are graphics created using computers
and, more generally, the representation
and manipulation of pictorial data by a
revolutionized the animation and video
The phrase “Computer Graphics” was coined in
1960 by William Fetter, a graphic designer for
A light pen could be used to draw sketches on
the computer using Ivan Sutherland's
revolutionary Sketchpad software.
The development of Sketchpad made Ivan
Sutherland the "grandfather" of interactive
computer graphics and graphical user interfaces
In 1969, the ACM initiated A Special Interest
Group in Graphics (SIGGRAPH) which
organizes conferences, graphics standards, and
publications within the field of computer
3D graphics was pioneered by Dr Edwin Catmull
late 1980s, Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI)
computers were used to create some of the first
fully computer-generated short films at Pixar
1990s in gaming, multimedia and
1996, Quake, one of the first fully 3D
1995, Toy Story, the first full-length
computer-generated animation film
PIONEERS OF COMPUTER
Charles Csuri is a pioneer in computer
animation and digital fine art and created the first
computer art in 1964
Donald P. Greenberg is a leading innovator in
A. Michael Noll was one of the first researchers
to use a digital computer to create artistic
patterns and to formalize the use of random
processes in the creation of visual arts.
Daniel J. Sandin (born 1942) is a video
and computer graphics artist/researcher
Steve "Slug" Russell is a programmer
and computer scientist most famous for
creating Spacewar!, one of the earliest
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF
picture is an artifact, usually two-dimensional, that has
a similar appearance to some subject usually a
physical object or a person
is the smallest piece of information in an image
visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall,
canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand,
inform, illustrate, or entertain.
the process of generating an image from a
model, by means of computer programs.
contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting,
and shading information.
3D projection is a method of mapping three
dimensional points to a two dimensional plane.
Ray tracing is a technique for generating an image
by tracing the path of light through pixels in an
Shading refers to depicting depth in 3D models or
illustrations by varying levels of darkness.
Texture mapping is a method for adding detail,
surface texture, or colors to a computer-generated
graphic or 3D model.
technique used to display a 2D projection of a
3D discretely sampled data set.
process of developing a mathematical, wire
frame representation of any three-dimensional
object via specialized software
PIXEL (picture element)
PPI (picture per inch) can also describe the
resolution, in pixels, of an image to be printed
within a specified space
form of digital art, created through the use of
raster graphics software, where images are
edited on the pixel level
formats are complementary to raster graphics,
which is the representation of images as an
array of pixels
typically used for the representation of
3D COMPUTER GRAPHICS
2D COMPUTER GRAPHICS
is the art of creating moving images via the
use of computers. It is a subfield of computer
graphics and animation.
• of or in or along or relating to a line; involving
a single dimension; "a linear measurement“
mainly used in applications that were originally
developed upon traditional printing and drawing
technologies, such as typography, cartography,
technical drawing, advertising
Enhances the illusion of depth perception.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in
Depth sensation is the ability to move accurately, or to
respond consistently, based on the distances of objects in an