Macedonia PRECEDE Situation report 31 05 2013

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Мacedonia PRECEDE - situation report 2013

Мacedonia PRECEDE - situation report 2013

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  • 1. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page1 P R E C E D E Partnership for Reconciliation through Early Childhood Education and Development in Europe EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT MACEDONIA SITUATION REPORT PRECEDE Partnership for Reconciliation in Early Childhood Education and Development in Europe First Children's Embassy in the World Megjashi - Republic of Macedonia Skopje, Macedonia 2013
  • 2. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page2 Table of Contents 1.Introduction .......................................................................................................................3 1.1 Brief description of methodology .................................................................................. 4 1.2 Brief description of Macedonia...................................................................................... 5 1.3 What is being done well in ECED in Macedonia ............................................................. 8 2.Laws, Policies, and Strategies ............................................................................................16 2.1 International ................................................................................................................ 16 2.2 Regional ....................................................................................................................... 25 2.3 National – Macedonia & harmonization between laws and policies ........................... 26 2.3.1 Macedonian National Strategies for Children ...................................................... 33 2.3.2 Legal regulations mechanisms (punishment ...) ................................................... 39 2.3.3 Reconciliation and peace-building initiatives in Macedonia................................. 39 2.4 Child Protection ........................................................................................................... 44 2.4.1 laws related children & preschool education....................................................... 44 2.4.2 Violence, abuse and neglect ................................................................................ 46 2.4.3 Sexual abuse of children ...................................................................................... 48 2.4.4 Chemical dependence ......................................................................................... 49 2.4.5 Media role, computers and various computer/video games ................................50 2.4.6 Child Helplines...................................................................................................... 53 2.4.7 Computers and various computer/video games .................................................. 54 2.4.8 NGOs and networks for children's rights.............................................................. 56 3.Services for Young Children and Pregnant Mothers............................................................58 3.1 Services available for young children and pregnant mothers .................................... 58 3.2 Poverty alleviation ....................................................................................................... 60 3.3 Financial support for parents of young children......................................................... 62 3.4. Schooling and related education services .................................................................. 73 3.5. Preschool education, programs.................................................................................. 73 3.6. Health Services ........................................................................................................... 91 3.7. Social policy.................................................................................................................. 97 3.8. Culture and information............................................................................................. 100 3.9. Policies and practices for pregnant mothers.............................................................. 100 4.Quality System in Macedonia..........................................................................................101 4.1 Quality/standards in Civil Society Organizations at the country Level ....................... 101 4.2 Quality assurance and quality standards for the NGOs/CSOs .................................... 104 4.3 Written internal policies of the organization ............................................................. 108 5.Monitoring and Evaluation..............................................................................................109 6. People ...................................................................................................................113 6.1. Champions ...........................................................................................................113 7. Recommendations..............................................................................................119
  • 3. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page3 1. Introduction It is not easy to speak about ECED and peace education, peace building, reconciliation and other values related to this “phenomenon”, but it is even more difficult if it is to be done in a region, especially about a country like Macedonia. It is difficult due to the high vulnerability starting from the conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia to the conflict in Macedonia in 2001 and the events since then. During the reading of this situational research, in order to avoid children’s rights analysis approach, there must be constant evidence that at the state’s level there have not been started dealing with the past and reconciliation processes regardless of the fact that often there is a thin line of escalation between the Macedonians and the Albanians. Therefore, we cannot speak about starting such processes in the educational system, particularly in preschool education. There is no doubt that the necessity is great and unavoidable, it must be worked on that, and this research, in fact, is a pioneer and valuable from that point of view: to start implementation of peace building as an integral valuable and educational part of the everyday practices in preschool education. During the reading of this research, it must be taken into account that the numerous laws, strategies, action plans, protocols have been adopted, primarily, in order to fulfil the criteria for EU entry. Unless they are widely supported by the citizens, it is difficult to be realized in practice, particularly those strategic documents which tackle sensitive issues like the relations between the Macedonians and Albanians. The reasons for difficulties in the implementation are also technical (the capacities of the legislators and administration), but for the so-called “sensitive issues” many preconditions that will result in sustainable policies realizable in practice are needed, particularly due to the opposition between the so-called Macedonian and Albanian block. The opposition has penetrated deeply into the society so it reflects in all levels of social life including the policies referring to children if they contain reconciliation segments. Just for instance are the documents treating the too sensitive issues, like integrated education expressed in the Strategy for Integrated Education. This strategy is unachievable and unacceptable to a large number of Macedonians and Albanians. For the Albanians, it is imposing and does not provide integrated education by reciprocity and the same mandatory level. On the other hand, to most of the Macedonians and Albanians it is unclear how a
  • 4. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page4 Government which separates the society on various bases can declare itself to engage and carry out a policy of integrated education. Such constellation of the relations inside the multiethnic Macedonian society delays and hampers the reconciliation processes. Education is a pillar of every society and the processes move slowly, but we are aware that this project is a stake in the future for the next generations and that someone had to start. We are glad that FCEW MEGJASHI has been part of that process since its beginning. It is a fact that changes in this context occur because what was a dream of many pedagogues years and years ago now is implied in the strategy (for integrated education1 ): preschool education to become an integral part of the Ministry of Education by 2015, not to the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy as it is now. Let’s hope that there is no need to wait for 30 years for the Peace Education to become an integral part of ECED. 1.1 Brief description of methodology This report is based on the research conducted in February, March and April 2013 by using qualitative methods. The aim of this research is to have insight into the presence of the concept of reconciliation in the early child development. By research of the good practices, possible solutions and legal frameworks, we hope that this report will contribute to increase the awareness for the necessity of peace programs in the early child development which will further contribute to the reconciliation between the ethnic groups in the society. An analysis and a commentary on the laws, policies and practices relating to the early child development have been made. An analysis of media and other texts dealing with the educational problems and contents of the early child education through the prism of the children’s rights and peace building/development has been made. Data on the services available to preschool children as well as pregnant mothers have been summarized. 1 http://www.edulaws.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=230%3A2011-10-06-12-28-55&catid=127%3A2011-10- 06-12-27-44&Itemid=288&lang=mk
  • 5. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page5 Within this methodological framework, which focuses on the key elements in the field of early child education, the following techniques have applied: Group and individual consultations and meetings with key stakeholders from the NGO sector who are active in the field of the early child development as well as representatives from relevant agencies and institutions. Desk research (content analysis) of previous relevant documents and documents from the archives of the first Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi Mapping of managerial/administrative structure in Macedonia in relation to the child and social protection, as well as mapping of social and other services for groups of uses The process of data collection is based on the guidelines of the PRECEDE project on the basis on an analysis of the legal regulative dedicated to children or which includes children particularly younger children as well as on the basis on an analysis of the existing policies and practices. Data sources used for the purpose of this research: Relevant documentation (previous assessments, overviews, national and local reports form governmental institutions and reports of NGOs, intergovernmental organizations, research reports and assessments) Final remarks for the Republic of Macedonia by the UN Committee on the rights of the child from June 11, 2010 Relevant strategic documents (national strategies, programs, action plans, protocols) Relevant legislation (law, rules, legal codes) Official statistic data, tables and unofficial surveys, assessments and analyses. 1.2 Brief description of Macedonia Macedonian society can be described as simultaneously multi-ethnic, multinational, plural and
  • 6. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page6 multicultural young democracy2 . In the past decade Macedonia’s multicultural society has brought about challenges for the people who live in it. Many of these challenges have not been overcome yet and continue to obstruct the communication between different ethnicities in the country. The current structure of the population in Macedonia in many ways reflects the history of the region. Being part of Yugoslavia, after its declaration of independence in 1991, the Macedonian population have consisted of ethnic Macedonian majority, large ethnic Albanian minority and many other minority groups. According to the data provided by the Census in 2002, around 25% of the population in Macedonia today is ethnic Albanians, and additional 10% are other minorities: Romanians, Serbs, Turks, Bosnians, Croats, Vlachs etc. According to the estimation of the population (30.06.2011), in the Republic of Macedonia there are 2 058 539 citizens.3 In 2001, there was an armed conflict in the Republic of Macedonia for which there has not been public consensus on what exactly happened yet. For that period, there are many expressions: 2001 conflict, 2001 war, 2001 armed conflict and so on. The conflict is usually seen as a conflict between the ethnic Albanians and the ethnic Macedonians so that the other ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia comply with the requirements or positions of one of these two groups. Census in 2011 failed, showing sensitivity of ethnic balance issue and its connection with participation in political decision making. Moreover, a large number of the problems that Macedonia faced after its independence have not been solved yet. The focus is still on building a functional state administration; strengthening of the economy, fight against bribery and corruption4 , distrust in institutions, no media freedom of expression and pressure to fulfil conditions for joining EU. The issue between Macedonia and Greece over the name has not been resolved yet, the inter- ethnic relations between the two largest ethnic groups in the country, the Macedonians and the Albanians are still sensitive and conflicts easily escalate. 2 People Centered Analysis, UNDP and SEEU, April 2010, p58 3 State Statistics Office, http://www.stat.gov.mk/OblastOpsto.aspx?id=2 4 According to the index of corruption, for 2012 of Transparency International, Macedonia is between Slovenia (61) and Croatia (46) on the one hand, and BiH (42) and Serbia (39) on the other hand. A country or territory’s score indicates the perceived level of public sector corruption on a scale of 0 - 100, where 0 means that a country is perceived as highly corrupt and 100 means it is perceived as very clean. A country's rank indicates its position relative to the other countries and territories included in the index. http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2012/results/
