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MELJUN CORTES Guidelines for writing research

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MELJUN CORTES Guidelines for writing research

MELJUN CORTES Guidelines for writing research

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  • 1. GUIDELINES FOR WRITINGTHE RESEARCH PAPER Prepared by THE ACADEMIC AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT 1
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................. 2PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER................................................................................. 3 1. Blank Sheet ........................................................................................................ 3 2. Title Page............................................................................................................ 3 3. Acknowledgements............................................................................................. 3 4. Table of Contents................................................................................................ 3 5. List of Tables ...................................................................................................... 3 6. List of Figures ..................................................................................................... 3 7. List of Abbreviations............................................................................................ 4 8. Abstract............................................................................................................... 4 9. Main Body........................................................................................................... 4 10. Bibliography .................................................................................................... 4 11. Appendices ..................................................................................................... 4 12. Biographical Sketch ........................................................................................ 5BODY OF THE RESEARCH PAPER.............................................................................. 6 1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 6 2. Review of Literature ............................................................................................ 6 3. Materials and Methods........................................................................................ 6 4. Results and Discussion....................................................................................... 6 5. Conclusion and Recommendations..................................................................... 6DESIGN PROJECT ........................................................................................................ 8 1. Cost and Benefit Analysis ................................................................................... 8 2. Application Requirement ..................................................................................... 8 3. Conceptual Design.............................................................................................. 8 4. Progress Reports ................................................................................................ 8RESEARCH PAPER PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS....................................................... 9 1. Paper .................................................................................................................. 9 2. Language............................................................................................................ 9 3. Type Specifications............................................................................................. 9 4. Margins ............................................................................................................... 9 5. Spacing............................................................................................................... 9 6. Pagination......................................................................................................... 10WRITING CONVENTIONS........................................................................................... 11 1. Numbers ........................................................................................................... 11 2. Units of Measure............................................................................................... 11 3. Direct Quotations .............................................................................................. 11 4. Footnotes.......................................................................................................... 11 5. Citation ............................................................................................................. 11 6. Grammatical Tenses......................................................................................... 12EXTERNAL STATISTICAL AND EDITORIAL SERVICE............................................... 13 DOCUMENTATION AND PLAGIARISM ................................................................... 13 FALSIFICATION/FABRICATION OF SURVEY/EXPERIMEMNTAL RESULTS ........ 13 SAFEKEEPING ........................................................................................................ 13 2
  • 3. PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPERBelow is the list of parts, optional and necessary, that must be followed. It is alreadyarranged in chronological order for easy reference: 1. Blank SheetThis serves as the flyleaf. 2. Title PageThis page contains the title of the research, name of proponent/s. It also contains thename of the institution, to which the research is being submitted, and the month andyear of submission. 3. AcknowledgementsThis section recognizes persons and organizations who/which assisted the proponentsin the completion of the research. Acknowledgements should be expressed simply andtactfully. 4. Table of ContentsA sequential listing of all major parts of a research paper with corresponding pagenumbers. Included in the table of contents are the titles of chapters, sections andsubsections, bibliography and appendices. Also included are the titles of the preliminarypages as well as the required forms. 5. List of TablesA comprehensive listing of titles of all tables found in the body of the research paper withindication of the corresponding page numbers.Tables should be numbered in sequence, using Arabic numerals. For example, the thirdtable appearing in chapter two should be labeled Table 2.3. 6. List of FiguresList of charts, graphs, maps and other illustrations used in the research paper. Specificitems consisting of 12 or more must be listed separately. For example, if there are morethan 12 illustrations, then there must be a separate list of illustrations. 3
