MELJUN CORTES Intro to_computer_good_pictures_examples


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MELJUN CORTES Intro to_computer_good_pictures_examples

  1. 1. Chapter 1Introduction toComputers
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Objectives Explain the importance of Explain the purpose of a network computer literacy Discuss the uses of the Internet Define the term computer and the World Wide Web Identify the components of a Describe the categories of computer computers and their uses Explain why a computer is a Identify the various types of powerful tool computer users Differentiate among the various Understand how a user can be a categories of software Web publisherp. 1.2
  3. 3. The Digital Revolution Where can you find computers? Nextp. 1.2 Fig. 1-1  Computers are everywhere
  4. 4. The Digital Revolution What is computer literacy?  If you are computer literate, you have knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses Nextp. 1.4
  5. 5. What Is a Computer? What is a computer?  An electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory • accepts data • manipulates the data according to specified rules • produces results • stores the results for future use Nextp. 1.4
  6. 6. What is a Computer? What are data and information? Data Collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Information Data that is organized, Nextp. 1.4 Fig. 1-2 meaningful, and useful
  7. 7. What is a Computer? Who is a user?  Someone that communicates with a computer  Someone who uses the information it generates Nextp. 1.4
  8. 8. What is a Computer? What are hardware and software? Hardware The electric, electronic, and mechanical Software equipment that makes The series of up a computer instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks Nextp. 1.4
  9. 9. What is a Computer? Process What is the Input Manipulate the information Any data or instructions you input (data) to produce output processing enter into a computer (information) cycle? Output Communication Data that has been The capability of processed into communicating with Storage information other computers Area in a computer that can hold data and Next information forp. 1.5 future use
  10. 10. The Components of a Computer What are common computer hardware components? PC camera system unit speakerprinter speaker monitor keyboard modemscanner mouse Nextp. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 microphone digital camera
  11. 11. The Components of a Computer What is an input device?  Any hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer microphone PC camera keyboard mouse scannerClick to viewWeb Linkthen clickInput Devices Next digitalp. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 camera
  12. 12. The Components of a Computer What is an output device?  Any hardware component that can convey information to a user monitor speakers printerClick to view Web Linkthen click Output Devices Nextp. 1.6 Fig. 1-3
  13. 13. The Components of a Computer What is the system unit ?  Sometimes called a CD-RW CD-ROM chassis drive or DVD-  A box-like case made Zip® ROM from metal or plastic drive disk that protects the drive floppy internal electronic disk hard components of the disk drive computer from damage drive  Circuitry in the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the Next motherboardp. 1.6 Fig. 1-3
  14. 14. The Components of a Computer What are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Also called a processor • Electronic device that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computerClick to view Web Link Memorythen click Processors Next • Temporary holding place for data andp. 1.6 instructions
  15. 15. The Components of a Computer What is a chip?  An electronic device that contains many microscopic pathways that carry electrical currents  Usually no bigger than one- memory half inch square chip  Packaged so it can be attached processor chip to a packaging motherboard Nextp. 1.6 Fig. 1-4
  16. 16. The Components of a Computer What are internal components and external devices? Internal Component External Device Resides inside the system unit Also called a peripheral Attaches to the system unit Nextp. 1.6
  17. 17. The Components of a Computer What is storage?  Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage Device Storage Medium • Records and retrieves items to and from a • Physical material on storage medium which a computer keeps the data, • Devices often function as source of inputClick to view instructions andWeb Link because they transferthen click informationStorage Devices items from storage into Nextp. 1.7 memory
