MELJUN CORTES Internet Lectures

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MELJUN CORTES Internet Lectures

MELJUN CORTES Internet Lectures

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  • 1. Introduction: I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNETThe Internet is a massive network comprised of thousands of computers located on almost every part of the world. These computers exchange information using a common language, or protocol.The Internet is not controlled by any one person or agency. It belongs to no one and has no physical location. Each computer connected to the Internet is a small part of the whole. Consequently,MELJUN CORTES the Internet is always evolving and being redefined.
  • 2. Introduction: I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET Information SuperhighwayThe INTERNET is a networkof all the computers in theworld. It provides a greatdeal of electronicinformation that is organizedin many different ways andrepresents many differenttopics. It is also consideredas the largest electroniclibrary in the world or betteryet a superhighway full ofinformation. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 3. Some Uses of the InternetExchange of information via globalcommunication links.Retrieve information on any topic foryour own use (in school, business, orjust about anything.)Add, include or share your ownideas, thoughts and creation, publishthem instantly to millions of peoplearound the world.Have fun browsing the ideas,thoughts and creation of others. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 4. I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET Brief History The Internet began in 1969 as ARPANET, an information network that connected military researchers, contractors, and universities. A unique feature of ARPANET was dynamic rerouting which sent information quickly to any site even when there were breaks in the network. Around 1980, universities first allowed students and staff to access ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for non-official purposes. This caused the population PREPARED uses MARIE ARPANET and BY: JYR of to grow unchecked. In 1990, ARPANET was VISTER - REYES
  • 5. LOOKING AT THE INTERNETExamining the growth of the Internet The Internet began as one computer network in 1969. Now it is comprised often of thousands of networks. Over 35 million people use the Internet, and currently, as estimated 160,000 new users join each day. The Internet is growing exponentially. The Internet is spreading over the entire planet; every continent is feeling its presence. Sites around the world contain valuable information pertaining to business, education, research, and entertainment. Using the PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE avenues for accessing Internet opens up all VISTER - REYES types of resources.
  • 6. LOOKING AT THE INTERNET Exploring the future of the Internet Because the Internet is not regulated, no one can predict what will happen in its future. It is expected, however, that over 100 million people world wide will be connected to the Internet by 1998. Video teleconferencing will become more feasible as software and hardware improve and allow virtual classrooms and offices to become a reality. The Internet will continue to be used more and more, and may, in some cases replace phones and fax machines. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 7. II. HOW INTERNET WORKSThe internet is primarily composedof telephone lines. When you opena connection and transferinformation, a piece of the networkor telephone lines is dedicated toyou even if you are using it. The different pieces of theinternet are connected by a set ofcomputers called “routers”, whichconnect networks together. Thesenetworks are sometimes Ethernet,sometimes Token Ring, andsometimes telephone lines.Therefore, the internet can getdata from many different places,distributed all over the world. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 8. II. HOW INTERNET WORKSThe internet uses a protocol (or rule)called IP (Internet Protocol) whichtakes care of the addressing of apacket and make sure that the routersknows to do it when arrives.The internet use address schemewhich works like the postal service.The postal address is composed ofthe name of the country, the region,the town, the street, and its numberand finally the name of a person ororganization. To avoid crisis innaming they create DOMAIN NAMESYSTEM (DNS) PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 9. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) ZONE - rightmost part of the name e.g., .net, .com, .org DOMAIN - Internet Service Provider from which the organization or person is connected. USER/ACCOUNT - defines the user name or account @ - “at” sign, the separator form the remaining nameExample: JRCCSD@MNL.SEQUEL.NET us e r s e parator zone domain PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 10. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS The internet uses a TransmissionControl Protocol (TCP), which preventsin the transmission of data. The TCPtransforms the data that needs to betransmitted into pieces “or packets”and add some information so that thereceiver of the packets is able to knowif a mistake appeared during thetransmission. Furthermore,transmitting small pieces of information(packets) prevents any user frommonopolizing the network, and allowsanyone to send data. