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Chapter 18

Sound

MELJUN CORTES
Overview
 In this chapter, you will learn to
 Describe how sound works in a PC
 Select the appropriate sound card for a...
How Sound Works in a PC
Sound-Capture Basics


Four components for capturing and outputting
sound
1. Sound card
2. Speakers
3. Microphone
4. Reco...
Sound-Capture Basics
 Sampling—capturing sound
 Sampling rate is measured in cycles per second (KHz)
 Low quality (11 K...
Sound-Capture Basics
 Sampling—capturing sound
 Bit depth—Number of characteristics of a particular

sound (for each sam...
Sound-Capture Basics
 Waveforms are commonly sampled with either 8 or 16

bits per sample
 8-bit stores 28 or 256 differ...
Recorded Sound Formats
 Pulse code modulation (PCM)
 Developed for telephone calls
 Better known as the WAV format
 La...
Playing Sounds
 Every sound card can play WAV files using sound

player software
 Windows Media Player comes with Window...
MIDI
 Musical Instrument Digital Interface
 MIDI file is a text file

 Contain a series of commands that describe
 Wha...
MIDI


Sound cards play MIDI files using one of two
technologies

1. FM synthesis
•

Strictly electronic—software says wh...
Other File Formats
 Over 100 sound formats
 Table lists just a few
Acronym
AAC
AIFF
ASX
AU

OGG
RM
WMA

Description
Adva...
Video
 Videos typically have sound built in
 Some common video formats are
Acronym
AVI
MPEG
MOV
ASF
RM

Description
Audi...
Applications
 Many applications (especially games) play

sounds
 Most use the standard WAV, MP3, or MIDI file

formats

...
Streaming Media
 Broadcast of data that is played on your computer

and immediately discarded
 Internet radio stations
...
Essentials
CompTIA A+
Essentials

Getting the Right Sound Card
Getting the Right Sound Card
Sound Cards
 A sound card typically has many built-in features
 Two separate processors (one for MIDI and one for

the r...
Sound Card Differences
 Sound cards differ in five basic areas:

- Processor capabilities - Speaker support
- Recording q...
Sound Card Differences
 Speaker support
 Basic support—two

speakers or headphones
 Better sound cards support
five or ...
Sound Card Differences
 Jacks
 Line In and Line Out converters enable the sound card

to send and receive input and outp...
Sound Card Connections
 Main stereo speaker is blue
 Line out connector is green
 Microphone connector is pink

© 2007 ...
Sound Card Differences
 Extra Features
 Almost all motherboards have built-in sound
 Extra goodies needed to entice buy...
Audio Cables
 To play audio CDs through your sound card

requires a cable from your optical drive to the
sound card
 Mos...
Speaker Standards
 Stereo
 Left and right

 2.1 systems
 Pair of speakers called

satellites and a subwoofer

© 2007 T...
Surround-Sound Standards
 Dolby Digital
 Supports five channels plus subwoofer (5.1)
 Front right, front left, front ce...
Surround-Sound Standards
 DirectX provides applications, primarily games,

with direct access to hardware
 Offers develo...
Speaker Features
 Controls
 Volume controllers
 On/off switch
 Can be on speakers

or on special box

 Headphone jack...
Installing a Sound Card in a
Windows System
Physical Installation
 Installs like any other PCI card
 Plug in the card
 Load the drivers
 Test

 Hardest part may ...
Physical Installation
 Basic steps
 Shut down your computer, unplug it, and open

the case
 Find an open PCI slot and i...
Installing Drivers
 Let Windows install drivers
 If necessary/desired, use CD

that came with sound card
 If installing...
Configuration Applications
 Most sound card configurations can be done

within Windows
 Use the Sounds and Audio Devices...
Proprietary Configuration Apps
 Many sound cards install proprietary software
 Adds access to other features that aren’t...
Installing Applications
 Some sound cards install extra software
 Goal is to provide user with extra free software
 The...
IT Technician
CompTIA A+
Technician

Troubleshooting Sound

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
Hardware Problems
 Volume
 Check physical controls
 Check software controls
 Windows Volume controls

 Speakers
 Ens...
Configuration Problems
 First place to check: Device Manager
 Consider reinstalling driver

 Ensure the latest device d...
Application Problems
 First, look for an

error message
 Check the application’s

support site
 Second, check the sound...
Beyond A+
 Sound card benchmarking
 PC performance issues may be related to your

sound card
 Analyze your sound card w...
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
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Transcript of "MELJUN CORTES Computer Organization Lecture Chapter18"