  • 7. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page7 In this long transitional period, the emergence of an exceptional internal division of the Macedonian ethnic group regardless of the party affiliation, at present there are two big opposing groups of Macedonians often associated with the two political parties VMRO and SDSM (“left” and “right”). In the context of reconciliation as opposed to the common thinking that reconciliation should primarily be between the ethnic Albanians and the ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia, if this strong polarization among the ethnic Macedonians themselves continues, then in the context of reconciliation, we may speak about the two groups divided within the Macedonian electorate. In the last three years a growing level of hostility between the Macedonian majority and the biggest Albanian minority has been noted. The OSCE’s High Commissioner for National Minorities confirmed this on his visit of the country in 2008 and emphasized that such separation can easily lead to violence. A research conducted by OSCE5 further supported this statement by demonstrating the (un)willingness of the ethnic groups, depending on their status and place of living, to interact between each other. While some of the cities in Macedonia are predominantly inhabited by one ethnic group, for instance the cities of Bitola, Strumica and Stip where the majority of the population are Macedonians, there are other cities which are more ethnically-balanced such as Struga, Kicevo, Tetovo and Kumanovo where the population consists mostly of ethnic Macedonians and Albanians. Still, the frequency of contact between the two ethnic groups goes inversely to the diversity level of one community. The same research showed that the Macedonian students from towns where the Macedonians are the majority have more frequent contacts with the Albanians than those who live in more ethnically-balanced towns. Inversely, in towns where both ethnic groups are more or less equally present, the level of interaction is much lower. Thus, physical proximity of ethnic communities does not guarantee that the groups will interact. On the contrary, if tensions exist, there is a risk that this interaction will be reduced to a minimum. According to data provided by OSCE, the perceived reason for such hostility are the: students’ prejudices (43%), the political parties’ influence (43,8%) and cultural differences (44,2%).6 5 Age, Contact, Perception, How Schools Shape Relations Between Ethnicities, OSCE, Skopje, Jan 2010, p. 14 6 Ibid. p. 17
  • 8. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page8 In this regard, another research conducted by UNICEF7 emphasizes the need for amendments to the laws pertaining to education and inter-ethnic relations and reforms in the school curricula. The current education-related laws focus on prohibiting discrimination, rather than promoting the positive values of tolerance and mutual respect. While “The improvement of inter-ethnic relations is one of the key goals stated in the Government’s Programme” little has been done in achieving this goal. The major focus has been on respecting the Ohrid Framework provisions and supporting the use of the languages of different ethnic communities. Still, the findings suggest that the principles of tolerance, mutual respect and creating a cultural awareness and sensitivity should be more actively promoted in the legislation and school curricula. Also, mechanisms should be put in place that will ensure the successful implementation of these laws. The division on “us” and “them” is very visible in Macedonia in all ethnic groups and from an early age. Still, without suitable mechanism and promotion of positive values, this awareness soon transforms in intolerance and hostility to other ethnic groups. 1.3 What is being done well in ECED in Macedonia POLICY LEVEL Although protection of children’s rights and the child protection policies have never been a priority of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, during the last 5 years some steps to be welcomed have been made: The entry into force in June 2009 of the Law on Juvenile Justice introducing restorative justice and prevention of juvenile delinquency, as well as the adoption of the 2008-2009 Action Plan and secondary legislation for its implementation; Several health programmes started in 2010, in particular the Program for Active Health Protection of mothers and children (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 07/2010) and the Program for Systematic Examinations of Pupils and Students (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 20/2010); 7 Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution, Study on Multiculturalism and Inter-ethnic Relations in Education, UNICEF Country Office, Skopje, 2009, p. 12
  • 9. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page9 The adoption of the 2009 – 2012 Action Plan for prevention and countering sexual abuse and paedophilia, addressing the protection and assistance of child victims, and providing the establishment of a coordinated system for cooperation among government institutions and between government and NGOs. This Action Plan was revised and extended; The succession or the ratification of the Hague Convention No. 33 on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption on December 23, 2008. Referring to the more recent steps by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, apart from the revision of the National Action Plan on the Rights of Children (NAP) in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child of UN, at national level, the creation, adoption and launched implementation of numerous strategies, programs, action plans, protocols that include, directly or indirectly, children from an early age is to be welcomed. Overview of some of the strategies, programs, action plans and protocols Strategies, Programs, Action Plans and Protocols Responsibility 1. Program for Development of Preschool Education and Program for Providing and Quality Control of Education Ministry of Education (ME) 2. Strategy for Integrated Education in the Republic of Macedonia with an Action Plan ME 3. Strategy for Reduction of School Violence 2012-2015 ME 4. National Strategy for Poverty Reduction and Social Exclusion in the Republic of Macedonia 2010-2020 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (MLSP) 5. National Strategy for Prevention and Protection of Domestic Violence2012-2015 MLSP 6. National Strategy for Poverty Reduction and Social Exclusion 2010-2020 MLSP 7. National Strategy for Poverty Reduction and Social Exclusion (revised) MLSP 8. Program on Social Inclusion MLSP 9. National Strategy on Achieving Equal Rights for the Persons with Disabilities 2010-2018 (revised) MLSP 10. Strategy for Integration of Refugees and Foreigners in the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2015 MLSP 11. Program for Development of the Child Protection Activity 2013 etc. MLSP 12. Joint Protocol for Handling Cases of Domestic Violence MLSP 13. Program for Development of Social Protection 2011-2021 MLSP 14. Program for Development of the Child Protection Activity 2013 etc. MLSP
  • 10. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page10 15. National Strategy for Deinstitutionalization 2008-2018 MLSP 16. Multidisciplinary Protocol for Dealing with Street Children in the Republic of Macedonia MLSP 17. National Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Domestic Violence 2012-2015 MLSP 18. Program for Development of Child Protection Activity for 2013 MLSP 19. National Strategy for Equality and Non-discrimination on grounds of Ethnic Origin, Age, Mental and Physical Disability and Sex; MLSP 20. Operational plan (2013) for Implementation of the National Strategy for Equality and Non-discrimination on grounds of Ethnic Origin, Age, Mental and Physical Disability and Sex 2012-2015; MLSP 21. National Strategy and National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking 2013-2016 MLSP 22. Protocol on Collaboration between the Competent Institutions in Cases of Sexual Abuse of Children and Paedophilia MLSP 23. Action Plan for Prevention and Dealing with Sexual Abuse of Children and Pedophilia MLSP 24. Action Plan 2013-2015 for Street Children MLSP 25. Multidisciplinary Protocol Dealing with Street Children in the Republic of Macedonia; MLSP 26. Strategy for Immunization in the Republic of Macedonia 2012-2020 with the Action plan 2012-2015 Ministry of Health (MH) 27. National Strategy for Prevention of Oral Diseases in Children 0-14 Years of the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2008 – 2018 MH 28. Manual for Implementation of the National Strategy for Prevention of Oral Diseases in Children of 0-14 Years in the Republic of Macedonia MH 29. Strategy for Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Republic of Macedonia by 2020, with the Action Plan for 2010-2015 MH 30. Strategy for Safe Motherhood in the Republic of Macedonia 2010-2015, with an Action Plan MH 31. Action Plan to the Strategy for Safe Motherhood 2010-2013 MH 32. Program for Participation in the Use of Health Protection of Certain Diseases of the Citizens and Health Protection of Mothers and Infants in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 33. Program for Health Protection of People with Additions in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 34. Program for Mandatory Health Insurance of the Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia without Mandatory Health Insurance for 2013 MH 35. Program for Treatment of Rare Diseases in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 36. Program for Active Health Protection of Mothers and Children in the MH
  • 11. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page11 Republic of Macedonia for 2013 37. Program for Protection of the Population from HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 38. Program “Health for Everyone” for 2013 MH 39. Program for Mandatory Immunization of the Population in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 40. National Annual Program for Public Health in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 MH 41. National action plan on the rights of children in the Republic of Macedonia 2006-2015 National Committee for Children's Rights 42. Proposal-new Strategy for Cooperation with of the Government with the Civil Sector (2012-2017) General Secretariat - Government of RM 43. Strategy for Cooperation of the Government with the Civil Sector (2005- 2012) General Secretariat - Government of RM Two important documents have been adopted, which include preschool children indirectly and important for this research: Steps towards Integrated Education in Macedonia8 as well as recently adopted Law on Child Protection. RECENTLY ADOPTED LAW ON CHILD PROTECTION RELATED TO ECED In terms of the children’s rights and protection, the adoption of the new Law on Child Protection which was adopted in February 2013, is to be welcomed. The former was adopted in 2000, and then many amendments were made to it, in 2004, 2005, 2008 and 2009. But the fact itself that ECE is part of this law represents a multiple problem. In the previous system, in the socialism, there was a separate law called Law on Preschool Education9 , but ECE represents very broad problems which not only deserves to belong to a separate law, but it is also necessary. Therefore, the new Law on Child Protection is extensive. The new Law on Child 8 http://www.mon.gov.mk/index.php/aktivnosti/849-2011-10-20-17-14-51 9 Sobranie na Republika Makedonija, 16. http://www.sobranie.mk/default.asp?ItemID=892AAAF8C601DB4885DC010E52A00678 and http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/7A7AE998652140F8B5D7A54FF150BAB5.pdf Official gazette 1991
