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  • 1. White PaperAkamai ADSMaking the Case for Multi-CampaignRevenue Attribution
  • 2. Table of ContentsAttribution ChAllenges still AffeCt Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Consumption of digitAl Content drives the Customer pAthwAy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2the limitAtion of meAsuring CliCks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2view-throughs drive Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Consumers Are much more Apt to “view-through” Ads than Click-through 3 doubleClick survey bears out value of view-through 3proven impACt of displAy Ads on sAles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4working through ChAnnel overlAp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4meAsuring inCrementAlity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5A review of populAr Attribution methods And prACtiCes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Attribution best practices 6AkAmAi’s reCommended Attribution method: equAl weighting ofChAnnels And progrAms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 working with order ids to Arrive at equal weighting 9ConClusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
  • 3. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 1“Multi-campaign revenue attribution: The practice of attributing credit to all marketing exposures that led to a Web site [visit] and subsequently resulted in a conversion event, rather than attributing all credit to the exposure immediately preceding the conversion.” —Forrester Research Attribution Challenges Still Affect Advertisers Interactive marketing sells itself on the promise of accountability and ROI measurement. Remember why you’re advertising. At the same time, there continue to be challenges in solving department store pioneer You are not advertising for clicks. John Wanamaker’s problem: “Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the What you’re advertising for is to trouble is I don’t know which half.” sell me stuff or change perception, and that’s what we need to be US Advertisers will spend roughly $25B on all online marketing initiatives, including measuring against. $4.7B on display ads, in 2009. In a highly uncertain economy, advertisers are showing —Carrie Frolich, Managing Director that they trust the measurability and overall ROI enjoyed within online advertising — Digital, Mediaedge: cia spending online still increases, albeit more slowly than it used to, whereas traditional advertising channels like radio, print, catalog, direct mail and broadcast television are seeing general declines in spending. With online advertising now a larger share of overall ad spend than radio and print, marketers have generally grown savvier about how to allocate online ad dollars. How- ever, in 2009 many firms still allocate dollars to their marketing efforts in “buckets” — companies or agencies might have a display bucket, a search bucket, a rich media bucket, and an emerging media bucket. Each of those buckets has a budget and, gen- erally, a team charged with defense of that budget. This method of allocating dollars originates from when advertising was strictly “offline.” For example, advertisers might have put money against TV, radio, and print campaigns. Overlap was not a concern — most media mix models treated the inputs to the model as independent of each other. This made sense for broadcast media; if you saw a TV ad for a particular product, it didn’t change the amount of radio ads you heard about that product. What did advertisers do when, for example, they ran ads on both TV and radio? How could advertisers ensure no overlap, or trace a sale specifically to TV or radio? They didn’t. But now that the internet offers the promise of greater trackability, advertisers have fallen into the trap of trying to measure everything, and we feel like that’s an im- possible standard. Traditional marketing channels like television, radio and print weren’t held to that standard, and we don’t think digital marketing should be, either.
  • 4. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 2Consumption of Digital ContentDrives the Customer PathwayThe main argument against standard “bucketing” of budget allocation is that it fails totake into account how people consume digital content and advertising. Smart market-ers understand how to allocate money against “the consumer journey” which can in-clude visits to web sites, exposure to display ads, multiple searches, etc. There’s a majorchange at play here, and one that many companies haven’t fully built into the way theymeasure their online marketing efforts. Digital marketing is different than broadcastmarketing in one very important sense: what one consumes digitally influences whatone consumes in the future.1 That consumption is akin to a consumer ‘journey’ andsmart marketers must understand that advertising needs to take into account that a)there is a journey and b) that consumers may be at different stages of that journey. “Digital works differently. If someone sees a display ad, they will be more likely to search online for that product. Because they searched, they are more likely to go to the product’s Web site. Because they went to the product’s Web site, they are more likely to be retargeted with digital display advertising. In other words, consumption of media changes what digital ads a person consumes. We believe this is what’s causing the problem. “—Andy Fisher, Director of Analytics, Razorfish2For example, imagine that an advertiser is running display ads and bidding on paidsearch terms, and sales go up 20%. Since display drives some level of search, the ad-vertiser doesn’t know how to allocate the impact of each media properly. Does displaydrive 