  1. 1. Chapter 18 Sound MELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. Overview  In this chapter, you will learn to  Describe how sound works in a PC  Select the appropriate sound card for a given scenario  Install a sound card in a Windows system  Troubleshoot problems that might arise with sound cards and speakers © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  3. 3. How Sound Works in a PC
  4. 4. Sound-Capture Basics  Four components for capturing and outputting sound 1. Sound card 2. Speakers 3. Microphone 4. Recording/Playback software © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  5. 5. Sound-Capture Basics  Sampling—capturing sound  Sampling rate is measured in cycles per second (KHz)  Low quality (11 KHz) to high quality (192 KHz)  Doesn’t capture every nanosecond of sound  Takes samples and extrapolates, or predicts, what the data is between samples  Dotted line—can you connect the dots? © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  6. 6. Sound-Capture Basics  Sampling—capturing sound  Bit depth—Number of characteristics of a particular sound (for each sample)  Amplitude (loudness)  Frequency (tone)  Timbre (qualities from different instruments) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  7. 7. Sound-Capture Basics  Waveforms are commonly sampled with either 8 or 16 bits per sample  8-bit stores 28 or 256 different characteristics  16-bit stores 216 or 65,536 different characteristics  Tracks  Monaural—one track  Stereo—two tracks  CD quality  44.1 KHz  16 bit depth © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  8. 8. Recorded Sound Formats  Pulse code modulation (PCM)  Developed for telephone calls  Better known as the WAV format  Large files  Four-minute song at 44.1 KHz and 16-bit stereo is greater than 40 MB  Compressor/decompressor (CODEC) programs  Algorithms developed to compress sound files  MPEG-1 Layer 3 codec or MP3 is one example of a codec © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  9. 9. Playing Sounds  Every sound card can play WAV files using sound player software  Windows Media Player comes with Windows  iTunes is Apple’s media program  Many other good sound players are available © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  10. 10. MIDI  Musical Instrument Digital Interface  MIDI file is a text file  Contain a series of commands that describe  What note to play  How long to play it  Which instruments to use  Tiny in size compared to WAV files  Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony is 78 MB as a WAV file and 60 KB as a MIDI file © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  11. 11. MIDI  Sound cards play MIDI files using one of two technologies 1. FM synthesis • Strictly electronic—software says what to play 2. Wave table synthesis • • • Uses recorded sounds (WAV files) to start Modifies characteristics of sounds to create amplitude, frequency, and timbre desired Polyphony of card—how many instruments it can play at once (128 instruments is common) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  12. 12. Other File Formats  Over 100 sound formats  Table lists just a few Acronym AAC AIFF ASX AU OGG RM WMA Description Advanced Audio Coding—native format for Apple’s iTunes Audio Interchange File Format—popular with Macintosh computers Microsoft Advanced Streaming Redirector Can be played in Windows, Sun, Next, UNIX and Macintosh Vorbis format—open source codex RealMedia—audio, or audio and video Windows Media Audio—proprietary © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  13. 13. Video  Videos typically have sound built in  Some common video formats are Acronym AVI MPEG MOV ASF RM Description Audio Video Interleave Moving Pictures Experts Group QuickTime Advanced Streaming Format Real Media WMV DivX Flash Windows Media Video Often used for ripping audio and video Used on YouTube © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  14. 14. Applications  Many applications (especially games) play sounds  Most use the standard WAV, MP3, or MIDI file formats © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  15. 15. Streaming Media  Broadcast of data that is played on your computer and immediately discarded  Internet radio stations  Most popular players are  Windows Media Player  Winamp  Apple’s iTunes © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  16. 16. Essentials CompTIA A+ Essentials Getting the Right Sound Card Getting the Right Sound Card
  17. 17. Sound Cards  A sound card typically has many built-in features  Two separate processors (one for MIDI and one for the rest)  Support chips for joysticks  Recording capabilities  MIDI support  More  Can be a separate sound card  Often just a chip built in to the motherboard © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  18. 18. Sound Card Differences  Sound cards differ in five basic areas: - Processor capabilities - Speaker support - Recording quality - Jacks - Extra features  Processor handles communication between the application, OS, and CPU  Low-end sound cards let your CPU do most of the work  Better sound cards do most of the processing, which accelerates the sound process and provides better sound quality © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  19. 19. Sound Card Differences  Speaker support  Basic support—two speakers or headphones  Better sound cards support five or more speakers  Often have a subwoofer  5.1 means 5 speakers with 1 subwoofer  Recording quality  Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio expressed in decibels  Low end have S/N ratio of 30 to 50 decibels  Records artifacts (noise) when there is no actual noise  High-end cards offer a 96 to 100+ S/N ratio © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  20. 