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MELJUN CORTES Jedi slides data st-chapter04-binary trees

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- 1. 4 Binary Trees Data Structures – Binary Trees 1
- 2. ObjectivesAt the end of the lesson, the student should be able to:● Explain the basic concepts and definitions related to binary trees● Identify the properties of a binary tree● Enumerate the different types of binary trees● Discuss how binary trees are represented in computer memory● Traverse binary trees using the three traversal algorithms: preorder, inorder, postorder● Discuss binary tree traversal applications● Use heaps and the heapsort algorithm to sort a set of elements Data Structures – Binary Trees 2
- 3. Binary Tree● An ADT that is hierarchical in nature● Collection of nodes which are either empty or consists of a root and two disjoint binary trees called the left and the right subtrees● Level of a node - distance of the node from the root Data Structures – Binary Trees 3
- 4. Binary Tree● Height or depth of a tree - level of the bottommost nodes; length of the longest path from the root to any leaf● External node - node w/o children; internal otherwise● Proper binary tree - binary tree that has either zero or two children Data Structures – Binary Trees 4
- 5. Binary Tree● Data Structures – Binary Trees 5
- 6. Properties● For a (proper) binary tree of depth k, – The maximum number of nodes at level i is 2i , i ≥ 0 – The number of nodes is at least 2k + 1 and at most 2k+1 – 1 – The number of external nodes is at least h+1 and at most 2k – The number of internal nodes is at least h and at most 2k – 1 – If no is the number of terminal nodes and n2 is the number of nodes of degree 2 in a binary tree, then no = n2 + 1 Data Structures – Binary Trees 6
- 7. Types● right (left) skewed binary tree - tree in which every node has no left (right) subtrees; tree with the greatest depth Data Structures – Binary Trees 7
- 8. Types● strictly binary tree - tree in which every node has either two subtrees or none at all Data Structures – Binary Trees 8
- 9. Types● full binary tree - strictly binary tree in which all terminal nodes lie at the bottom-most level; has the maximum number of nodes for a given depth Data Structures – Binary Trees 9
- 10. Types● complete binary tree - tree which results when zero or more nodes are deleted from a full binary tree in reverse- level order Data Structures – Binary Trees 10
- 11. Representation● Link Representation class BTNode { Object info; BTNode left, right; public BTNode(){} public BTNode(Object i) { info = i; } public BTNode(Object i, BTNode l, BTNode r) { info = i; left = l; right = r; } } Data Structures – Binary Trees 11
- 12. Representation● Data Structures – Binary Trees 12
- 13. Traversals● A procedure that visits the nodes of the binary tree in a linear fashion such that each node is visited exactly once, visit a node means performing computations local to the node● Preorder● Inorder● Postorder Data Structures – Binary Trees 13
- 14. Traversals● Preorder traversal – NLR traversal If the binary tree is empty, do nothing (traversal done) Otherwise: Visit the root. Traverse the left subtree in preorder. Traverse the right subtree in preorder. Data Structures – Binary Trees 14
- 15. Traversals● Preorder traversal – NLR traversal/* Outputs the preorder listing of elements in this tree */ void preorder(){ if (root != null) { System.out.println(root.info.toString()); new BinaryTree(root.left).preorder(); new BinaryTree(root.right).preorder(); } } Data Structures – Binary Trees 15
- 16. Traversals● Inorder traversal – LNR traversal If the binary tree is empty, do nothing (traversal done) Otherwise: Traverse the left subtree in inorder. Visit the root. Traverse the right subtree in inorder. Data Structures – Binary Trees 16
- 17. Traversals● Inorder traversal – LNR traversal/* Outputs the inorder listing of elements in this tree */ void inorder(){ if (root != null) { new BinaryTree(root.left).inorder(); System.out.println(root.info.toString()); new BinaryTree(root.right).inorder(); } } Data Structures – Binary Trees 17
- 18. Traversals● Postorder traversal – LRN traversal If the binary tree is empty, do nothing (traversal done) Otherwise: Traverse the left subtree in postorder. Traverse the right subtree in postorder. Visit the root. Data Structures – Binary Trees 18
- 19. Traversals● Postorder traversal – LRN traversal/* Outputs the postorder listing of elements in this tree */ void postorder(){ if (root != null) { new BinaryTree(root.left).postorder(); new BinaryTree(root.right).postorder(); System.out.println(root.info.toString()); } } Data Structures – Binary Trees 19
- 20. TraversalsOCCURENCES OF VISITS● Preorder and Inorder: – On going down leftward as its left subtree is traversed – On going up from the left after its left subtree is traversed● Postorder: – On going down leftward as its left subtree is traversed – On going up from the left after its left subtree has been traversed – On going up from the right after its right subtree has been traversed Data Structures – Binary Trees 20
