Chapter 18Object-Oriented SystemsAnalysis and Design Using UML     Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
Major Topics • Object-oriented concepts and     terminology •   CRC Cards •   Unified Modeling Language •   Use case and o...
Object-Oriented Overview • Object-oriented (o-o) techniques work     well in situations where complicated     systems are ...
Goals of O-O Analysis • Reusability is the main goal. • Maintaining systems is an important    goal.     • Making a change...
Object-Oriented Concepts    Definitions and concepts:     • An object, represents a real-world thing or         event.    ...
Object-Oriented Concepts   Definitions and concepts (continued):     • Objects are represented by and grouped into        ...
Class SymbolKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-7
Inheritance • Inheritance is when a new class is     created from another class. •   The original class is the parent or b...
CRC Cards   Class, responsibilities, and collaborators   (CRC) cards are used to represent the   responsibilities of class...
Creating CRC Cards   Analysts create CRC cards by:     • Finding all the nouns and verbs in a         problem statement.  ...
Creating CRC Cards    Analysts create CRC cards by    (continued):     • Determining how tasks are fulfilled by         ob...
The Unified ModelingLanguage (UML)    UML has three categories:     • Things, the objects.     • Relationships, the glue t...
Two General Groupings ofThings   There are two general groupings of things in   UML:     • Structural things that define t...
Structural Things   Structural things are the most common   and include:     • Classes.     • Use cases.     • Interfaces....
Behavioral Things/Diagrams    Behavioral things include:     • Interactions.     • State machines.Kendall &      © 2005 Pe...
Types of Relationships   There are two types of relationships that   hold things together:     • Structural relationships ...
Structural Relationships    Structural relationships are:     • Dependencies.     • Aggregations.     • Associations.     ...
Behavioral Relationships • Behavioral relationships are:     • Communicates.     • Includes.     • Extends.     • Generali...
Structural Diagrams   Structural things are the most common   and include:     • Class and object diagrams.     • Use case...
Behavioral Things/Diagrams    Behavioral things include:     • Use case diagrams.     • Sequence diagrams.     • Collabora...
Commonly Used UML Diagrams   The most commonly used UML   diagrams are:     • Use case diagram, describing how the       s...
Commonly Used UML Diagrams     The most commonly used UML diagrams       (continued):     • Sequence diagram, showing the ...
Commonly Used UML Diagrams     The most commonly used UML diagrams       (continued):     • Class diagram, showing classes...
Overview of UML DiagramsKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-24
Use Case Diagram • A use (yoos) case describes what the system     does, not how it does the work. •   The use case model ...
Actors • Represent role played by one or more users • Exist outside of the system • May be a person, another system, a dev...
Actors (Continued) • Actors may be divided into two groups: • Primary actors supply data or receive     information from t...
Use Case • Consists of three things:     • An actor (user) that initiates an event.     • An event that triggers a use cas...
Use Case (Continued) • Better to create fewer use cases • 20 use cases for a large system • 50 use cases would be the maxi...
Use Case Relationships • Communicates     • Connect an actor to a use case • Includes     • Use case contains a behavior t...
Use Case Relationships(Continued) • Extends     • A different use case handles variations or         exceptions from the b...
Use Case RelationshipsKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-32
Steps for Creating aUse Case Model   The steps required to create a use case   model are:     • Review the business specif...
Steps for Creating aUse Case Model • The steps required to create a use case    model are (continued):     • Review each p...
Use Case Scenario • A use case scenario may be created for     the standard flow through the use case. •   Other scenarios...
Activity Diagrams • Activity diagrams show the sequence of     activities in a process, including     sequential and paral...
Activity Diagram SymbolsKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-37
Creating Activity Diagrams • Ask what happens first, second, and so     on. •   Determine if the activities happen in     ...
Swimlanes • Included on activity diagrams to show     partitioning •   Show which activities:     •   Occur on a browser  ...
Swimlane Boundaries   When an event crosses swimlane   boundaries, data must be transmitted.     • A Web form is sent to a...
Sequence Diagrams • Sequence diagrams show a succession     of interactions between classes or     object instances over t...