  • 4. List the exact title or caption of each figure and its corresponding page. Figures shouldalso be numbered in sequence, using Arabic numerals. The first figure in the thirdchapter is labeled Figure 3.1. 7. List of AbbreviationsAll abbreviations used in the research paper are listed for easy reference of the reader.This section, however, is optional. 8. AbstractThis is a presentation of the research summary. Included in the abstract are thestatement of the problem, objective/s of the study, methodology, major findings,significance and conclusions.The abstract should not be less than 200 words but not to exceed 500 words, andshould be typed single-spaced. Normally the abstract does not include any reference tothe literature. 9. Main BodyThis is the main text of the research paper, divided into chapters and sub-topics. Itnormally starts with the introduction and ends with the conclusion and recommendations.Details on parts of the main body are discussed separately. 10. BibliographyThis is a list of works cited, as well as works consulted but not cited in the construction ofthe research paper. The list of references is numbered and arranged alphabetically. Forformat on the writing of references, the APA (American Psychological Association) styleof documentation shall be followed. 11. AppendicesAn appendix or appendices, if any, should be after the bibliography. Appendices includeoriginal data, preliminary tests, tabulations, tables that contain data of lesser importance,very lengthy quotations, forms and documents, computer printouts and other pertinentdocuments. Appendices should be arranged chronologically as they are cited in the maintext. Use capital letters of the English alphabet to track appendices, and always beginwith the letter A. 4
  • 5. 12. Biographical SketchThis section gives the biographical information of the proponent/s. It should includename, educational background, professional work experience and such other mattersthat may interest the reader. It is strongly recommended that this be written in essayform rather than a mere resume’. 5
  • 6. BODY OF THE RESEARCH PAPERThe main body of a research paper is divided into main topics or chapters, which may befurther subdivided into sections.AMAES faculty researchers shall follow the following division: 1. IntroductionThis chapter serves as a backgrounder for readers to have an overview of the studyeven without prior reference to other publications on the topic. The introduction is thefirst chapter of the research paper and must include the objective/s and justification ofthe study as well as the limitations set by the proponent. The introduction is the properplace to define any specialized terms and concepts used in the research paper. 2. Review of LiteratureThe review of related literature showcases previous studies and publications relevant tothe research. This chapter gives light as to what motivated the proponent/s in pursuingthe specific field of study. 3. Materials and MethodsMaterials and Methods is the chronological listing of steps and procedure/s used by theproponent/s. Methods used for gathering of data, laboratory and field experiment,theoretical and/or conceptual frameworks, as well as techniques employed in theanalyses of data must be specifically listed. For the materials, exact technicalspecifications, quantities and sources must be included. 4. Results and DiscussionThis chapter presents the data gathered and the information obtained from them.Results and analyses in the form of figures, tables, graphs and text are found in thischapter. The discussion part is a presentation of the principles, relationship andgeneralization evidenced by the results. If applicable, the results need to be comparedand interpreted with previously published works. Implications as well as possiblepractical applications must be mentioned. 5. Conclusion and RecommendationsThis chapter includes a summary of the main findings of the research, and states thededuction/s obtained. It also presents the significance of the study, and relates findingsto the objectives and problems written in the introduction part of the research paper. 6
  • 7. Recommendation/s must be stated in this chapter. This part usually directs the reader toconduct further research on some specific areas related to the research topic. 7
  • 8. DESIGN PROJECTThis pertains to a research with a deliverable product, whether hardware or software, ora combination of the two. For product designs, below are some other sections thatshould be included in the body of the research paper: 1. Cost and Benefit AnalysisThis section estimates the cost of software, hardware and labor required by theapplication of the project. It should compare the cost to implement such an applicationwith the benefits delivered by the application. It should also demonstrate the valuesadded to a given institution by the application of the project. 2. Application RequirementThis section should provide a detailed description of the project application to bedeveloped. Aside from textual description, diagrams describing the processes shouldalso be included. 3. Conceptual DesignThis section represents the application as a conceptual entity-relationship model.Verification of the conceptual design is required (usually included in the Results andDiscussion chapter) to ensure that all needed data has been acquired and that itsupports all processes identified in the requirement specifications. 4. Progress ReportsDuring the course of the development of the project, progress report forms should beaccomplished on a regular basis to track the flow of the development If team membersare working on a single project, each progress report must specify individual tasks ofteam members for the period covered by the report.Progress reports are placed at the end of the thesis as part of the appendix. 8