  18. 18. The Components of a Computer What are common storage devices or drives? CD-ROM or DVD-ROM CD-RW drive drive hard disk ZIP® drive drive floppy disk drive Nextp. 1.7 Fig. 1-3
  19. 19. The Components of a Computer What is a floppy disk?  A thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in a plastic shell  Insert and remove a floppy disk into and from a floppy disk drive  A Zip® disk is a higher capacity disk Nextp. 1.7 Fig. 1-5
  20. 20. The Components of a Computer What is a hard disk?  Consists of several self-contained hard disk circular platters that store items electronically  Disks are enclosed in an airtight, sealed case, which often is housed inside the system unit  Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk  Some hard disks are removable Nextp. 1.7 Fig. 1-6 & 7 removable hard disk
  21. 21. The Components of a Computer What is a compact disc?  A flat, round portable medium that stores data using microscopic pits, which are created by a laser light • CD-ROM • CD-RW – rewriteable CD • DVD-ROM – tremendous storage capacities Nextp. 1.8 Fig. 1-8
  22. 22. The Components of a Computer What is miniature storage media?  Used in devices such as digital cameras  One popular type is called a card miniature storage media Nextp. 1.8 Fig. 1-9
  23. 23. The Components of a Computer What is a communications device?  Enables computer users to communicate and to exchange items such as data, instructions, and information with another computer  Allows you to establish a connection between two computers and transmit items over transmission media, such as cables, telephone lines, or satellites  One type is a modemClick to view Web Linkthen click CommunicationsDevices Nextp. 1.8 Fig. 1-3 modem
  24. 24. Why Is a Computer So Powerful? What characteristics make a computer powerful? Storage Speed Reliability Enormous amounts of Billions of data can be stored and Dependable because operations can components have a low be carried out in made available for failure rate so they a single second processing anytime it is needed produce consistent results Accuracy Communications If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the Two connected computers results are error-free — can share stored data, garbage in, garbage out instructions, and Next (GIGO) accuracy of output informationp. 1.8 depends on accuracy of input
  25. 25. Why Is a Computer So Powerful? What is a network?  Two or more computers connected together via communications media and devices  The most widely known network is the Internet Nextp. 1.10 Fig. 1-10
  26. 26. Technology Trailblazer Bill Gates  Microsoft’s chairman and chief software architect  Co-founded Microsoft in 1975  Regarded as the most powerful person in the computer industry  Consistently anticipates technologicalClick to viewWeb Link developments andthen clickBill Gates customer needs Nextp. 1.9
  27. 27. Computer Software What is a computer program?  A series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do Allows you to Uses data in Displays Compares input data memory in information values stored and stores it calculations on monitor in memory in memory DirectsClick to view Web Link computer to Prints a Storesthen click Computer Programs perform report information Nextp. 1.10 alternative on disk operations
  28. 28. Computer Software What is software installation?  Some programs can be loaded directly from purchased media, others must be installed  Install means part or all of the instructions are copied from the purchased media onto the computers hard disk before the program can be used Nextp. 1.11 Fig. 1-11
  29. 29. Computer Software What happens when you run a program from a CD- ROM? Step 1 Step 2 Step 1: Insert the CD-ROM that Step 2: If the contains program into the necessary, install CD-ROM drive. the program on the Step 3: The hard disk. Then program executes instruct the and the screen computer to run displays graphics the program. that allow you to Instructions create a greeting transfer from the card. CD-ROM or hard disk to memory. Nextp. 1.11 Fig. 1-12 Step 3
  30. 30. Computer Software What is system software?  Programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices Operating System (OS) Utility program Set of programs Type of system software containing instructions that performs a specific that coordinate all the task, usually related to activities among managing a computer, its computer hardware devices, or its programs Nextp. 1.12 devices
  31. 31. Computer Software What is the user interface?  Determines how you interact with software  Used to control how you enter data and instructions  Used to control how information displays on the screen Nextp. 1.12
