having outputs such as customer satisfaction is not correct. This can be the purpose of the process, however the output will be something like the best possible service (define using SLA) provided in the least possible time (Specify time in minutes). It is important to keep the outputs quantifiable because what cannot be measured cannot be managed. CUSTOMER — The customer’s job is to consume the outputs of the process as well as provide feedback. The feedback could be related to the current performance of the process. It could also be regarding the future changes expected in the outputs of the process. For instance, the sales department is the customer of operations. They should communicate to operations if they see a period of slow sales so that production can be adjusted accordingly. CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) was developed by a group of experts from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI models provide guidance for developing or improving processes that meet the business goals of an organization. A CMMI model may also be used as a framework for appraising the process maturity of the organization. By January of 2013, the entire CMMI product suite was transferred from the SEI to the CMMI Institute, a newly created organization at Carnegie Mellon. CMMI originated in software engineering but has been highly generalized over the years to embrace other areas of interest, such as the development of hardware products, the delivery of all kinds of services, and the acquisition of products and services. The word "software" does not appear in
  23. 23. definitions of CMMI. This generalization of improvement concepts makes CMMI extremely abstract. It is not as specific to software engineering as its predecessor, the Software CMM. CMMI for Development Repeatable - Maturity Level 2 Defined - Maturity Level 3 Quantitatively Managed - Maturity Level 4 Optimizing - Maturity Level 5 CMMI for Services Managed - Maturity Level 2 Defined - Maturity Level 3 Quantitatively Managed - Maturity Level 4 Optimizing - Maturity Level 5 CMMI for Acquisition Managed - Maturity Level 2 Defined - Maturity Level 3 Quantitatively Managed - Maturity Level 4 Optimizing - Maturity Level 5 NOTE: The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) is an appraisal method that meets all of the ARC (Appraisal Requirements for CMMI) requirements. Results of an SCAMPI appraisal may be published (if the appraised organization approves) on the CMMI Web site of the SEI: Published SCAMPI Appraisal Results. SCAMPI also supports the conduct of ISO/IEC 15504 (not mentioned in this paper), also known as SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination), assessments etc.
  24. 24. PROCESS… CONCLUSION There are analysis and redesign methodologies designed to help business managers, others to help people working in the quality control tradition, and others designed to help business analysts or software developers who usually begin by trying to document the process they will then seek to automate. As time has passed, of course, each approach has incorporated features found in the other approaches as organizations personalized their style and/or tune their products. There are lots of public, documented business process methodologies: Some are designed to help business people, some are designed to support teams working in the quality control tradition, some are designed to support company-wide culture change, and others are designed to support IT professionals who are engaged in improving processes by automation. Some focus narrowly on improving a specific project while others focus on helping a BPM team develop a business process architecture or automate a portion of a process. Some focus on helping business managers improve a specific process, like the supply chain. Some methodologies can scale to handle very large and complex processes while others are limited to relatively small scale process improvement projects. Different methodologies are better for some organizations and uses and less effective when used for other purposes. Given the ferocious rate of change in business, business processes and business process approaches, leading methodologies will continue to change in the time ahead… … “Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Albert Einstein
  25. 25. GLOSSARY… a few selected terms and acronyms Different organizations refer to the elements related to Business Process Modeling in different ways. This is complicated by the fact that acronyms can stand for more than one thing, and are often used interchangeably. For example… BPR stands for Business Process Re-engineering as well as Business Process Redesign. BPM itself stands for Business Process Modeling, Business Process Model, and Business Process Management. In the healthcare sector incidentally BPM would more readily be interpreted to mean Beats Per Minute, relating to pulse rate, which emphasizes the need to explain acronyms when used. Organizations develop their own ways of referring to the different elements. They know what they mean, but someone from another organization could become very confused! This glossary may help anyone feeling lost. 'As is' and 'To be' models The common two perspectives of a modeling exercise - Where are we now?, and Where do we want to be? The 'as is' or baseline model is an accurate depiction of what actually happens now. Once the model is developed, it is used to analyze and improve the process. The 'to be' model is a proposed diagram of how the future process could look, incorporating improvements. This is used to demonstrate, model and test the new process and then to implement it. Brainstorming Not usually part of BPM technical language, but actually a very useful initial stage in mapping or attempting to represent/understand/agree/scope a BPM project given little or no information to begin with. Also a useful way to achieve essential involvement, input, support, etc., from people affected by the modeling exercise. Business Architecture A vague and widely used term basically referring to the structure of a business. Business Model A vague term used to refer to how a business aims to operate and make money in a given market. This term is not directly related to Business Process Modeling. A detailed business model might typically contain descriptions of basic business processes implied or necessary for the model to operate, but a business model is mainly concerned with strategy and external market relationships, rather than the internal processes which feature in BPM. Business Process A structured series of work activities, IT interventions and events that generate one complete service or product for an organization’s customers.
