MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic
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MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic



MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic

MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic
Computer Basics Fundamentals Lecture created by Meljun Cortes



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MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic MELJUN CORTES Computer Basic Presentation Transcript

  • The Parts of a Computer
  • What makes a computer powerful? Speed A computer can do billions of actions per second. Reliability Failures are usually due to human error, one way or another. (Blush for us all!) Storage A computer can keep huge amounts of data.
  • A ‘typical’ computer system
    • screen, or monitor, on which there are windows
    • keyboard
    • mouse/trackpad
    • variations
      • desktop
      • laptop
      • PDA
    • the devices dictate the styles of interaction that the system supports
    • If we use different devices, then the interface will support a different style of interaction
  • The Computer
    • a computer system is made up of various elements
    • each of these elements affects the interaction
      • input devices – text entry and pointing
      • output devices – screen (small&large), digital paper
      • paper – as output (printer) and input (scanner)
      • memory – RAM & permanent media, capacity & access
      • processing – speed of processing, networks
  • Interacting with computers
    • to understand human– computer interaction … need to understand computers!
    what goes in and out devices, paper, sensors, etc. what can it do? memory, processing, networks
  • Personal or micro Computers for personal use come in all shapes and sizes, from tiny PDAs (personal digital assistant) to hefty PC (personal computer) towers. More specialized models are announced each week - trip planners, expense account pads, language translators Hand-held (HPC) PDA Tablet PC Laptop/Notebook Desktop Tower Workstation
  • Parts of a Computer
    • The parts of a Computer are:
    • Monitor,
    • Keyboard,
    • Mouse,
    • Scanner,
    • Printer,
    • Microphone,
    • Speakers,
    • CPU,
    • Joystick.
  • Inputs and Outputs
    • Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick and Microphone are Inputs.
    • Printer, Scanner, Monitor and Speaker are Outputs.
  • What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device that executes the instructions in a program. A computer has four functions: The Information Processing Cycle a. accepts data Input b. processes data Processing c. produces output Output d. stores results Storage
  • The TOWER contains all of the parts of a computer Chases Casing ( Mid-tower Computer Case)
  • The MOTHERBOARD is the backbone of a computer – all other parts plug into it
  • The CPU ( C entral P rocessing U nit) is the brain of a computer – it tells the other parts what to do
  • Optical Drive : a.) CD-ROM Drive b.) DVD Drive FDD - Floppy Disk Drive HDD - Hard Disk Drive
  • An INPUT DEVICE lets you TALK TO the computer
  • An OUTPUT DEVICE lets the computer TALK TO you
  • Don’t be afraid!
    • Computer waits for you!
    • Microsoft Windows XP – Operating system allows us to use the computer
  • Desktop Settings
    • Change your:
      • Desktop
      • Screen Saver
      • Power Settings
      • Window Appearance
      • Screen Resolution
  • What will we work on together today?
    • Computer Hardware and Software
    • What is the desktop?
    • Parts of the Window
  • Computer Hardware
    • External :
    • Monitor
    • Printer
    • Internal:
    • Memory [RAM temp]
    • Microprocessor chip
  • Internal
    • Hard drive [C drive]
    • Floppy disk drive [A drive]
    • CD drive [D drive]
    • Flash or Jump drive [E, F drive] “Removable disk” or Brand Name
    Secondary Storage Drives are following :
  • Cathode ray tube
    • Stream of electrons emitted from electron gun, focused and directed by magnetic fields, hit phosphor-coated screen which glows
    • used in TVs and computer monitors
  • Liquid crystal displays
    • Smaller, lighter, and … no radiation problems.
    • Found on PDAs, portables and notebooks, … and increasingly on desktop and even for home TV
    • also used in dedicted displays: digital watches, mobile phones, HiFi controls
    • How it works …
      • Top plate transparent and polarised, bottom plate reflecting.
      • Light passes through top plate and crystal, and reflects back to eye.
      • Voltage applied to crystal changes polarisation and hence colour
      • N.B. light reflected not emitted => less eye strain
  • short term and long term speed, capacity, compression formats, access
  • Short-term Memory - RAM
    • Random access memory (RAM)
      • on silicon chips
      • 100 nano-second access time
      • usually volatile (lose information if power turned off)
      • data transferred at around 100 Mbytes/sec
    • Some non-volatile RAM used to store basic set-up information
    • Typical desktop computers: 64 to 256 Mbytes RAM
    The ROM ( Read O nly M emory) is the permanent memory of a computer
  • Long-term Memory - disks
    • magnetic disks
      • floppy disks store around 1.4 Mbytes
      • hard disks typically 40 Gbytes to 100s of Gbytes access time ~10ms, transfer rate 100kbytes/s
    • optical disks
      • use lasers to read and sometimes write
      • more robust that magnetic media
      • CD-ROM - same technology as home audio, ~ 600 Gbytes
      • DVD - for AV applications, or very large files
  • Blurring boundaries
    • PDAs
      • often use RAM for their main memory
    • Flash-Memory
      • used in PDAs, cameras etc.
      • silicon based but persistent
      • plug-in USB devices for data transfer
  • speed and capacity
    • what do the numbers mean?
    • some sizes (all uncompressed) …
      • this book, text only ~ 320,000 words, 2Mb
      • the Bible ~ 4.5 Mbytes
      • scanned page ~ 128 Mbytes
        • (11x8 inches, 1200 dpi, 8bit greyscale)
      • digital photo ~ 10 Mbytes
        • (2–4 mega pixels, 24 bit colour)
      • video ~ 10 Mbytes per second
        • (512x512, 12 bit colour, 25 frames per sec)
  • The MOTHERBOARD is the of a computer
    • Brains
    • Backbone
    • Foot
  • ROM is the memory of a computer
    • Permanent
    • Smart
    • Temporary
  • The CPU is the of a computer
    • Brains
    • Backbone
    • Foot
  • RAM is the memory of a computer
    • Permanent
    • Smart
    • Temporary
  • An example of an INPUT DEVICE is:
    • Printer
    • Monitor
    • Mouse
  • An example of an OUTPUT DEVICE is:
    • Keyboard
    • Monitor
    • Mouse