An Introduction toComputer Architecture  and Organization  MELJUN P. CORTES                        MELJUN P. CORTES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES• To describe the meaning of computer  system.• To describe the structure and functions of  computer.• ...
A Computer....• takes input• processes it according to stored instructions• produces results as output                    ...
A Computer....The word computer was taken from theLatin – Computare – which means‘calculate’Computer is a machine that onl...
Types of Computer           Computer Architecture and Organization                                                    5   ...
Data vs InformationData is a raw fact. There are 5 types of data:3.Text : alphabetic, numeric, special symbol4.Graphics : ...
StructureIs the way how each component/unit ofcomputer communicates to each other.FunctionRefers to the operation of each ...
Computer Structure                                                     Communication   Peripherals                        ...
The Main Structure                                 Central                Main                               Processing   ...
The Main Structure  Central         To process data and control the computerProcessing   Unit           operations.  Main ...
CPU : The Heart of Computing System            ca 1980                                       ca 2000 It took 10 of these b...
Structural Component of CPU          Main                  Computer                                                       ...
Computer FunctionsFour (4) main functions:• Data processing• Data storage• Data Movement• Control                Computer ...
A Fundamental View of Computer Functions                    Source and destination of data                                ...
Data Processing                                                                 Data                                      ...
Data Storage                                                                Data                                          ...
Data Movement                                                                  Data                                       ...
COMPUTER                        SYSTEM?Computer Architecture and Organization   18                                        ...
Computer SystemBasically it is divided into :3. Computer Architecture4. Computer Organization                Computer Arch...
Computer ArchitectureThe computer attribute which can berecognized by programmer. This attributehas a direct effect to the...
Computer Organization The connection of the sources of  computer hardware. Including the integration between  systems. ...
Computer ClassificationBased on:•   CPU speed•   The number of register inside the CPU•   The word size•   Main memory siz...
Computer Classification1. Microcomputer System2. Minicomputer System3. Mainframe System4. Supercomputer System            ...
Microcomputer System• Introduced on 1970• Based on microprocessor technology             Computer Architecture and Organiz...
Minicomputer System• Able to execute arithmetic function and basic  logic and supports the number of programming  language...
Mainframe System• Bigger then minicomputer.• The processing capability is higher than  minicomputer.• Very suitable to ope...
The IBM 7094, a typical mainframe computer [photo courtesy of IBM]                     Computer Architecture and Organizat...
Supercomputer System• The highest processing capability.• Able to execute million of instructions per  second (MIPS).• Sui...
Computer Architecture and Organization   29                                              MELJUN P. CORTES
Two Pillars of Computing1. Universal Computing Devices   • Given enough time and memory, all     computers are capable of ...
Big Ideas #1 :      Universal Computing Devices       =                                    =PDA            Workstation    ...
Turing Machine is a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite ...
From Theory to Practice• In theory, computer can compute anything  that’s possible to compute - given enough  memory and t...
Two Pillars of Computing (Cont’)2. Problem Transformation  • The ultimate objective is to transform a    problem expressed...
Big Ideas #2 :Problem Transformation                                              Problems                                ...
Problem Transformation     - levels of abstractionThe desired behavior:                 Natural Languagethe application   ...
How do we solve a problem using a computer?A systematic sequence of transformations between layers ofabstraction.     Prob...
Deeper and Deeper…  Instr SetArchitecture                     Processor Design:                     choose structures to i...
Descriptions of Each Level• Problem Statement   – stated using "natural language"   – may be ambiguous, imprecise• Algorit...
Descriptions of Each Level (cont.)• Micro architecture (Machine Level 1)   – detailed organization of a processor implemen...
Many Choices at Each Level            Solve a system of equations                     Gaussian                   JacobiRed...
The Program Level– Most computers run a                                 Application Program  management program called    ...
The History & Evolution Of Computer               Basically, the history of               computer development is         ...
• A long time ago, human are using their  fingers, stones etc to do calculation. At the  same time, they are trying to cre...
Before1940                                    45Computer Architecture and Organization                                    ...
Abakus Counting Device     • Created on 3000 B.D. at       Babylonia.     • Was the first mechanical       counting device...
John Napiers Bone   • Created on 1614 by John     Napier.   • Facilitate multiplication and     division processes – faste...
Pascaline Machine• Created on 1642 by Braise Pascal.• Was the first mechanical machine or  calculator in the world.• Able ...
Babbage Differentiation Machine• Created by Charles Babbage on 1821.• Was the first mechanical machine which is used  the ...
Babbage Analytical Engine•   Created on 1842 by Charles Babbage.•   It has five (5) main parts :•   Input unit•   Output u...
• His invention has became a  theory model for todays  computer technology.• Because of that, Charles  Babbage has been kn...
After1940                                    52Computer Architecture and Organization                                     ...