  • 12. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page12 Protection is a complex law consisting of 244 articles, divided into 20 chapters as a sublimate of the articles from the law, grouped with respect to the content of them. This law is aimed at preschool children and the institutions where they are taken care of. It specifies the new concept of update of the system of child protection, particularly a part in the organisation and the manner of providing conditions for child protection as an activity of public interest in modern conditions and acknowledgement of plural relations in performing the activity. The provisions from the first chapter regulate the basic provisions of the Law, defining child protection and organized activity based on the children’s rights as well as the rights and obligations of parents for family planning, for the state and the local self-government units in pursuing human population policy. These functions are carried out in accordance with the material possibilities of the parents in supporting, raising, care and protection of children, as well as in accordance with the possibilities of the state and the local self-government, for organizing and providing development of child protection institutions and services. In the second chapter, the right of the child to be protected is regulated, including the child benefit, special benefit, one-off financial assistance for a new-born, parental benefit for children and participation as well as the manner of exercising the rights. The novelty in this part of the Law is providing the right to use the special benefit for people having the status of recognized refugee and people under subsidized protection who have a child with developmental disabilities and special needs. The third chapter includes the law from 54 to 56 and they include the forms of protection, i.e. the manner of care and upbringing of the preschool children as well as legal and natural persons participating in the activity. In the fourth chapter, the activity carried out in the kindergartens is regulated, i.e. how it is based, how it enters in register, organization and content of the activity, i.e. types of programs executed in these forms of care of preschool children. The provisions in the last chapter provide adoption of bylaws for regulation of the Law. Likewise, all the institutions dealing with care of preschool care will have rules which must be practiced in their work since they further regulate and explain everything which is unclear in the Law. It is imposed modernization of legal solutions due to the need of inclusion of more children in institutions for care and upbringing of preschool children.
  • 13. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page13 One of the purposes for adoption of the Law is establishing a system for care and upbringing of preschool children in the function of early child development, which will represent support for the whole development and encouragement of the development, its capacities, expanding the experiences and creating knowledge for themselves, for the others and for the world; then educational role of the family, further upbringing and education, inclusion in the society, developing potential of the child as a precondition for further development of the society and its progress. This novelty, i.e. the new program for early child development and opening of the centres for early child development are in the function of inclusion of the children from the youngest age. In the past, all children did not have equal starting positions (at least in terms of law), especially children from the rural areas, and with this law change, preschool institutions and centres for early child development will be brought to these children as well as to the rest of the children living in the richer or bigger urban areas. The Law contains the novelty for the manner of care and upbringing of preschool children in the Centres for Early Child Development and it is to be welcomed. This Law strengthens the mechanisms for control and prevention of all ways of child abuse. The Law regulates the system, organization and manner of providing child protection as an activity of public interest. Namely, the Law on Child Protection is based on the children’s rights, as well as on the rights and obligations of the parents and the state for family planning, providing conditions and life standard corresponding to the physical, mental, emotional, moral and social development of children and the obligations of the state in creating conditions for carrying out human population policy, giving appropriate financial assistance to the parents, certainly within the possibilities, to the state to support, raise, care and protect children and to provide development of institutions and services for child protection. The Law also regulates the management and running of the children institutions, i.e. the managing body, the running body, the professional body and the body for internal control and the other bodies in the children institutions. It is provided that professionals carrying out the activity and the staff need to fulfil the conditions to obtain status of a professional who will be employed in the children institution and for every vacancy they will be required to obtain license for work and they are regarded as public officials. The procedures for selection of a public official, disciplinary measures as well as continuous
  • 14. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page14 monitoring of the work of the public officials and their assessment also apply to them. The same applies to the selection of a governing body of the institution, kindergarten or centre for early child development, or it applies to those applying for the role of a principal of the same. Introduction of licenses enables the employees in the preschool institutions to educate and train themselves professionally and continuously during their work, thus following modern trends pedagogy so that it will raise the degree to a much higher level, the degree of care and education of preschool children. This Law provides an opportunity of employment of additional number of people interested in this kind of work by opening agencies which offer children care services. A positive novelty is that an opportunity is given to foreigners who want to start a kindergarten. The agencies which can take care of and bring up children, i.e. agencies to be started by domestic natural or legal person and they themselves to provide conditions for preschool children. The requirements for starting an agency are provided and regulated here; those are people who can work in the agency and the manner of providing the service. It is also provided that natural persons obtaining the work license from the Minister may take care of preschool children, even in their own homes or in the parental home. However, it is the minister themselves, who have the right to revoke the decision to perform the activity. The provisions regulating the manner of financing child protection are provided. It is specifically regulated supervision of the implementation of this Law. Professional supervision and supervision of the work of the bodies of the municipalities, the municipality of the City of Skopje or all the city of Skopje are provided. Unless this Law is obeyed, fines are provided so that children’s protection is at the level they deserve. The Law contains provisions in which the principles for protection of the right to life and development or the child, protection of the child’s best interest, providing minimum standard for every child under the same conditions, exclusion of any form of discrimination, respecting the right to freedom and safety of the of the personality of free thinking and free expression are respected. This Law provides strengthening of the control mechanism in the state and the municipality to prevent every child abuse and institutional strengthening of the supervision, professional monitoring and control. Introduction of licensing will directly contribute to increasing quality of the services offered by the staff in the child institutions. The Law determines the system,
  • 15. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page15 organization and manner of providing child protection as an activity of public interest. PRACTICAL LEVEL CENTERS FOR EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY LEARNING DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS IN CHILDREN FROM 0 -6 YEARS Unlike Policy level, the implementation of the policies in practice is a sore spot in the Macedonian society, but it is not new. In fact, having so many policies once and all that being not well systematized particularly in the field of ECE, no good practical organization of the system cannot be expected. Fortunately, there are good, light points/initiatives which deserve great attention and further support by the state so that they do not disappear. The initiation of a new form of care, upbringing and education of preschool children – Centres for Early Child Development is to be welcomed. In this regard, Early Learning Development Standards in children from 0 to 6 years – study on Early Child Development have been set.10 Within that strategy, a process of opening Centres for early child development by UNICEF in several municipalities has been initiated. In these Centres children aged between 4 and 5 whose parents are not able to pay day care in the kindergartens are included. Their parents are willing to help them be ready for school. Up to now, more than 20 such centres have been opened throughout the country and they may be founded the municipality or UNICEF or combined. However, the municipality also may appear in the role of a founder of a Centre for early child development like the municipalities Cheshinovo-Obleshevo and Novaci. The foundation of such Centres for Early Child Development is particularly important to the children and guardians in the municipalities where there is no possibility of opening a kindergarten OTHER INITIATIVES The opening of several small group homes in the cities of the interior of Macedonia by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy is to be welcomed; for instance, small group homes for 10 UNICEF , http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/Standards%20for%20early%20childhood%20education%202009%20MK.pdf or Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ran_detski_razvoj.doc
  • 16. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page16 mentally and physically challenged children without parents (a kindergarten in Bitola)11 , a small group home for children at risk in Kavadarci. Even though they include about 10 children, still they represent important steps in the field of protection of children’s rights and their welfare. Various projects have been carried out in the last 2-3 years. One of them to be mentioned is the project called Inclusion of the Children with Special Needs in Regular Schools, which resulted in inclusion of the children with special needs in 73 regular primary schools and in 13 kindergartens. Ministry of Labour and Social Policy also is implementing institution of several IPA projects like: "Support for Implementation of the Strategy for Roma"; "Strengthening the Relevant Stakeholders for Social Inclusion at Local Level"; "Encouragement of Social Inclusion and Inclusive Labour Market" etc. 2. Laws, Policies, and Strategies 2.1 International International conventions and protocols signed and ratified by the Republic of Macedonia The Republic of Macedonia, after gaining its independence, is in constant international communication, cooperation and gaining membership in the international organizations. As a member state in most of the international and regional organizations (Organization of the United Nations – UN and their specialized agencies, Organization for Security and Cooperation – OSCE, Council of Europe etc) it may be concluded that it has signed and ratified all the leading international and regional conventions related to the children’s rights. Pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia as the highest legal act12 which includes the legal influence of the international agreements signed by the Republic of Macedonia, states that all the international conventions and protocols ratified in accordance 11 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=07F6271FBD879348A49D5C416537B96C 12 http://www.sobranie.mk/?ItemID=A431BEE83F63594B8FE11DA66C97BEAF
  • 17. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page17 with the Constitution become a part of the internal legal order of Macedonia and may not be changed by law. 13 Below the conventions that the Republic of Macedonia has signed and ratified and which directly or indirectly refer to the children’s rights are stated. Several things may be singled out as characteristic in relation to the key internal documents which Macedonia has signed. Regarding the Convention on Children’s Rights, the Republic of Macedonia has accessed this convention through succession and has put a reserve to it. By signing the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Children’s Rights which refers to involvement of children in armed conflicts, the state has made a declaration. More details considering the reserve and the declaration are stated below in the table. As for the Third Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Children’s Rights on the Procedure for Submitting Petitions, it was signed by the state on May 23, 2012 and its ratification has been expected. The Republic of Macedonia until now has signed and ratified the following international instruments in the field of the children’s rights: 13 Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 52/91, 01/92, 31/98, 91/2001, 84/2003, 07/2005,03/2009.