- 21. Traversal Examples Data Structures – Binary Trees 21
- 22. Traversal Examples Data Structures – Binary Trees 22
- 23. Traversal Application Duplicating a Binary Tree● The Algorithm ● Traverse the left subtree of node a in postorder and make a copy of it ● Traverse the right subtree of node a in postorder and make a copy of it ● Make a copy of node a and attach copies of its left and right subtrees Data Structures – Binary Trees 23
- 24. Traversal Application Duplicating a Binary Tree/* Copies this tree and returns the root of the duplicate */BTNode copy(){ BTNode newRoot; BTNode newLeft; BTNode newRight; if (root != null){ newLeft = new BinaryTree(root.left).copy(); newRight = new BinaryTree(root.right).copy(); newRoot = new BTNode(root.info, newLeft, newRight); return newRoot; } return null;} Data Structures – Binary Trees 24
- 25. Traversal Application Equivalence of Two Binary Trees● The Algorithm ● Check whether node a and node b contain the same data ● Traverse the left subtrees of node a and node b in preorder and check whether they are equivalent ● Traverse the right subtrees of node a and node b in preorder and check whether they are equivalent Data Structures – Binary Trees 25
- 26. Traversal Application Equivalence of Two Binary Treesboolean equivalent(BinaryTree t2){ boolean answer = false; if ((root == null) && (t2.root == null)) answer = true; else { answer = (root.info.equals(t2.root.info)); if (answer) { answer = new BinaryTree(root.left); equivalent(new BinaryTree(t2.root.left)); } equivalent(new BinaryTree(t2.root.right)); } return answer;} Data Structures – Binary Trees 26
- 27. Exercises Tree 2Tree 1 Tree 3 Data Structures – Binary Trees 27
- 28. Binary Tree Application: Heaps and Heapsort● Heaps – complete binary tree that has elements stored at its nodes – satisfies the heap-order property: for every node u except the root, the key stored at u is less than or equal to the key stored at its parent – In this application, elements stored in a heap satisfy the total order: For any objects x, y and z in set S: ● Transitivity: if x < y and y < z then x < z ● Trichotomy: for any two objects x and y in S, exactly one of these relations holds: x > y, x = y or x < y Data Structures – Binary Trees 28
- 29. Heaps● Data Structures – Binary Trees 29
- 30. Sequential Representation● Complete binary tree Data Structures – Binary Trees 30
- 31. Sequential RepresentationProperties of a heap represented as a complete binary tree:● If 2i ≤ n, the left son of node i is 2i; otherwise, node i has no left son● If 2i < n (2i + 1 ≤ n in Java), the right son of node i is 2i + 1; otherwise, node i has no right son● If 1 < i ≤ n, the father of node i is (i)/2 Data Structures – Binary Trees 31
- 32. Heaps and Sift-Up– Sift-Up - bottom-up, right-to-left process of converting a complete binary tree into a heap– Example Data Structures – Binary Trees 32
- 33. Sift-Up Java Implementation ● /* Converts an almost-heap on n nodes rooted at i into a heap */ ● public void siftUp (int i, int n) { – int k = key[i]; /* keep key at root of almost-heap */ – int child = 2 * i; /* left child */ – while (child <= n) { ● if (child < n && key[child+1]> key[child]) child++ ; ● /* if heap property is not satisfied */ ● if (key[child] > k){ – key[i] = key[child] ; /* Move the child up */ – i = child ; – child = 2 * i; /*Consider the left child again*/ – } else break; – } – key[i] = k ; /* this is where the root belongs */– } Data Structures – Binary Trees 33
- 34. Heapsort● Heapsort algorithm put forth in 1964 by R. W. Floyd and J. W. J. Williams 1. Assign the keys to be sorted to the nodes of a complete binary tree. 2. Convert this binary tree into a heap by applying sift-up to its nodes in reverse level order. 3. Repeatedly do the following until the heap is empty: a)Remove the key at the root of the heap (the smallest in the heap) and place it in the output. b)Detach from the heap the rightmost leaf node at the bottommost level, extract its key, and store this key at the root of the heap. c) Apply sift-up to the root to convert the binary tree into a heap once again. Data Structures – Binary Trees 34
- 35. Heapsort Java Implementation– /* Performs an in-place sort of the keys in O(nlog2n) time */ public void sort(){ int n = key.length-1; ● /* Convert key into almost-heap */ ● for (int i=n/2; i>1; i--){ – siftUp(i, n); ● } ● ● /* Exchange the current largest in key[1] with key[i] */ ● for (int i=n; i>1; i--){ – siftUp(1, i); – int temp = key[i]; – key[i] = key[1]; – key[1] = temp; ● }– } Data Structures – Binary Trees 35
- 36. Summary● A binary tree is an abstract data type that is hierarchical in structure● A binary tree could be classified as skewed, strict, full or complete● Link representation is the most natural way to represent a binary tree● Three ways to traverse a tree are preorder, inorder, and postorder● Binary tree traversals could be used in applications such as duplication of a binary tree and checking the equivalence of two binary trees● The heapsort algorithm utilizes the heap ADT and runs in O(n lg n) time Data Structures – Binary Trees 36

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