Starting Point• This part indicates the  starting point of computer  generation.• The computer which used  electrical powe...
Mark 1• Created on 1941 by Dr. Howard Aikern in  conjunction with IBM.• Was the first electro-mechanical computer.• Size :...
ENIAC• Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer• Was the first electronic computer.• Created on 1946 by J. Presper Eck...
ENIAC56     Computer Architecture and Organization                                              MELJUN P. CORTES
Von Neumann/Turing• Apply the concept of embedded code.• Main memory keeps the program and data.• ALU uses binary data.• C...
Structure of Von Nuemann machine        58             Computer Architecture and Organization                             ...
Computer Generation• Vacuum tube : 1946-1957• Transistor : 1958-1963• Small scale integration) : 1963 – 1970  Up to 100 co...
Computer Generation• Large scale integration (LSI) : 1971-1977  3,000 - 100,000 components inside one  chip.• Very large s...
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  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin
  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin
  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin
  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin
  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin Sun and Java are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Intel, Pentium, Centrino, and Xeon are trademarks of Intel Corporation. AMD and Athlon and trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Atmel and AVR are registered trademarks of Atmel Corporation. PowerPC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
  • Sistem Komputer : Pengenalan Disediakan oleh : Saira Banu & Norasikin
  • MELJUN CORTES Computer Archetecture_organization_good_discussions

    1. 1. An Introduction toComputer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES MELJUN P. CORTES
    2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES• To describe the meaning of computer system.• To describe the structure and functions of computer.• To classify the computer• To state the evolution and history of computer development Computer Architecture and Organization 2 MELJUN P. CORTES
    3. 3. A Computer....• takes input• processes it according to stored instructions• produces results as output 3 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    4. 4. A Computer....The word computer was taken from theLatin – Computare – which means‘calculate’Computer is a machine that only can executeinstructions that given by the user andoperate the data base on the relatedinstruction. The computer will process thedata to produce information. Computer Architecture and Organization 4 MELJUN P. CORTES
    5. 5. Types of Computer Computer Architecture and Organization 5 MELJUN P. CORTES
    6. 6. Data vs InformationData is a raw fact. There are 5 types of data:3.Text : alphabetic, numeric, special symbol4.Graphics : picture5.Audio: any kind of sound6.Video: a series of photograph frame which recordthe real7.Animation: A series of image which is displayedone by one to produce a movement illusionInformation – data that has been processed andcontains meaning. Computer Architecture and Organization 6 MELJUN P. CORTES
    7. 7. StructureIs the way how each component/unit ofcomputer communicates to each other.FunctionRefers to the operation of each componentwhich include in a structure. Computer Architecture and Organization 7 MELJUN P. CORTES
    8. 8. Computer Structure Communication Peripherals Lines COMPUTER - Storage - Processing The Computer Computer Architecture and Organization 8 MELJUN P. CORTES
    9. 9. The Main Structure Central Main Processing Memory UnitComputer Systems Interconnection Input Output Computer Architecture and Organization 9 MELJUN P. CORTES
    10. 10. The Main Structure Central To process data and control the computerProcessing Unit operations. Main To keep data during process Memory The mechanism which is use toSystemsInterconnection communicate between CPU, main memory and I/O. Input To move data and information between Output computer and external environment Computer Architecture and Organization 10 MELJUN P. CORTES
    11. 11. CPU : The Heart of Computing System ca 1980 ca 2000 It took 10 of these boards to You can see why they calledmake a Central Processing Unit this CPU a microprocessor! Computer Architecture and Organization 11 MELJUN P. CORTES
    12. 12. Structural Component of CPU Main Computer Registers : Provide storage internal to I/O Memory System Intercon- nection CPU the CPU Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) : Performs the computer’s data processing functions CPU Control Unit Registers ALU : Control the operations of Internal CPU Interconn. the CPU Control Unit CPU Interconnections : provide mechanism for communication among CU, The Central Processing Unit (CPU) ALU and registers Computer Architecture and Organization 12 MELJUN P. CORTES
    13. 13. Computer FunctionsFour (4) main functions:• Data processing• Data storage• Data Movement• Control Computer Architecture and Organization 13 MELJUN P. CORTES
    14. 14. A Fundamental View of Computer Functions Source and destination of data Data movement apparatus Control mechanism Data storage Data facility processing facility Computer Architecture and Organization 14 MELJUN P. CORTES
    15. 15. Data Processing Data Storage Facility Data Control Movement Mechanism Apparatus Data Processing Facility Example : Print bank statement Computer Architecture and Organization 15 MELJUN P. CORTES
    16. 16. Data Storage Data Storage Facility Data Movement Control Apparatus Mechanism Data Processing Facility Computer Architecture and Organization 16 MELJUN P. CORTES