8% and search drive 12%? Is it even possible to know, specifically, how eachchannel drives conversions? Yet, without apportioning some credit to both campaignssimultaneously, companies run the risk of losing their synergistic effects.When a Microsoft Atlas Institute study examined the 90-day timeline for a typicalpurchase funnel, it found that companies disregard up to 94% of the data availableto them when assessing online campaigns. The study also revealed that marketers at-tribute far too much weight to activity occurring at the very bottom of the sales funnel,concentrating heavily on the last ad clicked, which often appears on a search engine.That’s almost certainly the wrong approach. And over-reliance on the click as the be-alland end-all of online marketing may in fact be preventing marketers from developingmore accurate measures of success.3The Limitation of Measuring ClicksGian Fulgoni, chairman of comScore, gives a clear and impassioned argument for Why should the Internet bemoving beyond the click-through as a metric for online advertising success. In a June measured by this immediate2009 interview with eMarketer, Fulgoni said “the problem arose when the Internet was response metric called the ‘click’?”first evolving as an advertising medium. The technology community at the time had avery short-term view of how advertising works that was direct-response-oriented, notbranding-oriented.” The sole purpose of ads initially was to get people to “click here.”Because the click-through rate was so easy to measure, it got the industry into adirect response groove, which has in turn led to a serious undervaluing of view-basedadvertising online. “Let’s just accept that the click is not telling the whole story,” saidMr. Fulgoni. “We don’t hold traditional media to that same level of accountability. We
  • 5. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 3don’t say you need to immediately pick up a phone and call somebody if you see aTV ad or if you’re listening to a radio ad or read something in a magazine. Why shouldthe Internet be measured by this immediate response metric called the ‘click’?”4A good “click rate” doesn’t guarantee any further action down the lead/sales funnel.Yes, it helps get the lead to the next step, but an impression can too — at a later,more convenient time when the customer has decided to come back to the site ontheir own terms.View-Throughs Drive ConversionsConsumers Are Much More Apt to “View-Through” Ads thanClick-ThroughShow of hands, please. How many times have you seen a banner ad with a compelling Display Supports Searchoffer from a preferred advertiser, only to visit that advertiser’s site at a time more Display + Search Provides Higher ROIconvenient for you? Chances are that you were on a Web site for one purpose,but saw an ad for another. That’s because, for conversion effectiveness, behavioral “Users exposed to both search andtargeting has replaced contextual advertising. display ads convert at a higher rate: 22% better than search alone, andAds and content have largely been decoupled with the advent of behavioral targeting. 400% better than display only.”Only a few years ago, it was assumed that ads placed contextually would perform the —The Atlas Institute, “The combinedbest and drive conversions right then and there among interested consumers. That impact of Search and Displaysupposed effectiveness provided added momentum to the last-click attribution idea advertising – Why advertisers should— until people realized that contextual advertising wasn’t all that effective. Someone measure across channels”reading about Tiger Woods wasn’t necessarily a golfer, and someone reading aboutAustralia wasn’t necessarily in-market for airline tickets to Sydney. Display + Search Provides Improved BrandingSo the notion of ad context has been largely replaced with a focus on ad relevance— placing ads where your target market and in-market consumers happen to be. “Exposure to a display advertisementWhat this also means is that it’s just as likely you’ll be served a relevant ad at a specific increased related trademark termmoment when you’re not ready to buy that instant. After all, ad relevance drives searches (brand, company orconversion — yet people tend to convert at a time more convenient to them. You product names) by an averagemight be in-market, and see an ad, for a diamond ring or a trip to the Caribbean, of 26 percent.”but maybe you’re not ready at that moment to buy. There will likely be a lag between —Yahoo/ComScore study of Fortuneexposure to the ad and conversion, and it’s possible you’ll get back to that advertiser’s 100 advertisers, “Close the Loop:site via a search. But the initial ad — and the subsequent view-through — did play a Understanding Search and Display”part in the purchase consideration.Increasingly, advertisers have come to recognize that the effectiveness of online adsincreasingly comes in the form of that “view-through” — that is, when people visitan advertised website after seeing an online ad but without having clicked on the ad,navigating directly to the site on their own instead. In some cases, they do so momentsafter seeing the ad. In other cases, they might do so days or weeks later.DoubleClick Survey Bears Out Value of View-ThroughDoubleClick’s Touchpoints IV survey from 2006 asked consumers how often they werelikely to take a variety of actions in response to different forms of advertising. Withregard to online ads, twice as many people said they had at least sometimes “noticea web ad, do not click but visit the advertised site later” (61%) compared to thosewho said they click on banner ads at least sometimes (30%). This 2:1 ratio in favor ofview-through over click-through is consistent with what DoubleClick saw from actualcampaign performance metrics with many of their clients. Strikingly, an even largernumber (67%) said that they sometimes visited a physical store after seeing web ads.5