Sequence Diagrams(Continued) • Horizontal arrows represent messages    or signals sent between classes.     • Solid arrowh...
Message Name Formats   Message names may be in the following   formats: messageName() messageName(parameter1, parameter2, ...
Sequence Diagram ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-44
Collaboration Diagrams • Collaboration Diagrams show the same     information as a sequence diagram. •   The emphasis is o...
Collaboration Diagram ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-46
Class Diagrams • Class diagrams show classes,     attributes, and operations or methods. •   A class is shown as a rectang...
Class Diagram Attributes • Attributes are either:     • Private (the norm), indicated by a minus         sign.     •   Pub...
Method Overloading • Method overloading is including the     same method several times in a class. •   The method signatur...
Types of Classes • Classes fall into several categories:     • Entity classes.     • Boundary or interface classes.     • ...
Entity Classes • Entity classes represent real-world     items. •   Attributes are those stored for the entity. •   Method...
Boundary or Interface Classes • Provide a means for users to work with     the system. •   Display screens, windows, dialo...
Abstract Classes • Abstract classes are the parent or     general class in a     generalization/specialization     relatio...
Control or Active Classes • Control or active classes are used to     control the flow of activities. •   Many small contr...
Sequence Diagram ExampleUsing Class Stereotype SymbolsKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-55
Relationships on a Class Diagram • Relationships are the connections    between classes and include:     • Associations, s...
Association Class ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-57
Whole/Part Relationships • One class represents the whole, other     classes represent the parts contained in     the whol...
Aggregation • Aggregation is a “has a” relationship. • The whole is composed of the sum of     the parts. •   If the whole...
Collection • Consists of a whole and its members • Examples are a library with books or a     voting district with voters ...
Composition • The whole has a responsibility for the    parts, and is a stronger relationship. • If the whole is removed, ...
Whole/Part ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-62
Generalization/SpecializationDiagrams • Generalization/specialization or gen/spec diagrams     show the relationship betwe...
Polymorphism • Polymorphism or method overriding is     when a method is defined in several     classes in a gen/spec rela...
Gen/Spec ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-65
Finding Classes    Classes may be discovered:     • During interviews or JAD sessions.     • During brainstorming sessions...
Determining Class Methods   Class methods may be determined by:     • Using a CRUD matrix.     • Looking at messages sent ...
Statechart Diagrams • Statechart diagrams show class states and     the events that cause them to transition     between s...
Statechart Diagrams(Continued) • Each time an object changes state,     some of its attributes must change. •   There must...
Statechart Diagrams(Continued) • Statechart diagrams are not created for all     classes. •   They are created when:     •...
Statechart ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-71
Packages • Containers for other UML things • Show system partitioning • Indicate which use cases or classes are     groupe...
Package ExampleKendall &   © 2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall    18-73
Steps Used in UML   The steps used in UML are:     • Define the use case model.     • Continue UML diagramming to model th...