  32. 32. Computer Software What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?  Allows you to interact with the software using visual images such as icons  An icon is a icons small image that represents a program, an instruction, or icons some other object Nextp. 1.12 Fig. 1-13
  33. 33. Computer Software What is application software?  Programs that perform specific tasks for users Suite Collection of popular individual software applications bundled Word together as a single unit processing Presentation software graphics softwareClick to viewWeb Link Spreadsheet Databasethen click software softwareApplication Software Nextp. 1.13
  34. 34. Computer Software What is packaged software?  Copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of users  Purchase from stores or companies on the Internet Nextp. 1.13 Fig. 1-14
  35. 35. Computer Software What is custom software?  Written by a programmer  Tailor-made program developed at a user’s request to perform specific functions Nextp. 1.14
  36. 36. Computer Software What are freeware, public-domain software, and shareware? Shareware • Copyrighted software that is distributed free for a trial period • Send a payment to developer on honor Freeware system • Software provided at no Public-Domain cost to a user by an Software individual or company • Freeware donated • Copyrighted for public use Next • Cannot resell it on your • No copyrightp. 1.14 own restrictions
  37. 37. Computer Software What is an application service provider (ASP)? Third-party company that manages and distributes software and services on the Internet You can run the Both free and programs from the paid ASPs Internet Nextp. 1.14
  38. 38. Computer Software Who designs and writes software?  Computer programmer (or programmer) • Writes software programs  Systems Analyst • Designs a program, working with both the user and the programmer to determine the desired output of the program Nextp. 1.14
  39. 39. Computer Software How are programs written?  Programmers use a programming language to write computer programs Nextp. 1.14 Fig. 1-15
  40. 40. Networks and the Internet What is a network?  Collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media  When your computer connects to a network you are online Communications Device Communications Media • Modem • Cables • Telephone lines Next • Cellular radiop. 1.16 • Satellites
  41. 41. Networks and the Internet What are the reasons to network? Hardware To share To save time devices resources and money Software programs Information Data Nextp. 1.16
  42. 42. Networks and the Internet What is a local area network (LAN)?  A network that connects computers in a limited geographic area such as a school computer laboratory, office or group Next of buildingsp. 1.16 Fig. 1-16
  43. 43. Networks and the Internet What is a wide area network (WAN)?  A network that covers a large geographical area, such as one that connects offices across the country Nextp. 1.16 Fig. 1-17Next
  44. 44. Networks and the Internet What is the Internet?  A worldwide collection of networks that links together millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individualsClick to view Web Linkthen click Internet Nextp. 1.17
  45. 45. Networks and the Internet Why do users access the Internet?  E-mail  Information  E-mail  Meeting people  Shopping  Information  Meeting people  Entertainment  Shopping Next  Entertainmentp. 1.17 Fig. 1-18
  46. 46. Networks and the Internet How do users connect to the Internet? Internet Service Provider (ISP) Online Service Company that Provider (OSP) supplies connections to the Provides access to Internet, usually for the Internet, as well a monthly fee as a variety of other specialized content and services Nextp. 1.18
  47. 47. Networks and the Internet What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?  Billions of documents, called Web pages, that are linked together on computers throughout the world Web browser Web site Program used to Collection of Web page access and view related Web Web pages pages Contains text, graphics, sound, or video and has Next connections to otherp. 1.18 Web pages
  48. 48. Networks and the Internet How do you connect Step 1 to the Internet and display a Web page? Step 1 : Use your computer to Step 2 : A Web Step 4 a The as make : local browser such Web browser to telephone call Step 3 : Explorer Internet Enter Step 2 an online service the address of locates the Web displays a WebWeb for you the site your page on site wish to visit the entered screen address and displays a Web page on your screen Step 4 Next Step 3p. 1.18 Fig. 1-19
  49. 49. Categories of Computers What are the categories of computers? Nextp. 1.19 Fig. 1-20