  • 9. RESEARCH PAPER PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. PaperUse white letter-size paper (8 ½ x 11 in). Orientation should be portrait style (can beread lengthwise). Text and figures are placed on only one side of the paper. The otherside should be left blank. 2. LanguageThe official language to be used in writing a research paper is American English. Useonly objective, expository English. Idioms, slang, subjective words and phrases,metaphors and undefined acronyms are not acceptable. All sentences must be completewith acceptable grammar and correct spelling. 3. Type SpecificationsAll submitted drafts of a research paper and other related official documents must betypewritten. Under no circumstances shall a hand-written draft and/or form be acceptedfor submission.Font should be Arial with twelve-point size for the text. Text color is black. Typing shouldalways be neat, clean and uniform. 4. Margins • For the first page of any chapter, the left, top and bottom margins should be 40mm wide. • For the rest of the pages, the left margin should be 40mm and the top and bottom margins should be 25mm. • The right margin is 25mm for all pages. Make sure text is always justified on both sides. Use a five-space indention for every paragraph. • Margin specifications are meant to facilitate binding and trimming. All information (text headings, footnotes, illustrations, etc), including page numbers must be within the text area. 5. SpacingThe body of the research paper should be typed double-spaced. The following, however,should be single-spaced: 9
  • 10. - abstract- footnotes- quotations longer than three lines- references and bibliography (except between entries)- headings or subheadings- multi-line captions of tables, figures, illustrations, etc.For good visual effect, use multi-spacing for the title page. 6. PaginationPages should be numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, includingpages of figures, tables, appendices and bibliography. Page 1 begins with the first pageof the first chapter. Page numbers are not to be enclosed by parentheses, hyphens orother decorative devices.Preliminary pages preceding the first chapter are numbered using small roman numerals(i, ii, iii, etc). The title page should not be numbered although it is counted as page i.Page numbers are placed at the center of the bottom of each page. 10
  • 11. WRITING CONVENTIONS 1. NumbersSpell out all numbers less than ten unless they are attached to units of measurement(e.g. 5kg, 10ml). Use figures for 10 or numbers more than 10. If a sentence begins witha number, write the number in words even if it is more than 10.If a series of figures is to be used, use numerals regardless of the value; example:- In the room were 4 chairs, 12 boxes, 13 books, 10 files, 9 umbrellas and 8 pairsof shoes.- The number of computer units bought during the last five years was 8, 53, 27, 38,52 and 9. 2. Units of MeasureWhenever applicable, use SI units of measurement. Always use internationallyrecognized abbreviations for units of measure, and do not put a period after them. Forexample: 20 milliliters (20ml); 2.5 hectares (2.5ha); 3.7 metric ton (3.7mt) 80 kilometersper hour (80kph). 3. Direct QuotationsQuotations must be copied accurately, word for word, and they must be placed inquotation marks unless they have been formally set off from the rest of the text.Direct quotations must be minimized at all costs, except in some fields such as literature.Extensive use of direct quotations can be quite irritating for the reader. Students mustlearn to synthesize and paraphrase concepts in their own words and style. 4. FootnotesFootnotes should be used sparingly regardless of the field of study. It is recommendedthat citations be used instead of footnotes. Extensive footnoting tends to distract thereader from the main argument of the text.In cases where footnotes are necessary, the indicators used are superscript. Thenumbering of footnotes should begin with 1 and must be continuous throughout thewhole text. 5. CitationReferences must be cited properly, both in the text as well as in the reference list at theend of the thesis. Below is an example of how a citation should be done: 11
  • 12. Phosphorous was highly deficient at the Kemasul and Sedili plantation areas (JamesThomson, 1991). 6. Grammatical TensesAs a rule of thumb, use the present tense when referring to previously published workand the past tense when referring to present results of the study. In a thesis, it is normalto go back and forth between present and past tenses.Most of the abstract should be in the past tense because present results are beingdescribed. On the other hand, the introduction, discussion and conclusion should be inthe present tense because these chapters usually refer to previously published works. 12
  • 13. EXTERNAL STATISTICAL AND EDITORIAL SERVICEFaculty Researchers may employ the services of professional statisticians and editors.This is allowed, but not compulsory. Seeking the assistance of a professional statisticianand/or editor should be done before the research paper is sent for final evaluation.DOCUMENTATION AND PLAGIARISMProper documentation is always required when quoting from a source, summarizing orparaphrasing from a source, and when borrowing facts and ideas (except for commonknowledge).Plagiarism is academically unethical and absolutely unacceptable. Faculty researcherswho are caught practicing plagiarism, either intentionally or unintentionally, will facedisciplinary action.FALSIFICATION/FABRICATION OF SURVEY/EXPERIMEMNTAL RESULTSFalsification or fabrication of survey or experimental results is absolutely unacceptable.Faculty researchers, who will be proven guilty of this offense regardless of the degree,will face disciplinary action.SAFEKEEPINGFinal copies (hardbound) of approved research papers should be kept in the HomeOffice, and should be accounted for by the Research Manager. Offices of respectivecolleges should also keep a copy of approved research papers for reference purposes. 13