20. Sound Card Differences  Jacks  Line In and Line Out converters enable the sound card to send and receive input and output from other devices  The Line In connector runs to a Line Out or Aux connector on the back of a stereo receiving system  Rear Out connects to the rear speakers for surround sound  Analog/Digital Out for external digital connections  Microphone & Joystick © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  21. 21. Sound Card Connections  Main stereo speaker is blue  Line out connector is green  Microphone connector is pink © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  22. 22. Sound Card Differences  Extra Features  Almost all motherboards have built-in sound  Extra goodies needed to entice buyers  Digital output to integrate PC with home entertainment system  DVD receiver  Surround-sound speaker connections  Breakout box adding ports to front of PC  More © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  23. 23. Audio Cables  To play audio CDs through your sound card requires a cable from your optical drive to the sound card  Most optical drives come with an MPC2 audio cable for this purpose © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  24. 24. Speaker Standards  Stereo  Left and right  2.1 systems  Pair of speakers called satellites and a subwoofer © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  25. 25. Surround-Sound Standards  Dolby Digital  Supports five channels plus subwoofer (5.1)  Front right, front left, front center, rear left, rear right  Digital Theatre System (DTS)  Competing standard that also supports 5.1  Sony/Philips Digital Interface (S/PDIF)  Uses single connector for entire 5.1 system © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  26. 26. Surround-Sound Standards  DirectX provides applications, primarily games, with direct access to hardware  Offers developers easy-to-use commands  Easy to program sounds in the desired channel  DirectSound3D (DS3D)  Can place a sound anywhere in 3D space  Known as positional audio  Environmental audio extensions (EAX)  Creative Labs’ response to DS3D © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  27. 27. Speaker Features  Controls  Volume controllers  On/off switch  Can be on speakers or on special box  Headphone jack  Some systems can automatically sense when plugged in © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  28. 28. Installing a Sound Card in a Windows System
  29. 29. Physical Installation  Installs like any other PCI card  Plug in the card  Load the drivers  Test  Hardest part may be identifying where to plug in speakers  Refer to documentation  Typical stereo or 2.1 speaker system plugs into Speaker or Speaker 1 port  Surround-sound speakers use single S/PDIF © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  30. 30. Physical Installation  Basic steps  Shut down your computer, unplug it, and open the case  Find an open PCI slot and install card  Connect the CD audio cable to the drive and the card © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  31. 31. Installing Drivers  Let Windows install drivers  If necessary/desired, use CD that came with sound card  If installing a USB sound card  Follow the cardinal rule for USB drivers: Install the USB driver before the USB device  Verify driver is installed by checking Device Manager  Test © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  32. 32. Configuration Applications  Most sound card configurations can be done within Windows  Use the Sounds and Audio Devices applet in Windows XP’s Control Panel  Or Sounds and Multimedia in Windows 2000  Five tabs  Volume  Sounds  Audio  Voice  Hardware © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  33. 33. Proprietary Configuration Apps  Many sound cards install proprietary software  Adds access to other features that aren’t otherwise available  Autosensing—allows hardware to be plugged in using different ports and the ports adjust  Plug microphone into speaker port and speaker port becomes a microphone port © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  34. 34. Installing Applications  Some sound cards install extra software  Goal is to provide user with extra free software  These programs aren’t needed to use any of the features  Intended to provide extra value for the purchase © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  35. 35. IT Technician CompTIA A+ Technician Troubleshooting Sound © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  36. 36. Hardware Problems  Volume  Check physical controls  Check software controls  Windows Volume controls  Speakers  Ensure they are turned on and getting good power  Make sure they are plugged in  Check for visual indicators that a sound is playing  Replace speakers if blown speakers suspected © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  37. 37. Configuration Problems  First place to check: Device Manager  Consider reinstalling driver  Ensure the latest device drivers are installed  Check the manufacturer’s Web site for updates  Review the Sounds and Audio Devices applet settings © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  38. 38. Application Problems  First, look for an error message  Check the application’s support site  Second, check the sound file  Sound files might be corrupted  Last, reinstall the application © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  39. 39. Beyond A+  Sound card benchmarking  PC performance issues may be related to your sound card  Analyze your sound card with RightMark 3DSound from iXBT.Com/Digit-Life © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  40. 40. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
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