  50. 50. Personal Computers What is a personal computer?  A computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself Contains at least Microprocessor Two major • One Input The single chip categories device that performs all • Desktop • One output the processing device functions on a • Notebook personal • One storage computer device Next • Memoryp. 1.19 • A processor
  51. 51. Personal Computers What are the two most popular series of personal computers? The Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) Nextp. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 The PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system
  52. 52. Company on the Cutting Edge Gateway  One of the world’s leading technology manufacturers  Manufactures built-to-order PCsClick to view  Consumers from aroundWeb Linkthen click the world order more thanGateway 11,000 custom systems Nextp. 1.21 daily
  53. 53. Personal Computers What is a desktop computer?  Designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or tableClick to view Web Linkthen click Personal Computers Nextp. 1.20 Fig. 1-23
  54. 54. Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations?  Tower model • Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically Nextp. 1.20 Fig. 1-23
  55. 55. Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations?  All-in-one computer • Less expensive desktop that combines the monitor and system unit into a single device Nextp. 1.21 Fig. 1-24
  56. 56. Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations?  Workstation • More expensive and powerful desktop designed for work that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities  Stand-alone • Can perform the information processing cycle operations without being connected to a network Nextp. 1.21
  57. 57. Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations?  Server • Powerful desktop that manages the resources on a network  Clients or workstations • Other computers on network that access the contents of the storage area on the Next serversp. 1.22 Fig. 1-25
  58. 58. Personal Computers What is a notebook computer?  Also called a laptop  Portable, personal computer small enough to fit on your lap  Generally more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilitiesClick to view video Nextp. 1.22 Fig. 1-26
  59. 59. Handheld Computers What is a handheld computer?  Also called a palmtop computer  Small computer that fits in your handClick to view Web Linkthen click Handheld Computers Nextp. 1.23 Fig. 1-27
  60. 60. Handheld Computers How do you input data with a handheld computer?  Some have small keyboards  Others use a stylus • A stylus looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure, instead of ink to write  Some support voice input Nextp. 1.23
  61. 61. Handheld Computers What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?  One of the most popular handheld computers in use today  Provides personal organizer functions • Calendar • Appointment book • Address book • Calculator Next • Notepadp. 1.23 Fig. 1-28
  62. 62. Handheld Computers What are Web-enabled handheld computers?  Allow you to access the Internet wirelessly Web-enabled Web-enabled cellular telephone handheld Web-enabled computer two-way pager Nextp. 1.24 Fig. 1-29
  63. 63. Internet Appliances What is an Internet appliance or information appliance?  Computer with limited functionality whose main purpose is to connect to the Internet from home Nextp. 1.24 Fig. 1-30
  64. 64. Internet Appliances What is WebTV?  An Internet appliance in the form of a set-top box  Sits on top of or next to a television set and allows you to access the Internet on the TV Nextp. 1.25 Fig. 1-31
  65. 65. Mid-Range Servers What is a mid-range server?  More powerful and larger than a workstation computer  Supports up to 4,000 users  Often connected via a personal computer or terminal  Once known as a Next minicomputerp. 1.25 Fig. 1-32
  66. 66. Mid-Range Servers What is a terminal? Sometimes called dumb terminals Device with a • No processing power monitor and • Cannot stand alone keyboard used to • Must be connected access a server to a server to operate Nextp. 1.25
  67. 67. Mainframes What is a mainframe?  Large, expensive, very powerful computer  Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously  Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and Next informationp. 1.26 Fig. 1-33
  68. 68. Company on the Cutting Edge  International Business Machines (IBM)  Incorporated in 1911  The first family of computers with interchangeable software and peripheralsClick to view Web Link  World’s largest informationthen click IBM Next technology companyp. 1.26
  69. 69. Supercomputers What is a supercomputer?  Fastest, most powerful computer  Able to process more than 12 trillion instructions per second Nextp. 1.26 Fig. 1-34