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 11. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS The Internet Connection OptionsSetting up your Internet will yield threepossible connection paths.1. You can buy your own, directconnection to the Internet. This involves buying a computer(server), configuring it, and leasing somefiber optic cables or similar transmissionmedia. In this case your computerbecomes a node on the network. Youbecome part of the Internet by being apermanent domain on the Internet (adomain is a site of a host computer).2. You can choose a connectivity througha dial-up connection. When dialing for the Internet, you willlikely be offered a choice of what type ofdial-up account you want. If you want theworld-wide web, you need a provider whocan offer a SLIP (Serial Line BY: JYR MARIE PREPARED InternetProtocol) or PPP (Point-to-Point) VISTER - REYES
  • 12. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS The Internet Connection OptionsAnd renting use of their connection, they are popularly known asINTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER or ISP .What do you need to make this king of Internet connection? - PC - Modem (internal or external) - Telephone line - Browser - Internet Service Provider3. Another kind of a direct connection, is that your computer or yourlocal area network (LAN) is connected to the Internet all the time. To achieve a direct connection your LAN is connected to therouter, which carries signal that has been translated from yourcomputer’s language into the official language of the Internet, TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The router then isconnected, via a special high-speed telephone lines, to the nearestInternet. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 13. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS The Internet Connection OptionsAny computer that is connected to the Internet,or that is equipped with a modem, is capableof accessing the Internet. The Internet has itsown language, or protocol, called TCP/IP. TheInternet protocol enables computers of variousplatforms to freely exchange information.Connecting to the Internet requirescommunications hardware and software. Youshould purchase a modem that transmits dataat 14,400 bps (bits per second) or faster.Communications software is usually includedwith most modems. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 14. II. HOW INTERNET WORKS The Internet Connection OptionsAny computer that is connected to the Internet,or that is equipped with a modem, is capableof accessing the Internet. The Internet has itsown language, or protocol, called TCP/IP. TheInternet protocol enables computers of variousplatforms to freely exchange information.Connecting to the Internet requirescommunications hardware and software. Youshould purchase a modem that transmits dataat 14,400 bps (bits per second) or faster.Communications software is usually includedwith most modems. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 15. III. THE INTERNET SERVICES• NEWSGROUP - bulletin boards used to provide a central spotfor the exchange of information. In the internet, bulletin boardsare called Newsgroup. Each Newsgroup focuses on a particularinterest.• TELNET - Mail evolved spontaneously, as messagesaccompanying file transfers. Telnet Forums grew out of mail, andftp (File Transfer Protocol), evolved out of remote log-ins. Telnet(teletype network) allows you to perform real time login to remotecomputers. You can interact with another computer by using yourcomputer, which is as good ad a non-vocal phone conversation.The process can cover many different purposes. With FTP, adistant computer allows us to download/save large files from itsstorage area. With remote log-ins, we can actually run programson distant computers. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 16. III. THE INTERNET SERVICES They might let us browse information--librarycatalogs for example--as if we were there, real-time. No waiting for a librarian. FTP - One of the main reasons peopleconnect to the Internet is to download a copy ofa shareware program. The Internet uses FTP(File Transfer Protocol) to handle the processof transferring files over th Internet to yourcomputer. A protocol is like a program orlanguage enabling two or more computers totransmit data to each other. Some browse, likeNetscape, comes with built-in FTP support, soyou don’t need a separate FRP program todownload files from the Internet. FTP essentially does two things.First, it transmits large files, likes, like receivingmany-paged documents by fax. And second, it PREPARED BY: JYR MARIEhand-delivers it right to the file folder where you VISTER - REYES
  • 17. III. THE INTERNET SERVICES• GOPHER - Gopher’s basic interface is amenu. This program connects you to theGopherspace. Gopherspace was designedto create an interconnected index of filesand documents located on various Gopherservers throughout the Internet.• HTML - stands for HyperText MarkupLanguage and is based on SGML (StandardGeneralized Markup Language), standardfor describing documents. HTML is basicallya set of specifications for the formatting ofdocuments. Its documents are plain textsalso, known as ASCII files that can becreated using any text editor. BY: JYR MARIE PREPARED VISTER - REYES
