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DATABASE  SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
<ul><li>W e  A re  L earning  T oday </li></ul><ul><li>To recognize what a  database  is and identify where one might be u...
DATA ORGANIZATION CHARACTER  is the basic building block of  DATA  which  consist of upper & lower case letter numeric  di...
FILE   –  is a collection of related  RECORD . Example: 1.) A collection of all employee record for one company would be a...
DATA ORGANIZATION HIERARCHY OF DATA  : CHARACTER  – are combined to make a Fact. FACT  – are combined to make Record.  REC...
DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA...
MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database  :C:STLMASTE...
DATA ORGANIZATION DATA   – is a raw materials or input to any    data processing system .   - is considered as INPUT DATA....
DATA ORGANIZATION INFORMATION PROCESSING  – a special case of  data  processing  is the  procedure of transforming  data  ...
DATA ORGANIZATION Overview of DATA Processing Ex. Payroll System   INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Example: 1.) Pay Rate 2.) Hours...
INFORMATION SYSTEM Hardware ,  Software ,  People ,  Procedures ,  Policies ,  DATA  are combined to create an  INFORMATIO...
DATABASE  SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
Database Concepts Data vs.Information DBMS DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
Database <ul><li>Computerized  Record Keeping System </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of Data used by an organization to </li>...
Data <ul><li>Raw facts and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Can be of type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Information <ul><li>Processed Data </li></ul><ul><li>Used for Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is also INFORMATI...
MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database  :C:STLMASTE...
DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA...
A DataBase Management System     (DBMS) often just called ‘Database Software’ Sources Documents Like: Enrollment Forms Pri...
Database Terminology An  organised  collection (or Store) of data. A  collection  of  related records , such as all the pu...
The Russian Doll Analogy Fields  inside of… A  Database Tables inside of… Records  inside of… Data  inside of… MELJUN CORT...
DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA...
MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database  :C:STLMASTE...
What is a  DBMS ? A  collection of computer programs  that allow  storage ,  modification , and  extraction  of  informati...
Introduction To DBMS Concepts MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
What is a  DBMS ? A  collection of computer programs  that allow  storage ,  modification , and  extraction  of  informati...
Examples of DATABASE(1) <ul><li>Admission System  </li></ul><ul><li>Examination System  </li></ul><ul><li>Library System <...
Examples of DATABASE   (2) <ul><li>Patient Recording System </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory System </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and...
Data Management <ul><li>Manual Filing System </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Filing System </li></ul><ul><li>Database Syste...
Filing System <ul><li>Every Department/Company has its own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data File(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Library System  - Example Members Catalog Register Members Management Application Catalog Management Application Transacti...
Database System <ul><li>Single, Central, Large Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Library System  -  Example Members Management Application Catalog Management Application Transaction Management Applicatio...
DBMS <ul><li>Software Package that provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support to applications system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Advantages of DBMS (1) <ul><ul><li>Sharing of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of Redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Advantages of DBMS (2) <ul><ul><li>Better Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Disadvantages of DBMS <ul><ul><li>Higher Costs of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Kinds of Databases <ul><li>Relational: Oracle 9i/8i, SQL-Server 2000/7.0/6.5, </li></ul><ul><li>Teradata, Sybase(SQL Anywh...
Relational DBMS DATABASE SYSTEM TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE
Important RDBMS Objects <ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Procedu...
Networked DBMS MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
SQL : It is an acronym for Structured Query Language.  It is the language in which, the client sends the request  to the d...
<ul><li>PL/SQL: </li></ul><ul><li>It is an acronym for  Programming Language/Structured Query   Language  </li></ul><ul><l...
Database Design <ul><li>Database design  is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. This  logical da...
Database Objects A  Database Trigger  is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a...
In  database packages , the term Cursor refers to a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processi...
Normalization Why Normalize? Ideally, a  relational database  table should be designed in such a way as to exclude the pos...
TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT <ul><li>What is a Database Transaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>A  database transaction  is a unit of in...
ACID In   computer science ,  ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee t...
Kinds of Database  Consultants <ul><li>DATABASE Designers </li></ul><ul><li>is a person </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE Develop...