  • 18. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page18 International conventions and protocols on human rights of the UN Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified (R) Succession (Suc) Reserves Declarations Accepted optional documents International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 1966 R. (Official Gazette of SFRJ-MD 7/1971), - RM accessed through succession (18.01.1994), in effect since 17.11.1991 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 1966 R. (Official Gazette of SFRJ-MD 7/1971), - RM accessed through succession (18.01.1994), in effect since 17.11.199 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), 1965 R. (Official Gazette of SFRJ-MD 6/1967), - RM accessed through succession (18.01.1994), in effect since 17.11.1991 22.12.1999 - With declaration, the Republic of Macedonia recognized the competence of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination to receive and consider communications from individuals or groups of individuals within its jurisdiction, with reserves, the Committee will consider communication, if it determines that the same thing was considered under another international procedure
  • 19. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page19 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), 1984 R. (Official Gazette of SFRJ-MD 11/1981), - RM accessed through succession (02.12.1994), in effect since 17.11.1991 The Republic of Macedonia by succession accepts the competence of the Committee against Torture to receive and consider communications from another state - party of the Convention on behalf of individuals under its jurisdiction Convention on Children’s Rights (CRC), 1989 R. (Official Gazette of SFRJ-MD 15/1990), - RM accessed through succession (02.12.1993), in effect since 17.11.1991 Reserve: "The competent authorities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia may, under Article 9, paragraph 1, of the Convention, decide to deprive parents of their right to raise and educate their children without a court order in accordance with the internal legislation of SFR Yugoslavia Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflicts, 2000 S. 17.07.2001 R. 12.01.2004 Declaration In regard to Article 3, paragraph 2 of the Optional Protocol, the Republic of Macedonia declares that the Macedonian legislation has no possibilities, neither on mandatory nor voluntary basis, to direct any person under 18 years to serve military service, i.e. there is no possibility to violate the right to special protection of people under 18 years of age. (Article 62 of the Law on Defence of the Republic of Macedonia) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography 2000 S. 17.07.2001 R. 17.10.2003
  • 20. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page20 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the procedure for submitting petitions S. 23.05.2012 Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 Suc. 12.12.1994 Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, 1989 R. 26.01.1995 Optional Protocol to the CAT, regarding regular visits by national and international institutions in places of detention, 2002 S. 01.09.2006 R. 13.02.2009 Convention on the Rights of people with Disabilities S. 30.03.2007 R. 29.12.2011 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of people with Disabilities S. 29.07.2009 R. 29.12.2011 Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance S. 6.02.2007 Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified(R) Succession (Suc.) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948 Suc. 18.01.1994 Convention against slavery, 1926 Geneva R. 18.01.1994 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others Suc. 18.01.1994
  • 21. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page21 Convention on the Status of Refugees, 1951 Geneva Protocol on the Status of Refugees, 1967 New York 18.01.1994 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1954 New York R. 18.01.1994 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998 Rome S. 07.10.1998 R. 06.03.2002 United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 New York and its protocols against smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air, as well as prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in persons, especially women and children S. 12.12.2000 R. 12.01.2005 - Conventions of the International Labor Organization Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified (R) Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (No. 138) 1973 Geneva R. 17.11.1991 Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (No. 182), 1999 Geneva R. 30.05.2003 - UNESCO Conventions Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified (R) Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960 R. 30.04.1997
  • 22. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page22 - The Hague Conference Conventions on Private International Law Convention/Protocol Accession (А) Ratified (R) Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, 1980 Suc. 20.09.1993 Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, 1993 А. 23.12.2008 -Geneva Conventions and other treaties of International humanitarian law Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified (R) Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 1949. R. 01.09.1993 Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 1949. R. 01.09.1993 Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 1949. R. 01.09.1993 Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 1949. R. 01.09.1993 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 1977. R. 01.09.1993 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non- International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 1977. R. 01.09.1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Oslo, 1997. R. 09.09.1998 Convention on Cluster Munitions, New York, 2008. S. 3.12.2008 R. 8.10.2009
  • 23. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page23 -Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe Convention/Protocol Signed (S) Ratified (R) Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom (CETS 005) 1950 Rome S. 09.11.1995, R. 10.04.1997 Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CETS 009) 1952 Paris S. 14.06.1996, R. 10.04.1997 European Social Charter (CETS 035) 1961 Torino S. 05.05.1998, R. 07.12.2004 European Social Charter - revised(CETS 163) 1996 Strasbourg S. 27.05.2009 R. 29.10.2011 European Convention on the Adoption of Children, and The European Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Concerning the Custody of Children (CETS 105) 1980 S. 03.04.2001 R. 29.11.2002 European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CETS 126) 1987 Strasbourg S. 14.06.1996, R. 06.06.1997 Protocol No. 6 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms concerning the abolition of the death penalty (CETS 114) 1983 Strasbourg S. 14.06.1996, R. 10.04.1997 Protocol No. 7 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CETS 117) 1984 Strasbourg S. 14.06.1996, R. 10.04.1997 Protocol No. 8 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CETS 118) 1985 Vienna S. 09.11.1995, R. 10.04.1997 Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter (CETS 128) 1998 S. 05.05.1998, Protocol amending the European Social Charter (CETS 142) 1991 Turin S. 05.05.1998, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (CETS 148) 1992 S. 25.07.1996, Protocol No. 1 to the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Treatment (CETS 151) 1993 Strasbourg S. 14.06.1996 R. 06.06.1997 Protocol No. 2 to the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Treatment (CETS 152) 1993 Strasbourg S. 14.06.0996 R. 06.06.1997 Protocol No. 11 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CETS 155) 1994 Strasbourg S. 09.11.1995 R. 10.04.1997
  • 24. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page24 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (CETS 157) 1995 Strasbourg S. 25.07.1996, R. 10.04.1997 European Convention on the Rights of Children (CETS 160) 1996 Strasbourg S. 03.04.2001 R. 15.01.2003 Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and dignity of the individual in relation to the application of biology and medicine to ban cloning (ETC 168) 1998 Paris S. 12.01.1998 R. 01.01.2010 Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CETS 177) 2000 Rome S. 04.11.2000 R. 13.07.2004 Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning the transplantation of organs and tissues of human origin (CETS 186) 2002 Strasbourg S. 15.03.2002 R. 27.04.2009 Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms concerning the death penalty in all cases (CETS 187) 2002 Vilnius S. 03.05.2002 R. 13.07.204 Convention of the Council of Europe in the fight against human trafficking (CETS 197) 2005 Warsaw S. 17.11.2005 Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (CETS 201) 2007 Lanzarote S. 25.10.2007 R. 16.10.2010 Protocol No. 14 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms amending the control mechanism of the Convention in 2004 S. 15.09.2004 R. 15.06.2005 Protocol No. 14 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 2009 Strasbourg S. 03.09.2009 R. 02.04.2010 Convention of the Council on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS 210) 2011 Istanbul S. 08.07.2011 Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (CETS 108) 1981 S. 24.03.2006 R. 24.03.2006 Additional Protocol to the Convention regarding supervisory authorities and transborder data (CETS 181), 2001 S. 04.01.2008 R. 26.09.2008
  • 25. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page25 2.2 Regional According to the available information, in the Republic of Macedonia there are only local policies referring to improvement and promotion of the children’s rights which are implemented by the municipalities as units of the local self-government, but not regional policies or policies referring to a widely organized region. Namely, the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia provides the right of the citizens to a local self-government. This is regulated by the Law on local self-government under which municipalities are units of the local self-government; the state is territorially divided in 84 municipalities. With the adoption of the aforementioned Law on local self-government, a part of the jurisdiction of the central authority passed into the jurisdiction of the municipalities. Thus, among the issues that the units of the local self-government deal with are those of social and child protection, preschool education, primary education, primary health protection and other fields determined by law. Therefore, municipalities should be equal carriers of the undertaken activities for implementation of the Convention on the children’s’ rights thus the responsibility is shared by the state and local authority. According to the Law on Self-Government14 , the municipalities and the City of Skopje are responsible for: • social protection and child protection • children without parents or without parental care • children with educational and social problems • children with special needs • children of one-parent families • street children • exercising the right to education of preschool children 14 mls.gov.mk/files, Law on Self-Government-Ministry of Local Self-Government (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 29/1996 and 68/2004)