    17. 17. Data Movement Data Storage Facility Data Control Movement Mechanism Apparatus Data Processing Facility Example : Keyboard to Monitor Computer Architecture and Organization 17 MELJUN P. CORTES
    18. 18. COMPUTER SYSTEM?Computer Architecture and Organization 18 MELJUN P. CORTES
    19. 19. Computer SystemBasically it is divided into :3. Computer Architecture4. Computer Organization Computer Architecture and Organization 19 MELJUN P. CORTES
    20. 20. Computer ArchitectureThe computer attribute which can berecognized by programmer. This attributehas a direct effect to the programexecution such as instruction set, datarepresentation, addressing and I/O.Example : Intel x86 share samearchitecture Computer Architecture and Organization 20 MELJUN P. CORTES
    21. 21. Computer Organization The connection of the sources of computer hardware. Including the integration between systems. The communication flow control between the physical component.Note: Each computer version have different organization Computer Architecture and Organization 21 MELJUN P. CORTES
    22. 22. Computer ClassificationBased on:• CPU speed• The number of register inside the CPU• The word size• Main memory size (RAM)• Complexity of the Operating System• Physical size• Cost• Cyber Memory Space• Secondary memory size• The multiple-programming degree Computer Architecture and Organization 22 MELJUN P. CORTES
    23. 23. Computer Classification1. Microcomputer System2. Minicomputer System3. Mainframe System4. Supercomputer System Computer Architecture and Organization 23 MELJUN P. CORTES
    24. 24. Microcomputer System• Introduced on 1970• Based on microprocessor technology Computer Architecture and Organization 24 MELJUN P. CORTES
    25. 25. Minicomputer System• Able to execute arithmetic function and basic logic and supports the number of programming language for enormous computer.• The size is smaller than a main frame.• Suitable for the processing task which doesn’t need the huge date access. Computer Architecture and Organization 25 MELJUN P. CORTES
    26. 26. Mainframe System• Bigger then minicomputer.• The processing capability is higher than minicomputer.• Very suitable to operate the gigantic database which needs a central management.• Always used by big company and government. Example. : KWSP & bank. Computer Architecture and Organization 26 MELJUN P. CORTES
    27. 27. The IBM 7094, a typical mainframe computer [photo courtesy of IBM] Computer Architecture and Organization 27 MELJUN P. CORTES
    28. 28. Supercomputer System• The highest processing capability.• Able to execute million of instructions per second (MIPS).• Suitable for huge calculation which includes the big value and needs efficiency. Example: Aerospace & nuclear Computer Architecture and Organization 28 MELJUN P. CORTES
    29. 29. Computer Architecture and Organization 29 MELJUN P. CORTES
    30. 30. Two Pillars of Computing1. Universal Computing Devices • Given enough time and memory, all computers are capable of computing exactly the same things (irrespective of speed, size or cost). • Turing’s Thesis: every computation can be performed by some “Turing Machine”. Computer Architecture and Organization 30 MELJUN P. CORTES
    31. 31. Big Ideas #1 : Universal Computing Devices = =PDA Workstation Supercomputer 31 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    32. 32. Turing Machine is a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer. Read more : http://www.mapageweb.umontreal.ca/cousined/ lego/5-machines/turing/turing.html Computer Architecture and Organization 32 MELJUN P. CORTES
    33. 33. From Theory to Practice• In theory, computer can compute anything that’s possible to compute - given enough memory and time• In practice, solving problems involves computing under constraints. Time - weather forecast, next frame of animation, ... Cost - cell phone, automotive engine controller, ... Power - cell phone, handheld video game, ... Computer Architecture and Organization 33 MELJUN P. CORTES
    34. 34. Two Pillars of Computing (Cont’)2. Problem Transformation • The ultimate objective is to transform a problem expressed in natural language into electrons running around a circuit! • That’s what Computer Science and Computer Engineering are all about: a continuum that embraces software & hardware. Computer Architecture and Organization 34 MELJUN P. CORTES
    35. 35. Big Ideas #2 :Problem Transformation Problems Algorithms Language Instruction Set Architecture Microarchitecture Circuits Devices Computer Architecture and Organization 35 MELJUN P. CORTES
    36. 36. Problem Transformation - levels of abstractionThe desired behavior: Natural Languagethe application Algorithm Program Machine Architecture Micro-architecture 36 Logic CircuitsThe building blocks: Deviceselectronic devices Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    37. 37. How do we solve a problem using a computer?A systematic sequence of transformations between layers ofabstraction. Problem Software Design: choose algorithms and data structures Algorithm Programming: use language to express design Program 37 Compiling/Interpreting: convert language to Instr Set machine instructions Architecture Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    38. 38. Deeper and Deeper… Instr SetArchitecture Processor Design: choose structures to implement ISA (Instruction Set Architecture)Microarch Logic/Circuit Design: gates and low-level circuits to Circuits implement components Process Engineering & Fabrication: develop and manufacture lowest-level Devices 38 components Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    39. 39. Descriptions of Each Level• Problem Statement – stated using "natural language" – may be ambiguous, imprecise• Algorithm – step-by-step procedure, guaranteed to finish – definiteness, effective computability, finiteness• Program – express the algorithm using a computer language – high-level language, low-level language39• Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) (Machine Level 1) – specifies the set of instructions the computer can perform – data types, addressing mode Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    40. 