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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch18

  1. 1. Chapter 18Object-Oriented SystemsAnalysis and Design Using UML Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. Major Topics • Object-oriented concepts and terminology • CRC Cards • Unified Modeling Language • Use case and other UML diagrams • RelationshipsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-2
  3. 3. Object-Oriented Overview • Object-oriented (o-o) techniques work well in situations where complicated systems are undergoing continuous maintenance, adaptation, and design. • The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an industry standard for modeling object-oriented systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-3
  4. 4. Goals of O-O Analysis • Reusability is the main goal. • Maintaining systems is an important goal. • Making a change in one object has a minimal impact on other objects.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-4
  5. 5. Object-Oriented Concepts Definitions and concepts: • An object, represents a real-world thing or event. • Objects may be customers, items, orders and so on. • Objects may be GUI displays or text areas on a display.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-5
  6. 6. Object-Oriented Concepts Definitions and concepts (continued): • Objects are represented by and grouped into classes. • A class, or group of related objects has a set of shared attributes and behaviors. • Instantiate is a term used when an object is created from a class. • Attributes are properties of a class possessed by all objects. • A method is an action that can be requested from any object in the class.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-6
  7. 7. Class SymbolKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-7
  8. 8. Inheritance • Inheritance is when a new class is created from another class. • The original class is the parent or base class. • The new class is the child or derived class. • The child class receives the attributes and methods of the parent class.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-8
  9. 9. CRC Cards Class, responsibilities, and collaborators (CRC) cards are used to represent the responsibilities of classes and the interaction between the classes.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-9
  10. 10. Creating CRC Cards Analysts create CRC cards by: • Finding all the nouns and verbs in a problem statement. • Creating scenarios that are actually walkthroughs of system functions. • Identifying and refining responsibilities into smaller and smaller tasks, if possible.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-10
  11. 11. Creating CRC Cards Analysts create CRC cards by (continued): • Determining how tasks are fulfilled by objects or interact with other things. • Identifying responsibilities that evolve into methods or operations.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-11
  12. 12. The Unified ModelingLanguage (UML) UML has three categories: • Things, the objects. • Relationships, the glue that holds things together. • Diagrams, categorized as either structure or behavioral.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-12
  13. 13. Two General Groupings ofThings There are two general groupings of things in UML: • Structural things that define the conceptual and physical structures of an O-O system and are described by nouns. • Behavioral things, the verbs of a UML model that represent the behavior of the system and the states of the system before, during, and after the behaviors occur.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-13
  14. 14. Structural Things Structural things are the most common and include: • Classes. • Use cases. • Interfaces.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-14
  15. 15. Behavioral Things/Diagrams Behavioral things include: • Interactions. • State machines.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-15
  16. 16. Types of Relationships There are two types of relationships that hold things together: • Structural relationships tie things together in structural diagrams. • Behavioral relationship are used in behavioral diagrams.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-16
  17. 17. Structural Relationships Structural relationships are: • Dependencies. • Aggregations. • Associations. • Generalizations.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-17
  18. 18. Behavioral Relationships • Behavioral relationships are: • Communicates. • Includes. • Extends. • Generalizes.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-18
  19. 19. Structural Diagrams Structural things are the most common and include: • Class and object diagrams. • Use case diagrams. • Component diagrams. • Deployment diagrams.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-19
  20. 20. Behavioral Things/Diagrams Behavioral things include: • Use case diagrams. • Sequence diagrams. • Collaboration diagrams. • Statechart diagrams. • Activity diagrams.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-20
  21. 21. Commonly Used UML Diagrams The most commonly used UML diagrams are: • Use case diagram, describing how the system is used. • The starting point for UML modeling. • Use case (not a diagram). • Activity diagram. • Each use case may create one activityKendall & diagram. 2005 Pearson ©Kendall Prentice Hall 18-21
  22. 22. Commonly Used UML Diagrams The most commonly used UML diagrams (continued): • Sequence diagram, showing the sequence of activities and class relationships. • Each use case may create one or more sequence diagrams. • A collaboration diagram is an alternative to a sequence diagram.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-22
  23. 23. Commonly Used UML Diagrams The most commonly used UML diagrams (continued): • Class diagram, showing classes and relationships. • Sequence diagrams and CRC cards are used to determine classes. • Statechart diagram. • Each class may create a statechart diagram, useful for determining class methods.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-23
  24. 24. Overview of UML DiagramsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-24
  25. 25. Use Case Diagram • A use (yoos) case describes what the system does, not how it does the work. • The use case model reflects the view of the system of the user outside of the system. • Symbols are: • Actor, a stick figure. • Use case, an oval. • Connecting lines.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-25