  • 26. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page26 Decentralization of preschool education as well as of primary and secondary education which includes increased autonomy, true professional attitude in terms of the work of the teachers and other staff thus increased responsibility of quality of education does not mean weakening of the roles and responsibility of the state (central) educational institutions. On the contrary, decentralized education will be strong and successful only if there are strong institutions at central level. For the purpose of successful achievement of the child protection and improvement of the status and rights of children in the units of the local self-government, as is already mentioned, special Local Action Plans are provided to be adopted. The units of the local self-government with these local action plans are supposed to provide conditions for respecting and exercising children’s rights. These plans should correlate and represent continuity in the National action plan for children’s rights adopted by the Government. But the experience says that although it is the responsibility of all the municipalities to make and implement local action plans, such plan have only few municipalities in the country. Beside the small number of municipalities having action plans, the question is how many have a conceptualized budget and specific indicators to monitor the situations15 considering the fact that the municipalities finance themselves from their own income sources determined by law and from state funds. 2.3 National – Macedonia & harmonization between laws and policies According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia16 , fundamental obligation of the country is to ensure special are and protection of family. The Constitution states that it is also a right and obligation of the parents to provide feeding and education of children. Children without parents and parental care are special responsibility of the state. The first paragraph of the article 42 outlines that: "The Republic of Macedonia particularly protects motherhood, children and minors." 15 http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Fakticka%20analiza%20-%20MKD.pdf, Retreived: 08.04.2013 16 Official Gazette No. 52/91, http://www.sobranie.mk/?ItemID=A431BEE83F63594B8FE11DA66C97BEAF
  • 27. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page27 As part of the process of the European integration, the legal framework is constantly being changed. As it is mentioned in the Alternative Report on NGOs on the Children's Rights in 2010, the situation has not been changed yet. These changes are frequent and fast and being made without any previous analysis of the situation and determining the actual needs. There is no established system for monitoring of the implementation of the laws, nor we have information that analyses are made on the financial implications of the implementation of the law. For instance, NGOs were not consulted nor included in the process of adoption regarding the new Law on Child Protection. There is an analysis on the behalf of the NGOs with respect to this Law. Harmonization of the policies and laws relating to the children’s rights in the Republic of Macedonia Regarding harmonization of the laws with the international standards, various partial analyses of certain laws have been made. A comprehensive analysis of the harmonization of the Macedonian laws with the international documents has been made. The outcome of it is that a great part of the Macedonian legislation is in accordance with the international standards, i.e. a significant number of the articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), also the other relevant international instruments which properly entered the Macedonian laws. Sometimes the desire for the legislation to develop quickly leads to situations where there is a limited time period for giving comments from those who are directly included in the practice, or application of the laws.17 For the purpose of this research, the following findings from the aforementioned comparative analysis are outlined:18 Definition of a Child – Terminological coordination of the term child in the overall legislation in Macedonia for children under 18 years. Exception to this is the criminal legislation where the terms younger and older minor due to the different criminal and legal status have been kept 17 Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Macedonia (May 2010): Comparative overview of the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and Convention on the Rights of the Child 18 Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Macedonia (May 2010): Comparative overview of the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • 28. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page28 Principle of Non-discrimination – revision of the Law on prevention of discrimination in the reasons of discrimination to be included children as well The best interest of the child – this principle as one of the fundamental principles on which CRC is based should be included in all laws related to children’s rights Quality services provided by services – it is necessary that mechanisms guaranteeing quality should be established thus providing timely, successful, effective and efficient delivery service National Commission on the Children’s Rights – it is necessary that this Commission should be given special sources so that it can independently and impartially monitor and report on the children’s rights situation in the Republic of Macedonia Juvenile Justice - including the principle of presumption of innocence and the right to silence in the Law on Juvenile Access to legal aid – the state should regulate the fee for legal representation payment in order to provide access to legal aid for all children Compensation Fund - Establishment and operation of the Fund for compensation in accordance with the Juvenile Justice Quality of the local authorities – it is necessary to strengthen quality of the local authorities in the part of the effective planning and implementation of the social and child protection programs Social assistance – it is necessary to be adapted to the life costs thus to enable decent life for every child. The government of the Republic of Macedonia exercises its policy in the field of child protection and their rights through adoption of a series of policies, strategies, action plans on the one hand, and laws and bylaws as legally binding on the other hand. But what is characteristic is that policies do not always have the ultimate goal of protecting the children’s rights. Likewise, finances for implementation of many action plans are not provided or those activities are provided to be realized with funds from a related area. This speaks for a
  • 29. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page29 declarative solution of certain problems, but not for an essential commitment by the country. For instance, the state has developed a strategy to reduce poverty. There is no doubt that one of the basic steps in reducing poverty is education of the citizens and inclusion of all children in schools. There is no doubt that the country takes measures through amendments to the laws which introduce free mandatory primary and secondary education for all the children in Macedonia though subsidizing in providing books, transport etc. But in taking these measures little or no children who have never enrolled in school are included. Their number in the Republic of Macedonia unofficially is 18.000. This example suggests that the intention of solving a certain problem should be approached comprehensively and all children should be included, and especially to help the families of marginalized groups of children. There are many such partial moves made by the state so that it may be concluded that often the provisions to the laws which support certain strategy and that creates vacuum between the predicted strategy and creation of conditions for its implementation. There are situations where some of the provisions of a law are in collision with the provisions of another law, so citizens/children on their way to exercising their rights are “victims” of the legal labyrinth. Or an institution refers to one law relevant for it, and another institution refers to another law and both laws define one thing in different ways. Laws are written on theoretical basis without consulting practice which leads to setting certain provisions and articles inapplicable to practice. For instance, the Law on Juvenile Justice in defining the terms “child” is inconsistent or various categories are stated depending on the age and behaviour of the children. But the legislator instead of facilitating the things, they complicate it thus creating confusion in practice. Regarding coordination of the legally binding acts and their hierarchy, bylaws must always be in accordance with the law. If a bylaw is in collision with the law, in that case the law has the priority in practice since in the hierarchy of the legal acts it is above bylaws. Regarding the need to adopt new laws, it is more desirable to make amendments to the existing laws and bylaw as well to create conditions for their complete implementation through professional training of the personnel who are supposed to implement the laws, through determining appropriate budget for implementation of the provisions and professionalization while executing them. What is concerning for the defenders of children rights is the non-implementation of most of
  • 30. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page30 the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). In June 2010 The UN Children's Rights Committee adopted Concluding Observations thus giving their own recommendations and reaction to the Government of the Republic of Macedonia due to their failure to fulfil their recommendations with respect to the previous report on the situations with the children’s rights in Macedonia19 . The main areas of concern are in the frame 1. General Measures of Implementation, arts. 4, 42 and 44, para. 6 of the Convention: The Committee notes that some of its concerns and recommendations made upon the consideration of the State party’s initial report (CRC/C/15/Add.118, 2000) have been addressed. However, it regrets that many of its concerns and recommendations have been insufficiently or only partly addressed. The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding observations of the initial report that have not yet been implemented, including those related to the review of national legislation for compliance with the Convention, birth registration, resources available to the centres for social work, and the integration of children with disabilities into educational and recreational programmes, and to provide adequate follow-up to the recommendations contained in the present concluding observations. Regarding legislation, the Committee is concerned that the national legislation does not fully comply with the principles and provisions of the Convention and that there is weak enforcement of legislation. Likewise, the Committee recommended that the State party ensure that the National Commission on the Rights of the Child take the lead in planning policies and setting priorities for the implementation of the Convention. The Committee also was concerned about the slow implementation of the NPA and that no specific funds have been earmarked for this purpose, including monitoring and evaluation of the NPA. 19 UNICEF, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/CRC.C.MKD.ConcludingObesrvaitonsENG.pdf
