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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17
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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17

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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17

MELJUN CORTES SAD ch17

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  • 1. Chapter 17Successfully ImplementingThe Information System Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
  • 2. Major Topics • Client/server computing • Network types • Groupware • Training • Security • Organizational metaphors • EvaluationKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-2
  • 3. Implementation • Implementation is the process of assuring that the information system is operational. • Well-trained users are involved in its operation.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-3
  • 4. Distributed Systems • Distributed systems use telecommunications technology and database management to interconnect people. • A distributed system includes work stations that can communicate with each other and with data processors. • The distributed system may have different configurations of data processors.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-4
  • 5. Client/Server Computing • The client/server (C/S) model consists of clients request and the server fulfillment of the request. • The client is a networked computer, running a GUI interface. • A file server stores programs and data • A print server receives and stores files to be printed.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-5
  • 6. Advantages andDisadvantages ofClient/Server • The advantages of a client/server system are greater computer power and greater opportunity to customize applications. • The disadvantages of a client/server system are greater expense and applications must be written as two separate software components running on separate machines.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-6
  • 7. Network Types Standard types of networks include the wide-area network (WAN), the local area network (LAN), and the wireless local area network (WLAN).Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-7
  • 8. Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN) • Called Wi-Fi, wireless fidelity • Can include encryption wired equivalent privacy (WEP) for security • Cheap to set up • FlexibleKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-8
  • 9. Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN) (Continued) • Concerns: • Security. • Signal integrity. • Wi-Fi networks are prone to interference from systems operating nearby in the same frequency spectrum. • Bluetooth is suitable for personal networks and can include computers, printers, handheld devices, phones, keyboards, mice and household appliances.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-9
  • 10. Network Configurations There are four types of network configurations: • Hierarchical. • Star. • Ring. • Bus.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-10
  • 11. Hierarchical • A hierarchical network will contain several levels, with a host at the top. • A host computer has many smaller computers that only communicate with the host, not with each other. • The host controls all other nodes. • Computers on the same level do not communicate with each other.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-11
  • 12. Star The host computer can communicate with other computers that can communicate with each other only through the host.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-12
  • 13. Ring • All computers communicate with each other, passing messages around the ring. • There is no central computer. • Each node is in direct communication with its neighbor.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-13
  • 14. Bus • A single central cable is used to connect all the computers. • It has a single, central cable that serves as the only communication path connecting several different devices.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-14
  • 15. Network Models Several models are available for designing a network: • A network decomposition diagram provides an overview of the system and is drawn first. • A hub connectivity shows how the major hubs are connected and is drawn second • A workstation connectivity diagram shows the details of connecting the workstations.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-15
  • 16. Network Decomposition and HubConnectivity Diagram SymbolsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-16
  • 17. Network Decomposition DiagramKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-17
  • 18. Hub Connectivity DiagramKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-18
  • 19. Workstation Connectivity DiagramKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-19
  • 20. Groupware Groupware is software that supports people working together in an organization.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-20
  • 21. Groupware Functions Groupware helps group members to: • Schedule and attend meetings. • Share data. • Create and analyze documents. • Communicate in unstructured communication via email. • Hold group conferences. • Perform departmental-level image management. • Manage and monitor workflow.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-21
  • 22. Advantages of DistributedSystems Advantages of distributed systems are: • Data are stored where it does not affect the processing of online real-time transaction processing. • Data are stored using less expensive media at local sites. • Lowered equipment costs.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-22
  • 23. Advantages of DistributedSystems Advantages of distributed systems are (continued): • Provide flexibility in choice of equipment manufacturer. • Initially less expensive than large systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-23
  • 24. Disadvantages of DistributedSystems Disadvantages of distributed systems are: • Difficulty in achieving reliable system. • Security may be breached. • The relationships between subsystems must not be ignored. • Choosing the wrong level of computing to support.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-24
  • 25. Training • New system training must be performed. • Analysts must consider: • Who needs to be trained. • Who will train them. • Objectives of training. • Methods of instruction to be used. • Sites. • Materials.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-25
  • 26. Sources of Training Possible sources of training for users of information systems include: • Vendors. • Systems analysts. • External paid trainers. • In-house trainers. • Other system users.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-26
  • 27. Concerns for Training Objectives,Method, Sites and MaterialsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-27