DATABASE Designers: <ul><li>These consultants Analyze, design the complete structure of the database. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
DATABASE Developers : <ul><li>These consultant write stored procedures, triggers, functions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Techni...
DB ADMINISTRATOR : <ul><li>These consultants’ profile includes installation, configuration, migration, backup, recovery op...
Related Skills in DATABASE  SYSTEM <ul><li>Data Warehousing   </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a data warehouse includes d...
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MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM

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MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LECTURE IN CS 104, major subject in BS in Computer Science.

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Transcript of "MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM "

  1. 1. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. <ul><li>W e A re L earning T oday </li></ul><ul><li>To recognize what a database is and identify where one might be used in and out of school. </li></ul><ul><li>To reconize the meaning of key database terms such as Table, Record, Field, Form, Report and Q uery . </li></ul><ul><li>To understand what querying a database is. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Basic Database concepts </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  3. 3. DATA ORGANIZATION CHARACTER is the basic building block of DATA which consist of upper & lower case letter numeric digit (0, 1, 2, etc.) or special character (-, +, -). CHARACTER are put together to form a FACT . FACT are called Field, Item, Word, or String of Character. FACT – a number, a name, or a combination of Character. RECORD – a collection of related FACTS. Example: 1.) Employee Record – it is collection of FACT about one employee. 2.) It indicates name, address, phone #, pay rate, earning made to date & so on. MELJUN CORTES
  4. 4. FILE – is a collection of related RECORD . Example: 1.) A collection of all employee record for one company would be an Employee File . 2.) Inventory File – collection of all inventory record for a particular company or organization. DATA ORGANIZATION Student ID# : 034456 Student Name : MELJUN CORTES Course : BSCS – 4 Birthday : October 2, 1975 Zodiac Sign : Libra Student ID# : 034456 Student Name : MELJUN CORTES Course : BSCS – 4 Birthday : October 2, 1975 Zodiac Sign : Libra Student ID# : 034456 Student Name : MELJUN CORTES Course : BSCS – 4 Birthday : October 2, 1975 Zodiac Sign : Libra FILE RECORD MELJUN CORTES
  5. 5. DATA ORGANIZATION HIERARCHY OF DATA : CHARACTER – are combined to make a Fact. FACT – are combined to make Record. RECORD – are combined to make File. FILE – are combined to make DataBase DataBase File Record Fact Character Note: The Heart of most Organization is DATA . DataBase – is a collection of integrated & related master file . Note: A data base is used as the raw material or input data for all of the application system perform by the organization. MELJUN CORTES
  6. 6. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA stored in a FIELD is a FIELD TYPE. The number of CHARACTER in a FIELD is its FIELD WIDTH. A DATABASE is composed of one or more TABLE. A DATABASE is a FILE which is created in automated DBMS SOFTWARE. FIELD NAME RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD TABLE 10,500 SAM MELBY Jan. 14,2010 104 89,500 MARTIN RIVERA Nov. 15,2009 103 78,452 PIOLO PASCAUL Dec. 12, 2009 102 12,500 MELJUN CORTES Oct 30, 2009 101     Amount Customer Date Number
  7. 7. MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database :C:STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Data Records : 268 records </li></ul><ul><li>Date of last update : 10/26/1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Filename of DATABASE FILE : STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Field Field Name Field Data Types Field Width Dec Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppNumber character 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppDate date 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name character 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address character 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LoanAmount numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebate numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. DATA ORGANIZATION DATA – is a raw materials or input to any data processing system . - is considered as INPUT DATA. - is manipulated to provide OUTPUT DATA. Example: Student Admission Form & Enrollment Form Pay Slip of an employee INFORMATION – when this OUTPUT DATA can be used to help people make economic decision making. DATA PROCESSING – is that procedures of transforming INPUT DATA into desired OUTPUT DATA. MELJUN CORTES
  9. 9. DATA ORGANIZATION INFORMATION PROCESSING – a special case of data processing is the procedure of transforming data into information which can be used to make better decision . Data Processing System – includes all people, procedures & computer device used to produce desirable output or meaningful information. Information Processing System – includes all people, procedures, computer devices used to procedure useful that can be used in decision making MELJUN CORTES
  10. 10. DATA ORGANIZATION Overview of DATA Processing Ex. Payroll System INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Example: 1.) Pay Rate 2.) Hours Worked 3.) Payroll Deduction Example: 1.) Classifying 2.) Sorting 3.) Calculating 4.) Storing 5.) Summarizing 6.) Reproducing Example: 1.) Pay Slip 2.) Payroll Report MELJUN CORTES
  11. 11. INFORMATION SYSTEM Hardware , Software , People , Procedures , Policies , DATA are combined to create an INFORMATION SYSTEM . The term INFORMATION SYSTEM is a generic reference to a Computer-Based System that provides the following: 1.) DATA PROCESSING – capabilities for a company . - DATA PROCESSING capability refers to the System’s ability to handle and process DATA . 2.) INFORMATION SYSTEM – people need to make better more informed Decisions. - The more sophisticated INFORMATION SYSTEMS provide Decision Makers with ON-DEMAND REPORTS and INQUIRY CAPABILITIES as well as routine periodic reports . MELJUN CORTES