  • 6. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 4Proven Impact of Display Ads on SalesFor eCommerce sites, it has long been a challenge to quantify the impact of onlineadvertising on sales. It is commonly known that a purchase rarely takes place duringthe same session as an exposure to an ad, and even more rarely as a result of a click. Itis therefore critical to observe the latent effects of advertising exposure on purchasing,which often extend to days or even weeks beyond the ad exposure. In examining theimpact of display ads on buyer penetration, we see that the percentage lift is muchhigher online than offline, with an average online buyer penetration lift of 42.1%,compared to a lift of 10.1% in offline buyer penetration.6 However, because the basesare larger for offline purchasing, the net impact in new or additional buyers is largeroffline than online. Graphic reproduced from comScore’s How Online Advertising Works, Dec. 2008, page 14.Working through Channel OverlapAccording to a 2007 study by the Atlas Institute “How Overlap Impacts Reach,Frequency and Conversions,” it was asserted that 90 percent of the consumers thatconverted were reached by placements other than the last ad seen, and that far toooften the proper credit for the sale is inappropriately given to search.7Marketers spend money on multiple online marketing channels, including online ads,email, comparison shopping engines, affiliate marketing, and (of course) search. Eachchannel is somehow tied to a mechanism to track return on investment (ROI), usuallythrough a conversion tracking device of some kind. Yet marketers struggle to maximizeincremental revenue (sales/leads which they would otherwise not get) without canniba-lizing their own search campaigns or threatening affiliate-generated sales. Marketersare being challenged to understand which acquisition and retention strategy is workingbest as compared to others, in an environment where “channel overlap” is getting inthe way of true apples-to-apples return on marketing spend analysis.8 The beauty andcurse of online marketing is that everything is traceable down to the last detail; eachand every impression and click can be attributed to a particular referrer. Merchants nolonger have to blindly spend money; they can see the effectiveness of each channelwithin a very short period of time and can adjust their budgets accordingly. But thecurse now lies in the idea that everything is measurable. Merchants have forgotten (orconveniently ignore) that a customer is buying from them as a result of having been
  • 7. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 5exposed to this particular merchant from a number of different sources. A customerbuys from this specific merchant because they have seen their TV ad, they have comeacross their press placements, they saw them coming up top on price comparisons,they have been given a discount voucher, and they have been recommended by anumber of sites the customer has visited. What resulted in the order? What made thecustomer actually buy from this merchant? The analysis says it was as a result of thecustomer going in Google and typing the merchant’s name. But that doesn’t take intoaccount that the customer used a discount code, that the customer had run a pricecomparison, that the customer had been exposed to offline advertising. But all thischannel overlap is not yet measurable. The merchant can’t attribute the order to onesource; the order is the effect of a number of sources affecting in their own way theconsumer’s behavior.9 In fact, consumers amass a median of 5.5 ad events in the final48 hours before conversion alone.10The above example is actually far too simple to properly empha-size the problem.When you start pulling in other marketing channels, it’s even more complicated. Howdo you compare effectiveness of all your search efforts (organic site optimization, paidinclusion, and bid optimization) against affiliate programs and advertising across thirtydifferent Web sites?You may be able to use a back-end analytics solution to resolve such a conflict so longas you’ve gone through the trouble of using unique click-URLs for each marketingchannel, and you’ve configured the system properly and followed strict traffickingrules. The industry-accepted counting methodology is to credit the conversion to themost recent channel interaction.11 The problem is this methodology ignores marketingoverlap contributions. Customers would never have searched had they not seen the ads.Measuring IncrementalityA simple way to measure online advertising effectiveness without concern forattribution is to review marketing program spend based on the total number of “new-to-file” customers that came to an advertiser during a given marketing campaign orperiod. Because the lifetime value of new-to-file customers for many retailers can easilyexceed $1000 or more, advertisers can often accept breaking even on online marketingcampaigns (ROI of 0%), assuming that over the life of the customer, profit will begenerated.If online marketing efforts bring in a satisfactory rate of new-to-file customers, andthese new customers prove to have solid, repeat purchase rates, you can grow businessmore rapidly by granting online programs a lower efficiency (that is, a reduced returnon ad spend), which in turn raises the maximum allowable CPA, letting you buymore traffic. Look at your average order size, the average length of your customer’s“lifetime” and the average number of repeat transactions a customer makes, anduse those to determine what your allowable CPA will be. This will help you put anappropriate value, and price tag, on incremental customers.