  26. 26. Actors • Represent role played by one or more users • Exist outside of the system • May be a person, another system, a device, such as a keyboard or Web connection • Can initiate an instance of a use case • May interact with one or more use cases and a use case may involve one or more actorsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-26
  27. 27. Actors (Continued) • Actors may be divided into two groups: • Primary actors supply data or receive information from the system • Secondary actors help to keep the system running or provide help • Help desk, analysts, programmers, etc.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-27
  28. 28. Use Case • Consists of three things: • An actor (user) that initiates an event. • An event that triggers a use case. • The use case that performs the actions triggered by the event.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-28
  29. 29. Use Case (Continued) • Better to create fewer use cases • 20 use cases for a large system • 50 use cases would be the maximum for a large system • Can nest use cases, if neededKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-29
  30. 30. Use Case Relationships • Communicates • Connect an actor to a use case • Includes • Use case contains a behavior that is common to more than one use case. • The common use case is included in other use cases. • Dotted arrow points toward common use case.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-30
  31. 31. Use Case Relationships(Continued) • Extends • A different use case handles variations or exceptions from the basic use case. • Arrow goes from extended to basic use case. • Generalizes • One thing is more general than another thing. • Arrow points to the general thing.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-31
  32. 32. Use Case RelationshipsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-32
  33. 33. Steps for Creating aUse Case Model The steps required to create a use case model are: • Review the business specifications and identify the actors within the problem domain. • Identify the high-level events and develop the primary use cases that describe the events and how actors initiate them.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-33
  34. 34. Steps for Creating aUse Case Model • The steps required to create a use case model are (continued): • Review each primary use case to determine possible variations of flow through the use case. • Develop the use case documents for all primary use cases and all important use case scenarios.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-34
  35. 35. Use Case Scenario • A use case scenario may be created for the standard flow through the use case. • Other scenarios may be created for variations on the main flow. • A use case includes: • Use case identifiers and initiators. • Steps performed. • Conditions, assumptions, and questions.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-35
  36. 36. Activity Diagrams • Activity diagrams show the sequence of activities in a process, including sequential and parallel activities. • Symbols are used for activities, decisions and so on. • Arrows represent events that connect the activities.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-36
  37. 37. Activity Diagram SymbolsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-37
  38. 38. Creating Activity Diagrams • Ask what happens first, second, and so on. • Determine if the activities happen in sequence or parallel. • Examine all the scenarios for a use case.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-38
  39. 39. Swimlanes • Included on activity diagrams to show partitioning • Show which activities: • Occur on a browser • Occur on a server • Happen on a mainframe • Are done by external partners • Help to divide tasks among team membersKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-39
  40. 40. Swimlane Boundaries When an event crosses swimlane boundaries, data must be transmitted. • A Web form is sent to a server. • Data are placed into middleware to transmit it between a server and a mainframe. • Data are transmitted to and from an external partner.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-40
  41. 41. Sequence Diagrams • Sequence diagrams show a succession of interactions between classes or object instances over time. • It also shows the processing described in a single scenario. • The leftmost object is the starting object. • Time sequence is from top to bottom.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-41
  42. 42. Sequence Diagrams(Continued) • Horizontal arrows represent messages or signals sent between classes. • Solid arrowheads represent synchronous calls, the sending class waits for a response. • Half or open arrowheads represent asynchronous calls, those sent without waiting for a returning signal.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-42
  43. 43. Message Name Formats Message names may be in the following formats: messageName() messageName(parameter1, parameter2, …) messageName(parameterType:parameterName)(defaultValue)Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-43
  44. 44. Sequence Diagram ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-44
  45. 45. Collaboration Diagrams • Collaboration Diagrams show the same information as a sequence diagram. • The emphasis is on the organization of the objects. • Sequence is shown by including a sequence number on the message.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-45
  46. 46. Collaboration Diagram ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-46
  47. 47. Class Diagrams • Class diagrams show classes, attributes, and operations or methods. • A class is shown as a rectangle.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-47
  48. 48. Class Diagram Attributes • Attributes are either: • Private (the norm), indicated by a minus sign. • Public, indicated by a plus sign. • Protected, indicated by a pound sign (#). • Attributes may include the type of data and any initial value. • Methods are usually public.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-48
  49. 49. Method Overloading • Method overloading is including the same method several times in a class. • The method signature, its name and parameters, and type of parameters, must be different.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-49