  12. 12. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  13. 13. Database Concepts Data vs.Information DBMS DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  14. 14. Database <ul><li>Computerized Record Keeping System </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of Data used by an organization to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record its Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Decision Making </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  15. 15. Data <ul><li>Raw facts and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Can be of type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound, Image, Chart, Video </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  16. 16. Information <ul><li>Processed Data </li></ul><ul><li>Used for Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is also INFORMATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information creates DATA </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  17. 17. MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database :C:STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Data Records : 268 records </li></ul><ul><li>Date of last update : 10/26/1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Filename of DATABASE FILE : STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Field Field Name Field Data Types Field Width Dec Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppNumber character 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppDate date 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name character 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address character 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LoanAmount numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebate numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA stored in a FIELD is a FIELD TYPE. The number of CHARACTER in a FIELD is its FIELD WIDTH. A DATABASE is composed of one or more TABLE. A DATABASE is a FILE which is created in automated DBMS SOFTWARE. FIELD NAME RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD TABLE 10,500 SAM MELBY Jan. 14,2010 104 89,500 MARTIN RIVERA Nov. 15,2009 103 78,452 PIOLO PASCAUL Dec. 12, 2009 102 12,500 MELJUN CORTES Oct 30, 2009 101     Amount Customer Date Number
  19. 19. A DataBase Management System (DBMS) often just called ‘Database Software’ Sources Documents Like: Enrollment Forms Printed Documents Like: Assessment Forms MELJUN CORTES Input Processing Output Storing Querying Sorting FORMS REPORTS
  20. 20. Database Terminology An organised collection (or Store) of data. A collection of related records , such as all the pupil records in a class. A collection of related fields , such as a pupil’s record. An individual data item, such as Firstname or Date of Birth . Type of information in a field such as text , numeric , date and boolean (Yes/No) MELJUN CORTES Term Meaning Database Table Record Field Data Type
  21. 21. The Russian Doll Analogy Fields inside of… A Database Tables inside of… Records inside of… Data inside of… MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  22. 22. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Each ROW is a RECORD. Each COLUMN is a FIELD. COLUMN TITLES are FIELD NAME. The type of DATA stored in a FIELD is a FIELD TYPE. The number of CHARACTER in a FIELD is its FIELD WIDTH. A DATABASE is composed of one or more TABLE. A DATABASE is a FILE which is created in automated DBMS SOFTWARE. FIELD NAME RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD TABLE 10,500 SAM MELBY Jan. 14,2010 104 89,500 MARTIN RIVERA Nov. 15,2009 103 78,452 PIOLO PASCAUL Dec. 12, 2009 102 12,500 MELJUN CORTES Oct 30, 2009 101     Amount Customer Date Number
  23. 23. MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>EXAMPLE OF DATABASE STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure for Database :C:STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Data Records : 268 records </li></ul><ul><li>Date of last update : 10/26/1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Filename of DATABASE FILE : STLMASTER.dbf </li></ul><ul><li>Field Field Name Field Data Types Field Width Dec Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppNumber character 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppDate date 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name character 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address character 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LoanAmount numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebate numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance numeric 12 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty numeric 7 2 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What is a DBMS ? A collection of computer programs that allow storage , modification , and extraction of information from a database . There are many different types of DBMS ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. Examples-- Computerized library systems , automated teller machines, flight reservation systems, computerized parts inventory systems . MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  25. 25. Introduction To DBMS Concepts MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  26. 26. What is a DBMS ? A collection of computer programs that allow storage , modification , and extraction of information from a database . There are many different types of DBMS ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. Examples-- Computerized library systems , automated teller machines, flight reservation systems, computerized parts inventory systems . MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  27. 27. Examples of DATABASE(1) <ul><li>Admission System </li></ul><ul><li>Examination System </li></ul><ul><li>Library System </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll & Personnel Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting System </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel Reservation System </li></ul><ul><li>Airline Reservation System </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  28. 28. Examples of DATABASE (2) <ul><li>Patient Recording System </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory System </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and Purchase and Accounting System </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment System </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-Based Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Every Government, Military, Private and other organizations plus Individual can make use of DB </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  29. 