  • 8. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 6A Review of Popular Attribution Practicesand MethodsAttribution is the exercise of: monitoring the entire customer conversation, assessingvalue to every step of the conversation, and creating actionable strategies to optimizeyour marketing mix. The questions you ought to be asking are: which activities areinitiating, influencing, and closing the sale?Attribution Best Practices • very advertiser is unique. Assume you will need to test to find your sweet spot. E *Recently, Yahoo has put forward a concept of “goals” and “assists” • ocus on profit and not simply revenue. Impact affects metrics like average order F when measuring the effectiveness of value and average order size as much as total revenue and sales volume. online marketing. Where goals equal conversions, assists show advertisers • ssume organizational challenges exist. Continually compare “new world” A the total number of times that one to “old world” ad/campaign/keyword contributed • liminate disparate data. Run all marketing channels through a consistent E to the conversion of another ad/ analysis tool. campaign/keyword. Akamai considers this a potentially excitingThere are four generally accepted methods* to attribute revenue within online new way to measure online adadvertising: Last Click, Last Touch, First Touch, and Equal Weighting. effectiveness, but we haven’t seen enough evidence of it in practice to1 Last Click – This model allocates all the revenue credit to the last click the consumer draw conclusions. makes before the sale is made. This attribution model was originally popularized by search and the initial understanding of display advertising as a mere direct response mechanism. We feel that all too often, the “last click” continues to get too much credit for an online sale, when consumers are actually most influenced by widespread overlapping advertising across multiple sites. In addition, it’s in the larger search engines’ interest to maintain the last click methodology, as this model disproportionately credits paid search. Joe Laszlo of the Internet Advertising Bureau recently stated that “the last click assumes that people come to searching, and clicking, on an advertiser’s paid or organic search result without any historical online interaction with that company’s brand. That “last click” credit makes it look like search performs spectacularly well. And that’s not to imply that search doesn’t perform well. But some of the credit that search gets probably belongs to display advertising campaigns that some-body saw earlier and other things that have an influence on a consumer’s ultimate decision. For example, you could have an online campaign and spend half of your budget on search, 30% on display and 20% on video ads. A marketer wants to understand how each of those things influenced consumers that followed through on the message. Effectiveness shouldn’t be measured based on the last thing that inspired a user to click.”122 Last Touch – This model provides the revenue credit to the last time the consumer interacts with the brand before the sale is made, whether click- or view-based. Many marketers often use last touch attribution to apply the entire weight of a specific customer response to one media. Though the last-touch model is slightly more equitable than the last-click method, this approach ignores all prior touches and all concurrent touches by other media.