  • 31. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page31 Harmonization of laws and policies Harmonization of laws and policies in Macedonia goes slowly, but it is a fact that it is the only way for the state to achieve its goal – accessing the EU. That is the reason why in the process of adopting the laws more attention is paid to them so that they are in accordance with the EU standards. It is evident in the law on child protection in various segments. For instance, in this respect is the legal prohibition of any form of discrimination based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, cultural or other affiliation, property, disability or other status of the child or their parent or legal guardian. The law sanctions and penalty provisions are imposed to the violators of these prohibitions. In this regard is the Directive or the provisions of the Council Directive on the E3 2000/43 relating to the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of race or ethnic origin as the text of the law developed in all segments of the rights and forms of protection of children. This harmonization of the new Law on Child Protection is correlated with the directive 2003/9/EU. The new Law on Child Protection enables domestic legal or natural person to set up agencies for providing care services of preschool children. The Law also enables natural persons to performs certain acts in the activity care and upbringing of preschool children as a professional activity, in the home of the parents or in their own home. It is provided that this measure stimulates the unemployed to engage in the system of child protection through offering a service – children care. There is a legal provision for the ministries to keep registers as a unique database of legal and natural persons operating within the system of care, upbringing and education of preschool children and children’s recreation facilities. The registers will be posted on the portal of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and anyone interested may check if the person has been registered for performing this type on activity before engaging them or in other words, if they possess valid license to perform certain acts in the activity. Apart from licensing the professionals and the kindergarten principals, monitoring children’s and staff’s presence in the kindergartens, the Law also provides an electronic file for every child containing the whole individual work plan on the basis of the child’s potentials. Every day, the achievements and difficulties the child faces will be noted, and the parents will be informed about that at the end of the working week The amendments to the Law provide introduction of supervision of the kindergartens in order to determine whether the professional activity of children’s care, upbringing and education is
  • 32. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page32 performed on the basis of modern scientific and professional methods and achievements for that particular activity and whether it is organized in the most effective manner. This analysis, in fact, demonstrates the necessity of adoption of a law on preschool education in which peace education will be a component part. Problems (of good policy not being implemented) In Macedonia, there is a problem of efficient protection of children by the Centres for social work in a timely termination of the parental right. Namely, it is provided termination of the parental right according to the Law on Family, article 90 and 91. It is provided that if there is a danger of abuse of the parental rights or severe neglect, Centres are obliged to take measures of protection of the child. But this measure usually is taken after the parent has killed or has raped their child. Pursuant to the Law on Family, parents have the right and duty to support their minor children, to take care of their life and health, to prepare them for independent life and work, to take care of their upbringing, education and professional training. The Centre for social work, as determined in the Law on family, is obliged to initiate proceedings of termination of parental rights, when in any way it is determined that there are reasons determined by the law. Once the Centre determines that there is a danger of abuse of the parental right or a danger of severe neglect of the parental duties, they are obliged to take measures of protection of the personality, rights and interests of the child. It is concerning the fact that centres in most of the cases do not have evidence of the effects of the imposed measures. The biggest problem in dealing with such cases is not the legal regulations, but the lack of resources for the centres of social work and the lack of trained social workers, the lack of shelter for children-victims of violence. In such circumstances, children are forced to stay with their parents even in cases when they are beaten and maltreated. The parental right may, by decision of the court, be returned to the parent when the reason because of which it was terminated ceases.
  • 33. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page33 There is neither education nor counselling for responsible parenthood although it is necessary to be opened. There was premarital counselling until several years ago. A certificate of attended education with which marriage may be contracted was issued. But it was also revoked. 2.3.1 Macedonia National Strategies for Children National action plan on the rights of children in the Republic of Macedonia 20 12- 2015 In 2006, the Government of the Republic of Macedonia adopted the National Action Plan on the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Macedonia 2006-2015 (NAP)20 , and it revised it for the period 2012-2015. The revised NAP is based on the previous version taking into consideration the new information of the former research and assessments of the situation of the children’s rights in the Republic of Macedonia as well as the existing legal and political frame. Unlike the previous NAP which looked more like strategy than an action plan, the revised NAP contains an action plan as well in which the objectives, results and activities are stated in a certain time frame. What it lacks is a concrete allocation of the tasks; who (which ministry) will carry out then and what/how big budget will be allocated for it. Rarely, in some places, is the executor of some part of the action plan only mentioned. The NAP elaborated in this way will have no further clear picture of what and who will work. There is a great probability for it to remain only on paper. NAP contains an introducing part which refers to the Situation of the children in the Republic of Macedonia, i.e. Dedication of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia to the children, and then the key priorities, the leading principles, the state policy towards children, the objectives and the Action Plan are stated. The action plan is dedicated to the realization of the main objective of NAP: to ensure that the rights of all children are protected and implemented 20 One of the main reason for the revision of NAP are the recommendations and the conclusions by the Committee on the Rights of the Child of UN after consideration of the second periodic report of the Republic of Macedonia and the initial reports on the Optional Protocol to the Convention on Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and on the involvement of children in armed conflicts. The concluding observations and recommendations were given on June 11, 2010 and with them, the Committee on the Rights of the Child reminded the state of the need of a range of additional measures to improve the situation of the children in Macedonia
  • 34. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page34 by providing strategic interventions for inclusion of the children from vulnerable/marginalized groups.21 Furthermore in the Action plan, the following objectives are listed: Civil rights and freedoms. To ensure freedom of thought, expression, identity of children and their protection from harmful information by creating opportunities and mechanisms. Family environment and alternative care: To strengthen biological families for child care, to provide care for children without parental care within the system of social protection and to strengthen the capacities of the foster families. Basic health care: To improve health status among children by improved access and quality to the basic health services and promoting of good nutrition practices. Child care and education of preschool children: Implementation of activities care and education of preschool children. Education: To increase the access to equitable and quality in socially excluded children through an innovative and comprehensive approach. Special measures for protection: To ensure protection of all children from abuse, exploitation and violence through reinforced and comprehensive national child protection system. The document NAP ends with the part dedicated to the Partnership with a civil society, media and implementation of NAP. With respect to the objective Basic health care which is of interest to this research, the following expected results are listed: Expected result 1: Decrease in child mortality rate and approximation to the EU average by 2015, in particular by reducing the differences based on the place of residence, financial condition and ethnicity. Expected result 2: By 2015, decrease in the number of diseases which can be prevented by immunization, particularly by reducing the differences in the coverage of a regular program. 21 National Action Plan on the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Macedonia 2012-2015 (NAP) adopted by the Government, http://www.nkpd.gov.mk/images/Image/NPAPD%202006-2015%281%29.pdf.
  • 35. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page35 Expected result 3: Reducing the prevalence of child malnutrition, especially in children under 5 and differences based on the places of residence, financial condition and ethnicity. Expected result 4: Timely detection of metabolic disorders and hearing and visual impairment in premature children by 2015. Expected result 5: Universal access to health services for children by 2015. Expected result 6: Increasing the safety of children by reducing the number of children victims of violence and injuries by 2015. A positive change in the revised NAP (for this research) is that in all the activities, improvement of the access to health care with a focus on removing the differences based on ethnicity, geographical region and income is stated. providing equal distribution and availability of the health services for the children in all urban and rural areas, majority and excluded communities and between the richer and the poorer communities. inclusion of children living in exceptionally difficult circumstances, like street children, beggars with health care through appropriate health services. advocacy of appropriate support resources in implementation of the Action Plan of the Decade of Roma particularly in the programs intended for mediators of health in Roma. In regard to the objective Implementation of the activities child care and education of preschool children, which is of interest to this research, two expected results are listed: Improved access to kindergartens and other forms including the preschool children Quality services for early child development (ECD) for children from 0 to 6 years In the second expected result, Quality services for early child development (ECD), the priority emphasizes the establishment of centres for ECD in 10 municipalities a year. The municipalities belonging to the previously excluded areas (rural areas and areas with a high degree of children out of school and municipalities with a high number of children from the ethnic minority groups in special schools) will be a priority. Funds will be provided from various sources (municipality, donors, private etc.).