  • 18. Exploring E-mail Looking at e-mail• E-MAIL - An electronic mail , refers to anycorrespondence sent between computers in anetwork. Computers can connect to an Internetmail server, a system that lets their computersend messages to any e-mail address in theworld. E-mail allows quick, paperlesscorrespondence that is faster than a faxmachine. E-mail is the Internet’s mail system. E-mail allows free, almost instantaneous contactbetween Internet users anywhere in the world. E-mail makes it possible for all types of computersto send messages and files to eachBY: JYR MARIE PREPARED other. VISTER - REYES
  • 19. Exploring E-mail Looking at e-mailAddresses are the key to e-mailcommunication. All Internet users have anaddress that directs their mail to a specificcomputer on the Internet. E-mail addressesare assigned to users by their Internetproviders.When sending e-mail, you must use theexact address or the message arestandardized and contain a User ID (useridentification) that tells the Internet exactlywhere to send the message. BY:REYES PREPARED VISTER - JYR MARIE
  • 20. III. THE INTERNET SERVICES World Wide Web (WWW)• WWW - World Wide Web is the mostvisual part of the Internet. It is also thefastest growing part of the Internet, whichmaybe because it is also easy to accessand to explore. It is based on the display ofWeb pages, which are computer documentsthat can present text, graphics, and sounds.A Web page represents a single location onthe Web. When you are on the Web, youcan usually only see on the Web page at atime. A Web site is made up of two or moreinterconnected Web pages presented as aunified place on the Web.PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 21. INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC)IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat and itcan be compared to CB (CITIZEN’S BAND)Radio. From an IRC server you elect to join achannel in IRC, each participants contributionsare displayed on the screen of all the otherstaking part in a conversation. In IRC you can join an existingconversation or try to start one of your own. Thetopics being discussed will be as buried as thepeople participating. When you join your name(Nickname) will be announced to others on thatchannel. IRC is definitely individual andsimultaneous. There can be few or manyparticipants at any givenPREPARED BY: JYR MARIE time. VISTER - REYES
  • 22. THE WORLD-WIDE- WEBHypertext - documents in an electronic formthat are linked together in some fashion.Hypermedia - multimedia consisting of text,graphics, audio, and video.World-Wide-Web (WWW) - informationspace on the Internet where hypermediadocuments are stored and can be retrievedby means of a unique addressing scheme. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 23. World-Wide Web Terminology Web Site - This refers to a computer linked to the Internet containing hypermedia that can be accessed from any other computer in the network by means of hypertext links. Hypertext Link - This refers to a pointer consisting of text or graphic that is used to access hypertext stored at any Web Site. The text is typically PREPARED BY: underlined and displayed in blue. JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 24. World-Wide Web TerminologyWeb Page - This refers to a hypermedia file stored at a Web site, which is identified by a unique address.Home Page - This refers to the first page of a Web site. Other pages at the site can be reached from the home page.URL (Universal Resource Locator) PREPARED BY: - This refers to the address of a Web JYR MARIE page, pronounced “earl.” VISTER - REYES
  • 25. World-Wide Web Terminology Protocol - is a set of standards that govern the communication of data. HTTP is the protocol for hypertext, and the letters stand for HyperText Transport Protocol. The protocol name is in lower-case, and it is followed by a colon (:) and two slashes(//). Domain name - is the address of the PREPARED BY: Web siteJYR MARIE where the Web page is stored. VISTER - REYES The
  • 26. World-Wide Web Terminology The name can contain periods (called dots0. The last three letters of the domain name specify the type of Web site; edu ( education), com (commercial), and gov (government) are the ones most often used. The domain name is followed by a single slash. Path - canPREPARED BY: identify a certain account at the Web JYR MARIE the HTML. site and VISTER - REYES
  • 27. World-Wide Web Terminology BROWSER - This refers to a software system that enables you to retrieve hypermedia by typing in search parameters or clicking on a graphic. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - This refers to a software that enables you to copy files onto your PREPARED BY: computer from any Web site. JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 28. THE WORLD-WIDE- WEBHypertext - documents in an electronic formthat are linked together in some fashion.Hypermedia - multimedia consisting of text,graphics, audio, and video.World-Wide-Web (WWW) - informationspace on the Internet where hypermediadocuments are stored and can be retrievedby means of a unique addressing scheme. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES
  • 29. INTERNET SECURITYFIREWALL - is a filter that restricts theflow of data between the firm’s internalnetwork and the Internet. It establishes onesafeguard for all computers on the networkrather than separate safeguards for eachcomputer. PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE VISTER - REYES