  • 9. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 7 Most companies use (whether they know it or not) a ‘last touch’ attribution model. That is, the marketing event immediately preceding the conversion gets counted with the full value of the new customer. According to a recent CoreMetrics report, last touch data is valuable information and it will serve marketers well in understanding what factors drive conversion. However, this information presents an incomplete picture. Analysis based solely on last influence is reported to miss crediting 64 percent of all marketing activities with value, and this number increases to 70 percent for high-value visitors. While looking at the last touch is good for telling you which campaigns directly influenced — or triggered — conversions, this data point ignores all other link click- throughs that occurred before the last one. If this data is used alone, you might tend to under-invest in campaigns that are not “last” and lean toward marketing that is exclusively late in the sales cycle. That also tends to give short shrift to acquisition-related activities, by ignoring marketing channels that drive sales at the top of the marketing funnel. Moreover, given the nature of high-value customer behavior, you run the risk of under-investing in campaigns targeted toward this highly valuable visitor segment.3 First touch – This model, though not tremendously commonplace, allocates all the revenue credit to the first interaction with the brand — it assumes that the first touch sets into motion the consumer purchase funnel and that without that particular touch, the funnel would not have started at that moment. Like last touch, first touch fails to take into account all of the other factors that may go into a conversion over time. Here’s an extreme example: in any exposure, you can “attribute” value from a previous ad exposure. Suppose your grandmother was exposed to a Tide commercial and became a loyal Tide user 60 year ago. As result, your mother and all of her children are Tide users. By that logic, you should then “attribute” generations of Tide purchases to that campaign of 60 years ago.4 Equal weighting – This method gives equal credit for a conversion to all marketing programs that a consumer was exposed to. If a consumer received a catalog, saw a display ad and clicked on a search result, all three marketing programs would be given an equal percentage of the revenue credit (33%) for the conversion. As a result, advertisers can give credit to all their marketing channels that were an integral part of the customer purchase funnel. Looking at the programs with an equally weighted method may highlight the high costs in some marketing channels. But that’s ok, as long as the overall ROI is penciling. Redeveloping the ROI baselines for each marketing channel and understanding the fluctuation of each program’s ROI will give insight into the media mix performance. If the ROI of a certain marketing channel has decreased over time, the marketer can live with the reduced return or can shift budgets to a different marketing channel. Test to see if the new channel can, at a lower cost, replace the revenue from the old channel.
  • 10. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 8Akamai’s Recommended AttributionMethod: Equal Weighting ofChannels and ProgramsTo be sure, attribution methods are rife with weaknesses and any single method mayor may not be appropriate for a given use case. It’s instructive to imagine a few slightlydifferent conversion scenarios to see how attribution credit can change. How wouldyou attribute revenue in each case below?Scenario 1: a consumer is exposed to an advertiser’s banner ad, then five days latersearches for that advertiser’s branded term, clicks on the paid search result, andpurchases a camera.Scenario 2: a consumer is exposed to an advertiser’s banner, immediately does asearch and visits that site, but leaves without buying. Five days later, he searches again,clicks on the advertiser’s paid search result, and purchases a camera.Scenario 3: a consumer does a search for cameras, clicks on the advertiser’s link, andleaves without buying. The next day, he is exposed to a banner ad from that advertiser,clicks on that link, and buys a camera on that site.Scenario 4: a consumer does a search for cameras, exposed to a display ad the nextday, and then exposed to that same display ad on an affiliate publisher’s page two dayslater. He clicks on that ad and purchases a camera a short while later.Regardless of your attribution choices above, each scenario or permutation wouldlikely give different credits to the display ad and the search term running at the timeof conversion. And then there’s the issue of creating robust regression models oneach permutation and applying the proper percentage to each model, an effort neverattempted before in any other marketing channel.Most advertisers will review marketing channels independently and as part of theoverall marketing mix. They’ll assign importance to ’new-to-files’, or re-activations,or repeat customers, or whatever makes sense for their business at that given time.Applying different real-world permutations on a given transaction makes it apparentthat attribution is, as of today, a particularly nettlesome problem, unsolvable for allbut the most sophisticated, deep-pocketed companies . But we can say with a certainamount of confidence that all marketing programs running at the time of a conversionlikely have a hand in that conversion.For these reasons, we believe it makes the most sense to give equal weighting acrossboth programs and channels to provide advertisers with the most blended view acrossthe board.
  • 11. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 9Working with Order IDs to Arrive at Equal WeightingMost companies report to us that tracking click-based revenue is fairly easy to do, butthat they’re unclear on how to measure view-based revenue. First, we are interested inanswering the following question: what formula do you use, or plan to use, to calcu-late return?1 First, you can determine what metric is most important to your business. Common choices include return on ad spend, total top line revenue, or number of new cus- tomers (and attaching a lifetime value per customer to that number).2 Review all order IDs and divide into one of two camps: click-based conversions or view-based conversions.3 Allocate 100% credit to acerno for all click-based revenue.4 For view-based conversions, it’s important to decide what amount you can pay per conversion to meet your ROI goal. First, determine what percentage of an order you can afford to pay acerno to hit your metric, and then back out what percentage of view-based conversions you are willing to pay for.5 When reviewing order IDs we recommend that you review total channel and pro- gram overlap.6 We recommend that you apply equal weighting to all channels and programs to ensure that you are not missing any conversions.Using Equal Weighting to Calculate Program Cost and ROILet’s take a look at an example: by equally splitting revenue 3 ways the revenue be-comes mutually exclusive to each program. Each marketing program then needs to betied back to a specific ROI.For instance, let’s assign ROI goals to each program: we’ll hold the acerno campaign to4:1, search will be held to 7:1, and the affiliate program will be held to 5:1. The cost ofeach program is tied back to the revenue each program drove to determine an overallprogram ROI.Example: 1 order = $120• Revenue credit for acerno: $40• Revenue credit for search: $40• Revenue credit for affiliate: $40• Acerno cost: $7 CPA• Search cost: $1 CPC• Affiliate cost: $5 CPA• Acerno ROAS: 5.71 ($40 divided by $7)• Search ROAS: 40 ($40 divided by $1)• Affiliate ROAS: 8 ($40 divided by $5)In this example all of the programs are within the client’s acceptable ROAS per market-ing program. Even if you were to roll up the total cost per order ($120 divided by $13),this program enjoys better than a 9:1 return.
