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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03

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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03

MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03


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  • 1. Chapter 3Determining Feasibility andManaging Analysis andDesign Activities Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
  • 2. Major Topics • Project initiation • Determining project feasibility • Project scheduling • Managing project activities • Manage systems analysis team membersKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-2
  • 3. Project Initiation Projects are initiated for two broad reasons: • Problems that lend themselves to systems solutions. • Opportunities for improvement through • Upgrading systems. • Altering systems. • Installing new systems.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-3
  • 4. Organizational Problems Identify problems by looking for the following signs: • Check output against performance criteria • Too many errors. • Work completed slowly. • Work done incorrectly. • Work done incompletely. • Work not done at all.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-4
  • 5. Organizational Problems(Continued) • Observe behavior of employees • High absenteeism. • High job dissatisfaction. • High job turnover.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-5
  • 6. Organizational Problems(Continued) • Listen to feedback from vendors, customers, and suppliers • Complaints. • Suggestions for improvement. • Loss of sales. • Lower sales.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-6
  • 7. Project Selection Five specific criteria for project selection: • Backed by management. • Timed appropriately for commitment of resources. • It moves the business toward attainment of its goals. • Practicable. • Important enough to be considered over other projects.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-7
  • 8. Possibilities for Improvement Many possible objectives exist including: • Speeding up a process. • Streamlining a process. • Combining processes. • Reducing errors in input. • Reducing redundant storage. • Reducing redundant output. • Improving system and subsystem integration.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-8
  • 9. Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG) • A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to assess the impact of any improvements to the existing system. • It can increase awareness of the impacts made on the achievement of corporate objectivesKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-9
  • 10. Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)(Continued) • Current or proposed systems are listed on the left. • Objectives are listed on the top. • Red arrows indicate a positive impact. • Green arrows indicate implementation.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-10
  • 11. Feasibility • A feasibility study assesses the operational, technical, and economic merits of the proposed project. • There are three types of feasibility: • Technical feasibility. • Economic feasibility. • Operational feasibility.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-11
  • 12. Technical Feasibility • Technical feasibility assesses whether the current technical resources are sufficient for the new system. • If they are not available, can they be upgraded to provide the level of technology necessary for the new system.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-12
  • 13. Economic Feasibility • Economic feasibility determines whether the time and money are available to develop the system. • Includes the purchase of: • New equipment. • Hardware. • Software.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-13
  • 14. Operational Feasibility • Operational feasibility determines if the human resources are available to operate the system once it has been installed. • Users that do not want a new system may prevent it from becoming operationally feasible.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-14
  • 15. Activity Planning • Activity planning includes: • Selecting a systems analysis team. • Estimating time required to complete each task. • Scheduling the project. • Two tools for project planning and control are Gantt charts and PERT diagrams.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-15
  • 16. Estimating Time • Project is broken down into phases. • Further project is broken down into tasks or activities. • Finally project is broken down into steps or even smaller units. • Time is estimated for each task or activity. • Most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic estimates for time may be used.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-16
  • 17. Gantt Charts • Easy to construct and use. • Shows activities over a period of time.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-17
  • 18. Gantt Chart ExampleKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-18
  • 19. PERT Diagram PERT-Program Evaluation and Review Technique • PERT diagrams show precedence, activities that must be completed before the next activities may be started. • Once a diagram is drawn it is possible to identify the critical path, the longest path through the activities. • Monitoring critical path will identify shortest time to complete the project.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-19
  • 20. PERT Diagram ExampleKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-20
  • 21. PERT Diagram Advantages • Easy identification of the order of precedence • Easy identification of the critical path and thus critical activities • Easy determination of slack time, the leeway to fall behind on noncritical pathsKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-21
  • 22. Timeboxing • Timeboxing sets an absolute due date for project delivery. • The most critical features are developed first and implemented by the due date. • Other features are added later.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-22
  • 23. Personal Information ManagerSoftware Personal information manager (PIN) software is useful for scheduling activities and includes features such as: • Telephone and fax number lists. • To-do lists. • Online calendars.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-23
  • 24. Team Management • Teams often have two leaders: • One who leads members to accomplish tasks. • One concerned with social relationships. • The systems analyst must manage: • Team members. • Their activities. • Their time and resources.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-24
  • 25. Goal Setting • Successful projects require that reasonable productivity goals for tangible outputs and process activities be set. • Goal setting helps to motivate team members.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-25
  • 26. Ecommerce ProjectManagement Ecommerce and traditional software project management differences: • The data used by ecommerce systems is scattered across the organization. • Ecommerce systems need a staff with a wide variety of skills. • Partnerships must be built externally and internally well ahead of implementation. • Security is of utmost importance.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-26
  • 27. Project Failures Project failures may be prevented by: • Training. • Experience. • Learning why other projects have failed.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-27
  • 28. Extreme Programming Extreme programming (XP) takes good systems development practices to the extreme.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-28
  • 29. Extreme Programming Variables Extreme programming has four variables that the developer can control: • Time. • Cost. • Quality. • Cost. • These are balanced for a project.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-29
  • 30. Extreme ProgrammingKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-30
  • 31. Extreme Programming Activities The activities of extreme programming are: • Coding. • Testing. • Listening. • Designing.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-31
  • 32. Extreme Programming CorePractices There are four core practices in extreme programming: • A short release time. • Working a 40-hour week. • Having an onsite customer. • Pair programming.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-32
  • 33. Roles in Extreme ProgrammingKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-33
  • 34. Roles in Extreme Programming There are a 7roles played in XP: • Programmer. • Customer. • Tester. • Tracker. • Coach. • Consultant. • Big Boss.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-34
  • 35. The Planning Game • The planning game defines rules to help formulate the development team and customer relationship. • Limits uncertainty. • Two players: the development team and the business customer. • Customers decide what to tackle first.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-35
  • 36. XP Development Process • XP projects are interactive and incremental. • The five Stages of XP development are: • Exploration. • Planning. • Iterations to the first release. • Productionizing. • Maintenance.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-36
  • 37. XP Development ProcessKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-37