40. Descriptions of Each Level (cont.)• Micro architecture (Machine Level 1) – detailed organization of a processor implementation – different implementations of a single ISA• Logic Circuits (Machine Level 2) – combine basic operations to realize micro architecture – many different ways to implement a single function (e.g., addition) 40• Devices (Machine Level 2) – properties of materials, manufacturability Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    41. 41. Many Choices at Each Level Solve a system of equations Gaussian JacobiRed-black SOR Multigrid elimination iteration FORTRAN C C++ Java Tradeoffs: cost PowerPC Intel x86 Atmel AVR performance power Centrino Pentium 4 Xeon (etc.) Ripple-carry adder 41 Carry-lookahead adder CMOS Bipolar GaAs Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    42. 42. The Program Level– Most computers run a Application Program management program called Operating System the operating system (OS).– Application programs interface to the machine architecture via Program (Software) the OS.An example: This lecture 42 Data PowerPoint Application Program Windows XP Operating System Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    43. 43. The History & Evolution Of Computer Basically, the history of computer development is divided into 2 parts : before 1940 & after 1940. 43 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    44. 44. • A long time ago, human are using their fingers, stones etc to do calculation. At the same time, they are trying to create an apparatus that could facilitate the calculation process.• After a few trial, finally the complex and advance calculation system has been produced and it is known as a computer. 44 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    45. 45. Before1940 45Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    46. 46. Abakus Counting Device • Created on 3000 B.D. at Babylonia. • Was the first mechanical counting device in the world. • Able to execute addition and 46 subtraction operation. Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    47. 47. John Napiers Bone • Created on 1614 by John Napier. • Facilitate multiplication and division processes – faster & easier. • The first logarithm table has been created. 47 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    48. 48. Pascaline Machine• Created on 1642 by Braise Pascal.• Was the first mechanical machine or calculator in the world.• Able to execute addition and subtraction processes. Computer Architecture and Organization 48 MELJUN P. CORTES
    49. 49. Babbage Differentiation Machine• Created by Charles Babbage on 1821.• Was the first mechanical machine which is used the steam power.• Able to do a calculation and printing the output automatically. 49 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    50. 50. Babbage Analytical Engine• Created on 1842 by Charles Babbage.• It has five (5) main parts :• Input unit• Output unit• Processing Unit• Control unit• Memory unit 50 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    51. 51. • His invention has became a theory model for todays computer technology.• Because of that, Charles Babbage has been known as The Ancestor of A Modern Computer. 51 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    52. 52. After1940 52Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    53. 53. Starting Point• This part indicates the starting point of computer generation.• The computer which used electrical power has been introduced. 53 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    54. 54. Mark 1• Created on 1941 by Dr. Howard Aikern in conjunction with IBM.• Was the first electro-mechanical computer.• Size : 55 feet long, 8 feet height and connected with 800 km of wire. 54 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    55. 55. ENIAC• Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer• Was the first electronic computer.• Created on 1946 by J. Presper Eckert & John W. Munchly from the University of Pennsylvania. Was used until 1955.• Contained of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and 15,000 sq feet of space is needed. Needs 150 kW power and the weight is 30 ton.• Used decimal number and 20 accumulators of 10 digits. digit.• Able to execute 5,000 addition process per 55 second.• 1,000 times faster than Mark 1. Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    56. 56. ENIAC56 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    57. 57. Von Neumann/Turing• Apply the concept of embedded code.• Main memory keeps the program and data.• ALU uses binary data.• CU interpret the instruction from memory during the execution.• CU also controls I/O operation.• Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies – IAS 57• Completed 1952 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    58. 58. Structure of Von Nuemann machine 58 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    59. 59. Computer Generation• Vacuum tube : 1946-1957• Transistor : 1958-1963• Small scale integration) : 1963 – 1970 Up to 100 components inside one chip.• Medium scale integration (MSI) : 1971 100-3,000 components inside one chip. 59 Computer Architecture and Organization MELJUN P. CORTES
    60. 60. Computer Generation• Large scale integration (LSI) : 1971-1977 3,000 - 100,000 components inside one chip.• Very large scale integration (VLSI) ) : 1978 – now 100,000 - 100,000,000 components inside one chip.• Ultra large scale integration Over 100,000,000 components inside one chip. Computer Architecture and Organization 60 MELJUN P. CORTES

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