  • 36. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page36 The ECD services will refer to the needs for children’s education as well as support for the working mothers. The role of the services is to be one of the main places where parents will be informed. By 2015, the centres for ECD will also provide support to the parents to acquire parenting skills and early detection in order to intervene in the families and children at risk. Furthermore in NAP it is said that by 2015 at least one such form of ECD will be offered in 30% of the municipalities which need it the most (those with the highest rate of children out of school, unemployed parents, and ethnic minority groups). The National Commission for the Children’s Rights The National Commission for the Children’s Rights is a responsible body for implementation of NAP. In order to increase the credibility of the commission and to enable greater authority in performing the functions, the Government of the Republic of Macedonia at the meeting held on September 17, 2007 made a decision to form a National Commission for the Rights of Children in the Republic of Macedonia (NCRC). The purpose of NCRC is to monitor the situation with the children’s rights in the Republic of Macedonia, implementation of NAP, the Convention on the Rights of the Child of UN and the protocols. At the request of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, NCRC prepares materials for thematic sessions dedicated to the progress in the areas referring to the rights of the children, proposes annual priorities in accordance with NAP and monitors the implementation of the yearly priorities for the children’s rights adopted by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia. The Secretary General of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia was the president of NCRC to 2011. From 2011 until now, the Minister of Labour and Social Policy, Spiro Ristovski, has been the president. The members of NCRC are appointed by the Government from: the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour and Social policy, the Ministry of Culture, the Agency of Youth and Sport, the State Statistical Office, the General Secretariat and the Secretariat for European Affairs. In the work of NCRC, a representative of the Ombudsman of the Republic of Macedonia who is in charge of the children’s rights participates, then representatives of UNICEF and civil associations: the First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi (FCEWM) and the Children’s Parliament of Macedonia (CPM). In the work of NCRC, representatives of the decentralized authorities are not included although
  • 37. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page37 a large part of the obligations are related to the activities of the municipalities. In the National Commission children do not participate even though the Convention on the Rights of the Child clearly states that children should be included in politics which are of their interest and in the same processes of decision making thus respecting the principle of children’s participation. It is symptomatic that the Commission for the Rights of the Child at the same time takes on the role of a creator, an executor and an observer of NAP. The question poses itself: how can it simultaneously perform all the three roles and be objective? Then, if it has the role, according to which system the monitoring and evaluation of NAP will be performed? Reports on the implementation of NAP are sent and finished in the Government and only to the members of NCRC although the Commission is required to submit to the Government an annual report on the implementation of the National Plan of Action for Children’s Rights. It should be visible and posted on the website of NCRC and widely distributed or advertised in the media. Reports of the implementation of this action plan are public and they should be published on the website of the National Commission for the rights of children in the Republic of Macedonia www.nkpd.gov.mk. That is one of the reasons why the public is not familiar with NAP and NCRC. It is problematic that for the existence of NAP are not familiar a large number of employees in the ministries, except for the people in charge of the implementation of NAP, i.e. the people members of NCRC (one person from each ministry which has a member in NCRC). The last report on the work of the Commission on their website is from 2010. See on http://www.nkpd.gov.mk. In NAP (part 5 Implementation) it is quite clearly pointed out that the Ministries regularly and quarterly and at least once a year should submit reports on the progress in the fulfilment of the objectives and tasks of this action plan to the National Commission for the rights of children. On the same website www.nkpd.gov.mk which, in fact, is an only source for information about NAP in the country, the revised NAP has not been posted yet, but the former version of NAP is there (2005-2015). The responsibility for implementation of this action plan is borne by the ministries which the activities of NAP they include in their annual work plans and allocate adequate financial and human resources for their implementation. In the last Alternative report of NGOs on the rights of children, one of the remarks is that NCRC has a small budget and that suggests that the funds, in fact, are not sufficient to achieve some of the effects which NCRC is supposed to fulfil.
  • 38. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page38 If necessary, the National Commission for the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Macedonia can ask further information from the ministries of the progress in the implementation of the activities and objectives of this action plan out of the regular reporting cycle. Upon recommendation of the Macedonian National Coalition on the Rights of the Child (MNCRC)22 within the frame of the Alternative Report on the Rights of the Child was asked enlargement of tis commission with participation of various civic organizations. The Committee on the Rights of the Child of UN accepted these recommendations and in their report and recommendations to the Government of the Republic of Macedonia asked the number of the NGO members of NCRC to be enlarged. The Commission accepted the recommendations to enlarge the NCRC and announced a competition on the basis of certain criteria for participation in the Commission. In that way, the number of the NGO members of NCRC increased from 2 to 4 NGOs. Another progress in NCRC is the right to decide which the NGO members of NCRC gained. This will be helpful in the monitoring by the civic organizations in the work of NCRC and in the implementation of the National Action Plan on the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Macedonia 2006-2015 (NAP). The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi also asked, and the president of the Commission accepted the proposal, this Commission to submit an annual report to the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in line with the implementation in practice of the recommendations which the Committee on the rights of children submitted to the Government of the Republic of Macedonia.23 NAP is a strategic document on the children’s rights at national level, but several action plans on the rights of the child at local level were made, in some municipalities: Bitola, Veles, Gostivar, Kochani, Radvish, Saraj, Strumica, Tetovo, Chair and Shtip. By the Centre for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution and with the support of UNICEF, in 2009 a manual was made for the work of the commissions on the rights of the child formed in the units of the local self- government (where they exist) i.e. for all those within the municipal council dealing with issues related to children.24 22 The Macedonian Coalition of NGOs on the rights of children was formed on November 13, on the initiative of the First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi where there is still its Secretariat. 23 http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/2010-ns_article-preporaki-na-komitetot-za-pravata-na-deteto-dostaveni-do-vladata-na- republika-makedonija-po-osnov-vt.nspx 24 http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/Decata_i_opstinite_MK_FINAL_za_na_WEB_05.pdf Shtip http://www.stip.gov.mk/index.php/mk/lokalen-ekonomski-razvoj/akcioni-planovi
  • 39. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page39 The aim of this manual is to help the municipalities create their own action plans and to implement them. Unfortunately, like in many other areas, the implementation fails. The results of the mapping demonstrate that NAP is not known enough or not known at all to a greater number of institutions at local level. 2.3.2 Legal regulations mechanisms that link the laws and regulations with regard to punishment of those who do not apply them or break them The laws provide violation and criminal provisions in order to punish even officials who will break the law and natural and legal persons. But practice demonstrates that there is a selective approach regarding punishment. It is difficult to locate the responsibility of the employees in the state institutions because in certain cases they shift the responsibility from one to another institutions thus to prevent locating the responsibility. Rarely legal procedure towards an official for abuse of duty is initiated, and in case it is initiated, it is difficult to prove their guilt which is the basis for determining their responsibility and sanctioning. Penalties for violations of the laws of certain offenses or crimes are too high and often citizens and legal persons are punished. 2.3.3 Reconciliation and peace-building in ECED in Macedonia In Macedonia, the activities/projects related to reconciliation and peace building are seldom organized and only by NGOs. But the effects of some of those projects have been integrated in the new program documents developed by the Ministry of Education, i.e. the Bureau of Education Development, i.e. National Strategy for Integrated Education. In Macedonia, until recently there were over 11,000 NGOs most of them registered in Skopje. But only part of them pre-registered according to the new Law on civil organizations25 , the 25 Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, 16.04.2010, http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/623772ADC92FEE42A1DB496E1E190648.pdf
  • 40. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page40 unofficial number of pre-registered NGOs is only 3506. They operate in different spheres, but the overall remark is that they lack capacity and professional experience to influence policy and decision-making at social level in the Republic of Macedonia. In most of the cases of the work of the NGOs, what is missing is reporting and information as well as cooperation networks or database for the relevant programs, activities or kinds of contents they work on. The international organizations as well as the bigger Macedonian NGOs due to their structure and bigger resources inform the public and/or they leave written traces of the implemented activities more that the smaller organizations. The problem arises because often the grass root activism itself is the leader of the reconciliation; hence there is need of more information for these issues from the organizations with fewer resources and resistance towards documenting their own work. In the field of peace building, the situation is even more complicated since a small number of organizations define peace building as their close field of work. Often it happens for them to call or introduce the peace content they work under other names. Likewise, peace content is to be found as complementary content which complement thematic units as communication, team work, conflict resolution etc. At state level, there is no strategy for peace building, nor issues related to this to be publically discussed. A society divided according to various criteria lives its parallel lives often resolving the interethnic tensions with additional segregation as studying in different schools, shifts hoping that unless the young meet there will be no clashes. In the work with preschool children, the case with Mozaik kindergartens is rare. There, the problem of segregation in the school system has systematically been addressed. Search for Common Ground (SFCG) was established in 1982 and since then has actively worked on conflict transformation and strengthening the societies’ capacity to deal with conflict constructively. In this sense, in 1998 SFCG has launched the Mozaik initiative in the Macedonian kindergartens and since then more than 850 children have passed through the Mozaik kindergartens in nine municipalities26 . In Macedonia, which is severely hit by inter-ethnic tensions, hatred and segregation, working with young people from an early age is crucial in 26 Retrieved from http://www.sfcg.org/programmes/macedonia/mozaik.html.