29. Data Management <ul><li>Manual Filing System </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Filing System </li></ul><ul><li>Database Systems </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  30. 30. Filing System <ul><li>Every Department/Company has its own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data File(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application to Maintain Data File(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Computerized Data Maintenance System </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  31. 31. Library System - Example Members Catalog Register Members Management Application Catalog Management Application Transaction Management Application Lists of All Members, New Members, Joins between specified Dates. etc Lists of All Books, New Books, Issued Books, Lost Books,. etc Books Issued Today, Books Receipt Today, etc Files Applications Operations DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  32. 32. Database System <ul><li>Single, Central, Large Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have Logical Connections among data items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBA is responsible of its design, creation and maintenance </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES Is a PERSON
  33. 33. Library System - Example Members Management Application Catalog Management Application Transaction Management Application Lists of All Members, New Members, Joins between specified Dates. etc Lists of All Books, New Books, Issued Books, Lost Books,. etc Books Issued Today, Books Receipt Today, etc Members Catalog Register DBMS Database DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  34. 34. DBMS <ul><li>Software Package that provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support to applications system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Computerized DATA Handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-interface for on-line queries </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  35. 35. Advantages of DBMS (1) <ul><ul><li>Sharing of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of Redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-(unnecessary wastage of disk space) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of Data Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of Data Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-(Intra-record, inter-record, referential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing of Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster Development of New Applications </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  36. 36. Advantages of DBMS (2) <ul><ul><li>Better Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Views and Stored Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Data Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(query language- SQL programming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy of Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better backup and Recovery Procedures </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  37. 37. Disadvantages of DBMS <ul><ul><li>Higher Costs of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow Processing of Some Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Security Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Difficult Recovery </li></ul></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  38. 38. Kinds of Databases <ul><li>Relational: Oracle 9i/8i, SQL-Server 2000/7.0/6.5, </li></ul><ul><li>Teradata, Sybase(SQL Anywhere), </li></ul><ul><li>DB2, Informix </li></ul><ul><li>MS-Access, Foxpro 2.6/2.5,dbase IV/3 + </li></ul><ul><li>Network e.g. IDS Server </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox, FoxBase, Dbase3+, DbaseIV </li></ul><ul><li>DBU, Visual FoxPro, MS-Access – Windows 7 </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  39. 39. Relational DBMS DATABASE SYSTEM TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE
  40. 40. Important RDBMS Objects <ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Key </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Key </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  41. 41. Networked DBMS MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  42. 42. SQL : It is an acronym for Structured Query Language. It is the language in which, the client sends the request to the database for data Eg. Select name, address From emp Where city = ‘BUTUAN CITY’ SQL : MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  43. 43. <ul><li>PL/SQL: </li></ul><ul><li>It is an acronym for Programming Language/Structured Query Language </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from writing the SQL you also have the programming language constructs like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If then else (checking conditions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looping (Executing the set of statements more that once) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception and error handling (Taking care of run time errors) </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  44. 44. Database Design <ul><li>Database design is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. This logical data model contains all the needed logical and physical design choices and physical storage parameters needed to generate a design in a Data Definition Language, which can then be used to create a database. A fully attributed data model contains detailed attributes for each entity. </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the data to be stored in the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the relationships between the different data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superimpose a logical structure upon the data on the basis of these relationships. </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  45. 