  26. 26. Business Process Model A representation - usually computer-generated and diagrammatic, but can be a low-tech whiteboard or flipchart and marker pens and sticky notes - of a process within a business. Two models are usually produced: an 'as is' and a 'to be'. The process(es) featured in a Business Process Model can be very simple or highly complex, and will typically involve different departments working (hopefully) together while the provision or creation of a product or service flows through different stages and decision-points in an organization on its way to the customer. A Business Process Model for a large process can be comprised of other smaller modeled processes which contribute to the whole. In theory an entire huge business can be modeled, although for the modeling to be useful and meaningful to people it is normally built in sections, each representing a self-contained process alongside potentially scores, hundreds or even thousands of others, all interrelating, hopefully smoothly, efficiently and enjoyably. (The 'enjoyable' part is not a technical necessity, but is actually important for any model to translate from theory into sustainable practice.) Business Process Modeling The term which refers to the methodology and techniques of producing a Business Process Model, or several Business Process Models, in the course of business improvement/development or quality management or change management, etc. (Modelling is UK-English; Modeling is US-English.) Business Process Change Cycle An overall term for the life cycle of business processes, including the external environment in which the organization operates. This external environment drives change in the business processes and the organization responds to it by adjusting its strategy and goals. As the external environment keeps changing, the cycle also changes, prompting continuous change and improvement to business processes. Business Reference Mode A (usually computerized and diagrammatic) key to understanding and using a Business Architecture Model. It presents certain core structural elements as fixed, thereby encouraging and enabling others using or developing the model to understand and adhere to essential aspects of structural policy and foundation. In this respect a Business Reference model may be relevant to Business Process Modeling BPR - Business Process Re-engineering (also known as BPI - Business Process Innovation) A radical approach to restructuring an organization in every area, starting with what the organization is trying to achieve, rethinking its core processes and redesigning every one. It is a way of reassessing and restructuring the whole organization, all at once, starting from scratch. BPI - Business Process Improvement This refers to improving existing processes, continuously and incrementally, reducing waste and driving efficiency. Six Sigma is currently one of the most popular of many BPI approaches in use today. BPM - Business Process Management Used in two different ways by two different groups within the business processing community: Firstly, it is used by the people and process management group to describe the overall management of business process improvement, aligning processes with an organization’s strategic goals: designing, implementing and measuring them and educating managers to use them effectively. Secondly, it is used by IT people to describe the systems, software and applications that provide the process framework.
  27. 27. BPM - Business Process Mapping Often used interchangeably with Business Process Modeling, Business Process Mapping is also used to mean documenting all the processes in the business, showing the relationships between them. This provides a comprehensive visual overview of the processes in an organization. BPMN - Business Process Modeling Notation A 'branded' Business Process Modeling notation system of the OMG Consortium, representing several hundred primarily US computer-related corporations. BPR - Business Process Redesign Rethinking, redesigning and implementing one complete process using Business Process Modeling tools. Enterprise Architecture Basically the same as Business Architecture. Enterprise is a relatively modern term for a business organization or company than 'business', probably because business has quite specific associations with profit and shareholders, whereas the word enterprise can more loosely encompass all sorts of businesslike activities which might be constituted according to mutual or cooperative rather than traditional capitalistic aims. Enterprise is also a popular way to refer to business development and entrepreneurial creativity. The relevance of all this to BPM is merely the use of the word enterprise in BPM terminology, where previously the word 'business' would have been used. Gateway A stage in a Business Process Model diagram or notation at which decision or choice is made because more than one main option or outcome exists. Notation The technical term for a Business Process Model diagram or computer-generated map or flowchart. OBASHI A methodology, and related aspect of BPM, for mapping and developing how IT systems relate to organisational operations (OBASHI stands for Ownership, Business Processes, Applications, Systems, Hardware, and Infrastructure). UML - Unified Modeling Language a visual representation/design system for software-led modeling, overseen by the OMG Consortium (as with BPMN). What if? (scenario) A popular term given to discussion or modeling of possible shapes, structures, resourcing and any other options that are available to people considering change in businesses and organizations. The 'What if?' principle extends far beyond Business Processes, but is a useful technique in team-working and attempting to make BPM methods more consultative and involving. This is especially important given that the nature of BPM (the computer systems, terminology, highly detailed aspects) often tend to position the methods as a lone job away from people and groups affected by its implications and opportunities. BPM works best when people are involved - considering questions like 'What if?' - and often fails when it guarded and developed secretively by technocrat minority.
  28. 28. Value-added/Added-value The principle of increasing the usefulness, attractiveness and benefits of a product or service, which in the context of BPM, ideally improves progressively with each modeling exercise. Added-value is commonly represented as benefiting customers and shareholders (via reduced costs, and increased efficiencies and profits) but should also benefit staff/employees too.
  29. 29. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” Albert Einstein BPMN (OMG) - http://www.bpmn.org/ CMMI - http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/ Deming, W.E. (1982), Out of the Crisis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hammer, Michael and Champy, James (1993), Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, Harper Business. Johansson et al (1993) - Developing Lean and Agile Supply Chains in the UK - Civil and ... Paul Harmon on Oct 20, 2012 BPTrends (2007) Rummler & Brache (1995) - http://www.rummler-brache.com/home SIPOC (COPIS) - How to Develop a SIPOC for a Six Sigma Initiative Six Sigma - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Sigma Smith, Howard and Fingar, Peter (2003) Business Process Management, The Third Wave, MK Press. TH Davenport (1993) - Process Innovation Wikipedia World Wide Web - Disclaimer Use of any example in this paper is for the purpose of example only and not meant to represent any process that is real, proprietary, current, confidential, etc . or property of any other source. …if I omitted anyone, I’m sorry. It was not intentional. Email me and I will give credit where credit is due.

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