  50. 50. Types of Classes • Classes fall into several categories: • Entity classes. • Boundary or interface classes. • Abstract classes. • Control classes. • Each class may use a special symbol, called a UML stereotype.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-50
  51. 51. Entity Classes • Entity classes represent real-world items. • Attributes are those stored for the entity. • Methods work with the entity.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-51
  52. 52. Boundary or Interface Classes • Provide a means for users to work with the system. • Display screens, windows, dialogue boxes, touch-tone telephone, external systems. • Methods required to send or reset the display screen, or to produce a report.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-52
  53. 53. Abstract Classes • Abstract classes are the parent or general class in a generalization/specialization relationship. • Abstract classes may not be directly instantiated. • Only the child classes can create objects.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-53
  54. 54. Control or Active Classes • Control or active classes are used to control the flow of activities. • Many small control classes may be included to achieve reuse. • Attributes are those needed temporarily by the control class. • Methods are those used in control activities .Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-54
  55. 55. Sequence Diagram ExampleUsing Class Stereotype SymbolsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-55
  56. 56. Relationships on a Class Diagram • Relationships are the connections between classes and include: • Associations, showing the one-to-many relationships between classes. • An asterisk (*) is used to represent many. • Association classes are used to break up a many-to-many association between classes.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-56
  57. 57. Association Class ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-57
  58. 58. Whole/Part Relationships • One class represents the whole, other classes represent the parts contained in the whole. • Three types of whole/part relationships: • Aggregation. • Collection. • Composition.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-58
  59. 59. Aggregation • Aggregation is a “has a” relationship. • The whole is composed of the sum of the parts. • If the whole is removed, the part may still exist. • The diamond at the end of the line is not filled in.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-59
  60. 60. Collection • Consists of a whole and its members • Examples are a library with books or a voting district with voters • If the part is removed, the whole retains its identity • A weak associationKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-60
  61. 61. Composition • The whole has a responsibility for the parts, and is a stronger relationship. • If the whole is removed, the parts are removed • Shown with a filled-in diamond on the line • Example: an insurance policy with ridersKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-61
  62. 62. Whole/Part ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-62
  63. 63. Generalization/SpecializationDiagrams • Generalization/specialization or gen/spec diagrams show the relationship between a more general thing and a specific kind of thing. • This relationship is described as an “is a” relationship. • For example: a car is a vehicle, a truck is a vehicle. • Generalization relationship is used to model inheritance. • General class is a parent, base, or superclass. • Specialized class is a child, derived, or subclass.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-63
  64. 64. Polymorphism • Polymorphism or method overriding is when a method is defined in several classes in a gen/spec relationship. • The subclass overrides the parent class attributes and/or methods. • If a number of classes are involved, the most specific class is used.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-64
  65. 65. Gen/Spec ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-65
  66. 66. Finding Classes Classes may be discovered: • During interviews or JAD sessions. • During brainstorming sessions. • By using CRC cards. • By examining use cases, looking for nouns. • Each noun may lead to a candidate or potential class.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-66
  67. 67. Determining Class Methods Class methods may be determined by: • Using a CRUD matrix. • Looking at messages sent between classes. • The receiving class must have the message name as a method. • Using statechart diagrams.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-67
  68. 68. Statechart Diagrams • Statechart diagrams show class states and the events that cause them to transition between states. • It is also called a state transition diagram • An event happens at a specific time and place. • They cause a change of state, or the transition “fires”Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-68
  69. 69. Statechart Diagrams(Continued) • Each time an object changes state, some of its attributes must change. • There must be a method to change the attributes. • Often there is a display screen or Web form to enter the attributes.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-69
  70. 70. Statechart Diagrams(Continued) • Statechart diagrams are not created for all classes. • They are created when: • A class has a complex life cycle. • An instance of a class may update its attributes in a number of ways through the life cycle. • A class has an operational life cycle. • Two classes depend on each other. • The object’s current behavior depends on what happened previously.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-70
  71. 71. Statechart ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-71
  72. 72. Packages • Containers for other UML things • Show system partitioning • Indicate which use cases or classes are grouped into a subsystem • Can show component packages • Can be physical subsystems • Use a folder symbolKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-72
  73. 73. Package ExampleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-73
  74. 74. Steps Used in UML The steps used in UML are: • Define the use case model. • Continue UML diagramming to model the system. during the systems analysis phase. • Develop the class diagrams. • Draw statechart diagrams. • Begin systems design by refining the UML diagrams. • Document your system design in detail.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 18-74

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