45. Database Objects A Database Trigger is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a particular table in a database. Triggers can restrict access to specific data, perform logging, or audit data modifications. A Database View is a virtual or logical table composed of the result set of a query. Unlike ordinary tables (base tables) in a relational database, a view is not part of the physical schema: it is a dynamic, virtual table computed or collated from data in the database. Changing the data in a table alters the data shown in the view In relational databases , SQL databases, and flat file databases, a Table is a set of data elements (values) that is organized using a model of horizontal rows and vertical columns. MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  46. 46. In database packages , the term Cursor refers to a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. A Transaction Log (also database log or binary log) is a history of actions executed by a database management system to guarantee ACID properties over crashes or hardware failures. Physically, a log is a file of updates done to the database, stored in stable storage. A Database Index is a data structure that improves the speed of operations in a table. Indexes can be created using one or more columns, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient ordering of access to records. A Stored Procedure is a subroutine available to applications accessing a relational database system. Stored procedures (sometimes called a sproc or SP) are actually stored in the database. Database Objects DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  47. 47. Normalization Why Normalize? Ideally, a relational database table should be designed in such a way as to exclude the possibility of update, insertion, and deletion anomalies. The normal forms of relational database theory provide guidelines for deciding whether a particular design will be vulnerable to such anomalies. It is possible to correct an unnormalized design so as to make it adhere to the demands of the normal forms: this is called normalization. A table that is not sufficiently normalized can suffer from logical inconsistencies of various types, and from anomalies involving data operations causing Update, Insert and Delete Anomalies. MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  48. 48. TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT <ul><li>What is a Database Transaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>A database transaction is a unit of interaction with a database management system or similar system that is treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions. In general, a database transaction must be atomic, meaning that it must be either entirely completed or aborted. Ideally, a database system will guarantee the properties of Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability (ACID) for each transaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A Simple Transaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin the transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute several queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commit the transaction </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES DATABASE SYSTEM
  49. 49. ACID In computer science , ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction. Atomicity - Atomicity refers to the ability of the DBMS to guarantee that either all of the tasks of a transaction are performed or none of them are. Consistency - Consistency refers to the database being in a legal state when the transaction begins and when it ends. This means that a transaction cannot break the rules, or integrity constraints, of the database. Isolation - Isolation refers to the ability of the application to make operations in a transaction appear isolated from all other operations Durability -Durability ensures that the results of a completed transaction are permanent and can survive future system and media failures; that is, once they are done, they can not be undone. DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  50. 50. Kinds of Database Consultants <ul><li>DATABASE Designers </li></ul><ul><li>is a person </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE Developers </li></ul><ul><li>is a person </li></ul><ul><li>DBA (Data Base Administrator) </li></ul><ul><li>is a person </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  51. 51. DATABASE Designers: <ul><li>These consultants Analyze, design the complete structure of the database. </li></ul><ul><li>They design Tables, Views, Normalization, ER Diagram, Integrity constraints, etc. </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  52. 52. DATABASE Developers : <ul><li>These consultant write stored procedures, triggers, functions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical terms found in the resume of such consultants — </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Packages </li></ul><ul><li>Unix Shell Scripting </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  53. 53. DB ADMINISTRATOR : <ul><li>These consultants’ profile includes installation, configuration, migration, backup, recovery operations </li></ul><ul><li>Various Tasks of the DBA are: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Granting access </li></ul><ul><li>b) User creation and deletion </li></ul><ul><li>c) Performance tuning </li></ul><ul><li>d) Query optimization </li></ul>DATABASE SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  54. 54. Related Skills in DATABASE SYSTEM <ul><li>Data Warehousing </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a data warehouse includes development of systems to extract data from operating systems plus installation of a warehouse database system that provides managers flexible access to the data </li></ul><ul><li>Data Mining </li></ul><ul><li>A class of database applications that look for hidden patterns in a group of data that can be used to predict future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Data Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of data objects and their relationships to other data objects. Data modeling is often the first step in database design and object-oriented programming as the designers first create a conceptual model of how data items relate to each other. Data modeling involves a progression from conceptual model to logical model to physical schema. </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
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  79. 79. THE END MELJUN CORTES
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