  70. 70. Elements of an Information System What is an information 1. Hardware 1. Hardware system?  For an information 2. Software 2. Software system to provide accurate, timely,Click to view Web Link and useful 3. Data 3. Datathen clickWomen in information, eachTechnology element must be 5. Procedures present and all ofClick to viewWeb Link the elements mustthen click work togetherMinorities in Technology Nextp. 1.27 Fig. 1-35 4b. People (users) 4b. People (users) 4a. People (IT personnel) 4a. People (IT personnel)
  71. 71. Examples of Computer Usage What are five categories of computer users? Mobile Home Large Business Small Office/Home Office Power Nextp. 1.28 Fig. 1-36
  72. 72. Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a home user? finance and business research management Web access entertainment Nextp. 1.29 Fig. 1-37
  73. 73. Examples of Computer Usage How do computer companies accommodate children?  Many manufacturers design special hardware for children Nextp. 1.30 Fig. 1-38
  74. 74. Examples of Computer Usage What is the digital divide?  Idea that you can separate people of the world into two distinct groups • Those who have access to technology with the ability to use it • Those who do not have access to technology or are without the ability toClick to view use itvideo Nextp. 1.30
  75. 75. Technology Trailblazer Shawn Fanning  As a 19-year-old freshman computer science major, he developed the Napster software and company  Pioneering file- sharing concept has implications for all copyrighted digital informationClick to view Web Linkthen click Shawn Fanning Nextp. 1.30
  76. 76. Examples of Computer Usage What hardware and software is Web access available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?  Desktop usage  Local Area Network (Lan)  Productivity software  Specialty software  Web usage Nextp. 1.31 Fig. 1-39 spreadsheet
  77. 77. Examples of Computer Usage What new computer trends concern a small office/home office (SOHO) user?  E-mail • Communicate with others  E-commerce • Conduct financial business on the Web  Web cam • Allows a SOHO user to show the world a live view of some aspect of Next their businessp. 1.31
  78. 78. Examples of Computer Usage What is a mobile user?  Travel to and from a main office to conduct business  Hardware • Notebook computers • Handheld computers • Web-enabled cellular telephones  Software • Productivity • Presentation Nextp. 1.32 Fig. 1-40
  79. 79. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user?  Network • Local area network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN)  Large business Web site  Sales management  Accounting  Desktop publishing  Information systems department  Productivity software  Scheduling Next  Web accessp. 1.33 Fig. 1-41
  80. 80. Examples of Computer Usage What is a kiosk?  A freestanding computer  Usually has multimedia capability and a touch screen  Used by a large business to provide information to the publicClick to view video Nextp. 1.34 Fig. 1-43
  81. 81. Examples of Computer Usage What is telecommuting?  A work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace  Often communicate with the office using some communications Next technologyp. 1.34 Fig. 1-44
  82. 82. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user?  Requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer  Types of power users • Engineers • Architects • Desktop publishers • Graphic artists  Typically work with multimedia • Combines text, graphics, sound, Next video, and otherp. 1.35 Fig. 1-45 media elements into one application
  83. 83. Computer User as a Web Publisher What is Web publishing?  Making a Web page available on the Internet  A few reasons to publish Web pages • Provide family information • Provide information about business • Provide a resume online • Provide online courses called distance-learning courses Nextp. 1.36 Fig. 1-46
  84. 84. Computer User as a Web Publisher What are other ways to use the Web?  Photo communities • Allow you to create an online photo album  Electronic storefronts • Allow a small business to advertise and take orders directly at a Web site  Communicate with others • E-mailClick to • Chat roomsviewanimation • Instant messaging Nextp. 1.37 Fig. 1-47
  85. 85. Summary of Introduction to Computers  The digital revolution  What is a computer?  The components of a computer  Why is a computer so powerful?  Computer software  Networks and the Internet  Categories of computers  Personal computersNext
  86. 86. Summary of Introduction to Computers (cont.)  Handheld computers  Internet appliances  Mid-range servers  Mainframes  Supercomputers  Elements of an information system  Examples of computer usage  Computer user as a Web publisherNext
  87. 87. Chapter 1 Complete