  • 12. Akamai Ads: making the Case for multi-Campaign revenue Attribution 10 Conclusion Coming up with the right attribution method is no easy task for advertisers. The rapid introduction of online media channels brings new dynamics into measuring your marketing mix. Marketing channel effectiveness is shifting based on changes in consumer media consumption habits and operational costs. Online marketing purchase funnel overlap and online consumption habits have disrupted traditional attribution methods for new and existing customers. Technology solutions are being developed to offer tracking solutions for new marketing channels, but it will cost the advertisers time to implement these solutions. In the mean time the pressure on advertisers to understand their marketing mix and hit their success metrics is only getting heavier due to the constantly changing marketplace. Reviewing your marketing program from a macro-level to ensure the overall ROI is working and managing at a micro-level to keep each marketing channel programs’ perfor- mance in check will be extremely important. Applying the equally weighted attribution method at the channel and program level will provide the clearest analysis. Akamai will continue to partner with advertisers to understand their marketing mix strategies and help drive transactions to achieve revenue goals.1 Razorfish Digital Outlook 2009, pg. 124. Razorfish Digital Outlook 2009, pg. 124.3 Online Media Daily, March 9 2009. Microsoft Confirms Marketing Funnel Remains Relevant. showArticle&art_aid=1017234 eMarketer interview, Gian Fulgoni: Click? So What! July 2009. DoubleClick Touchpoints IV: How Digital Media Fit into Consumer Purchase Decisions, November 2006. pointsIV_0611.pdf6 comScore, How Online Advertising Works, Dec 2008, page 147 Microsoft Atlas, How Overlap Impacts Reach, Frequency and Conversions, 20078 Jeff Molander, from, “How to Balance Search and Affiliate Marketing Strategies” how-to-balance-search-and-affiliate-marketing-strategies/9 James Little, Affiliate Marketing Blog, De-duping and brand name bidding. Feb. 2008.,10 Microsoft Atlas Institute. The Long Road to Conversion: The Consumer Purchase Funnel. 2007.11 Eric Picard, Solving Marketing Channel Conflict. March 2004. eMarketer interview with Joe Laszlo. Going Beyond the Last Click. May 2009. Akamai DifferenceAkamai® provides market-leading managed services for powering rich media, dynamic transactions, and enterprise applications online. Having pioneered the content delivery marketone decade ago, Akamai’s services have been adopted by the world’s most recognized brands across diverse industries. The alternative to centralized Web infrastructure, Akamai’sglobal network of tens of thousands of distributed servers provides the scale, reliability, insight and performance for businesses to succeed online. Akamai has transformed theInternet into a more viable place to inform, entertain, interact, and collaborate. To experience The Akamai Difference, visit Technologies, Inc.U.S. Headquarters International Offices8 Cambridge Center Unterfoehring, Germany Bangalore, IndiaCambridge, MA 02142 Paris, France Sydney, Australia ©2009 Akamai Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission is prohibited.Tel 617.444.3000 Milan, Italy Beijing, China Akamai and the Akamai wave logo are registered trademarks. Other trademarksFax 617.444.3001 London, England Tokyo, Japan contained herein are the property of their respective owners. Akamai believes that theU.S. toll-free 877.4AKAMAI Madrid, Spain Seoul, Korea information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date; such information(877.425.2624) Stockholm, Sweden Singapore is subject to change without