  • 28. Conversion Strategies Five conversion strategies are: • Direct changeover. • Parallel conversion. • Gradual or Phased conversion. • Modular prototype conversion. • Distributed conversion.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-28
  • 29. Conversion StrategiesKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-29
  • 30. Security • Security considerations must be included when implementing a system. • These include: • Physical security. • Logical security. • Behavioral security.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-30
  • 31. Security (Continued) • Physical security is controlling access to physical computer resources. • Logical security is controlling software access. • Behavioral security is building procedures to prevent persons from misusing computer hardware and software.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-31
  • 32. Web Security Precautions used to protect the computer network from both internal and external Web security threats include: • Virus protection software. • Email filtering products. • URL filtering products. • Firewalls, gateways, and virtual private networks.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-32
  • 33. Web Security • Precautions used to protect the computer network from both internal and external Web security threats include (continued): • Intrusion detection products. • Vulnerability management products. • Security technologies such as secure socket layering (SSL) for authentication. • Encryption technologies. • Public key infrastructure (PKI) use and obtaining a digital certificate.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-33
  • 34. Ecommerce PrivacyGuidelines • Privacy is essential to ecommerce. • Some privacy policy guidelines are: • Start with a corporate policy on privacy. • Only ask for information required to complete the transaction. • Make it optional for customers to fill out personal information on the Web site.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-34
  • 35. Ecommerce PrivacyGuidelines • Some privacy policy guidelines are (continued): • Use sources that allow you to obtain anonymous information about classes of customers. • Be ethical in data gathering.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-35
  • 36. Other Conversion Considerations • Ordering equipment • Ordering external supplies, such as toner cartridges, paper, preprinted forms and so on • Appointing a manager to supervise the preparation of the installation site • Planning, scheduling, and supervising IT personnel who convert files and databasesKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-36
  • 37. Evaluation Approaches Several evaluation approaches can be used: • Cost-benefit analysis. • Revised decision evaluation approach. • User involvement evaluations. • The information system utility approach.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-37
  • 38. Organizational Metaphors Organizational metaphors may be used to assist in a successful implementation of a new system.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-38
  • 39. Organizational Metaphors(Continued) • Zoo • Society • Jungle • Family • War • Organism • Journey • Game • MachineKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-39
  • 40. Organizational Metaphors andTypes of Information SystemsKendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-40
  • 41. Interpreting OrganizationalMetaphors • Zoo indicates success is likely with traditional MIS systems and decision support systems. • Jungle indicates success is likely with decision support systems, cooperative systems, competitive systems, and executive information systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-41
  • 42. Interpreting OrganizationalMetaphors (Continued) • War indicates success is likely with competitive systems. • Journey indicates success is likely with cooperative systems. • Machine indicates success is likely with traditional MIS systems and expert systems/artificial intelligence.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-42
  • 43. Interpreting OrganizationalMetaphors (Continued) • Society indicates success is likely with traditional MIS systems and decision support systems. • Family indicates success is likely with traditional MIS systems and decision support systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-43
  • 44. Interpreting OrganizationalMetaphors (Continued) • Organism indicates success is likely with decision support systems, expert systems/artificial intelligence, cooperative systems, competitive systems, and executive information systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-44
  • 45. Interpreting OrganizationalMetaphors (Continued) • Game indicates success is likely with expert systems/artificial intelligence, cooperative systems, competitive systems, and executive information systems.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-45
  • 46. Information System UtilityEvaluation • The information system utility framework is a way to evaluate a new system based on utilities of: • Possession. • Form. • Place. • Time. • Actualization. • Goal.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-46
  • 47. Information System UtilityEvaluation (Continued) • Possession utility answers the question of who should receive output. • Goal utility answers the why of information systems by asking whether the output has value in helping the organization achieve its objectives. • Place utility answers the question of where information is distributed.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-47
  • 48. Information System UtilityEvaluation (Continued) • Form utility answers the question of what kind of output is distributed to the decision maker. • Time utility answers the question of when information is delivered. • Actualization utility involves how the information is introduced and used by the decision maker.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-48
  • 49. Web Site Evaluation • Corporate Web sites should be evaluated. • The following is a list of key things to learn about the Web site visitors: • Know how often the Web site is visited. • Learn details about specific pages on the site. • Find out demographic and other information about Web site visitors.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-49
  • 50. Web Site Evaluation • The following is a list of key things to learn about the Web site visitors (continued): • Discover if visitors can properly fill out the Web forms. • Find out who is referring Web site visitors to the client’s Web site. • Determine what browsers visitors are using. • Find out if the client’s Web site visitors are interested in advertising the Web site.Kendall & © 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 17-50

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