  • 41. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page41 order to avoid the creation of prejudice and to support children in developing early understanding, tolerance and cultural sensitivity. Mozaik is a unique model of bilingual and multicultural pre-schooling in public kindergartens, bringing together children from Albanian, Turkish, Serbian and ethnic Macedonian communities. Education in Macedonia is highly segregated based on ethno-linguistic criteria. Because children from the country’s various communities commonly attend separate classrooms, from kindergarten through high school - and even at university - most children rarely come into contact with peers from other communities. Mozaik preschool groups are the only example in Macedonia of bilingual, multicultural education at any level. The Mozaik initiative began in 1998 with implementation in public kindergartens. Mozaik teachers were carefully selected and provided with an eight-month intensive teacher’s training and host kindergartens were furnished with all necessary materials and equipment. Goals Socialize children at an early age to be free from prejudice and have respect for the diversity of cultures within Macedonia. Help different ethnic communities to collaborate and communicate with each other. This project demonstrates a positive model of multi-ethnic/bilingual education for education authorities, communities, parents and children throughout Macedonia. Targeting the kindergarten level is a strategic approach given the structural and political barriers within the Macedonian education system. It is SFCG’s longest continually-funded program. Teaching young children to be free of prejudice has also influenced kindergarten staff, their family members and education authorities, reaching over 2000 beneficiaries and engendering wider changes in attitudes across society. Children attending Mozaik groups have shown high levels of tolerance towards the opinions, needs and acts of other children, regardless of their ethnic background. Most children express a high level of sensitivity toward others in conflict situations. Children demonstrated problem-solving skills and repeatedly acted to mediate conflict between their peers.
  • 42. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page42 SFCG has won approval of the Mozaik curriculum by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and Ministry of Education as well as their agreement to incorporate elements of the Mozaik methodology in public preschool education in Macedonia.27 The Foundation for Educational and Cultural Initiatives Step by Step also works on programs for preschool education which are certified. See more on website28 . In the area of preschool education, significant innovations have been performed in the program structure of preschool education. The most significant are: “Step by Step” methodical project which started in 1994 and was realized in all preschool institutions in 650 educational groups; “Inclusion of disabled children” started in 1998 and “Civil Education” (Crighton J. (1996), Republic of Macedonia- Education Rehabilitation Project Identification, World Bank, Ministry of Education, 1998.) “Step by Step” has contributed greatly to the development of the preschool system in Macedonia; with the initiation and realization of the project “Step by Step” it was done: education of the professional workers, educators and principals, publishing of specialized literature and materials, engagement of the parents as assistants to the educator (including their training which later they spread to the other parents).29 The Foundation of educational and cultural initiatives has still worked on programs for preschool children with the purpose of: improvement of education in Macedonia through democratization of the educational process, developing a concept of constant training and appropriate assistance to educators, teachers, pedagogues, psychologists, principals and parents and further cooperation with the relevant ministries and the Bureau of Education Development in order to ensure equal access to quality education for all children. The effects of the project in this field are integrated in the new conceptual and program documents at national level.30 Unfortunately, almost all other initiatives in the field of peace building, reconciliation, non- violence, have developed only in primary and secondary education. 27 Audio story (English), The project for a bilingual kindergarten in Macedonia is a lasting success http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/mk/features/setimes/audio_story/2012/12/27/audio_story-06 28 http://www.issa.nl/network/macedonia/macedonia.html 29 Foundation of educational and cultural initiatives STEP BY STEP http://www.stepbystep.org.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=64&Itemid=49&lang=mk 30 Foundation of educational and cultural initiatives STEP BY STEP http://www.stepbystep.org.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=64&Itemid=49&lang=mk
  • 43. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page43 The Strategy for Integrated Education in the Republic of Macedonia - Steps - towards Integrated Education in the Republic of Macedonia In 2010, in a session of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, the Strategy for Integrated Education in the Republic of Macedonia was adopted. 31 The official name of that document which in public is known as a strategy is: Steps - towards Integrated Education in the Republic of Macedonia. The document Steps for integrated education in the thematic group 4 entitled “Qualifications of Teachers” here are 2 objectives, one of which is: Integration of preschool education. It is surprising that this long-expected objective for the professionals in the field of education is to be found in a thematic group where it does not belong to. However, the objective itself is to be welcomed. The process of implementation of these objectives in terms of the given deadlines is to be questioned. What can be noticed from this action plan is that the Ministry of Education (ME) takes over the responsibility of preschool education from the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (MLSP). This will be a significant step towards improvement of the system of preschool education. Objective 2: Integration the preschool education RESULT (1) Ministry for Education (ME) takes over the responsibility of preschool education from the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (MLSP) ACTIVITIES ME, Bureau of education development (BED) and MLSP supported by external experts will create transitional plan for handing over the responsibilities of the kindergartens of ME; For that purpose, numerous workshops will be held INDICATORS Number of held workshops Duration of the transfer of the responsibilities DEADLINE 2010 -2012- Development of the transitional plan – 6 workshops academic year 2013/2014 pilot implementation (evaluation, monitoring, report) academic year 2014/2015 – implementation 31 Ministry of Education, Strategy for Integrated Education, p.24 http://mon.gov.mk/images/stories/dokumenti/integrirano_obrazovanie/policy_paper_adopted_mk.pdfMinistry
  • 44. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page44 RESULT (2) Intercultural approach in preschool education is introduced ACTIVITIES BED will create modules for trainings of teachers and professionals in preschool BED will announce a tender for training of teachers and professionals of preschool education for inclusion of the intercultural approach in preschool education INDICATORS Number of teachers and professionals in preschool education applying this this concept; Transparency and responsibility of the tender process; DEADLINE 2011 – preparation of the tender (3 months), tender period (3 months), time for development of the implementer (6 months) academic year 2012/2013 – pilot implementation (evaluation, monitoring, report) academic year 2013-2014 – implementation 2.4 Child Protection 2.4.1 Laws related to children preschool education Macedonia does not have a special Law on Preschool Education Macedonia does not have a special law on ECE, but It is regulated by the Law on Child Protection where regulations are set. The roles of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (MLSP) and the Ministry of Education (ME) intermingle. Those regulations define the mission, goals and principles of ECE. According to this regulation, preschool education is not a constituent link of the unique system of education. Regarding the amendments to the laws on preschool education, it is necessary to provide quality and transparent democratization, decentralization and liberalization of preschool education as an integral part of the educational system. Likewise, it is necessary to overcome the division of the responsibilities between MLSP and ME. Namely, financing the activity of the preschool institutions is responsibility of MLSP and it is regulated by the Law on child protection, and ME is responsible of the programs of educational process and professional supervision or the implementers of those programs. Due to the divided responsibilities sometimes there is in coordination between the two ministries and differences in terms of the priorities of the development and improvement of preschool education.
  • 45. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page45 The Preschool Education is regulated by following laws: Law on Inspection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 50/2010, 161/2010, 157/2011) Ministry of Education (ME) http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/ 2/Law%20on%20inspection%202011%20 MK.pdf http://www.edulaws.mk/images/pdf/pro svetnata_inspekcija.pdf Rulebook on the Manner and Procedure of Conducting Inspection of the Education Inspectorate (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 86/2006). Ministry of Education (ME) http://www.mon.gov.mk/index.php?opti on=com_content&view=article&id=380& Itemid=133 In the field of child protection in the Republic of Macedonia, there is a series of laws dealing with this issue. In this field, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy refers to these laws:32 32 http://mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=58596FFAE257704BBF545EDD4B790749 Policy, Program, Practice Name, year Responsible Ministry or Agency Web address Law on Child protection (23/2013) Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (MLSP) http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Fil es/dete.pdf Law on Education Inspection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 52/2005, 81/2008 and 148/2009, 57/2010, 51/2011) Ministry of Education (ME) http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/ 2/Law%20on%20inspection%202011%20 MK.pdf Law Amending the Law on the Bureau of Education Development (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 142 from November 10, 2008) Ministry of Education (ME) http://bro.gov.mk/docs/zakonodavstvo/ bro/ID_Zakon_za_Biroto_za_razvoj_na_o brazovanieto_142_10112008.pdf Law on the Bureau of Education Development (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No.37/2006,142/2008, 148/2009) Ministry of Education (ME) http://bro.gov.mk/sites/default/files/Zak on%20za%20BRO.pdf Policy, Program, Practice Name, Year Responsible Ministry or Agency Web address Law on Social Protection with amendments to the Law on Social Protection (36/2011; 51/2011; 166/2012;15/2013) Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/ Files/ID_Zakon_za_Socijalna_zashtita_ 36_23032011.pdf Law on Family (80/92) with amendments to the Law on Family (9/96; 38/2004; 33/2006; 84/2008; 67/2010; 156/2010; 39/2012) Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/ Files/izmenidopolnusemejstvo.pdf
  • 46. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page46 Laws in the field of Equal Opportunities Draft-laws in the field of social protection 2.4.2 Violence, abuse and neglect In the UNICEF33 report on child protection it is stated that in Macedonia, 69% of the children at the age between 2 and 14 years are exposed to physical and psychological punishment. 42% out of them are children exposed to both physical and psychological punishment, 15% only to physical and 12 only to psychological punishment. Violent disciplining of children in our country 33 http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/12189_13068.html Law on Child Protection (23/2013) Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/ Files/dete.pdf Law on Special Register of People Convicted of Crimes of Sexual Abuse of Minor Children and Pedophilia, 2013 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/ Files/Zakon%20za%20registar%20za% 20pedofilija.pdf Policy, Program, Practice Name, Year Responsible Ministry or Agency Web address Law on Prevention and Protection from Discrimination (consolidated text 2013) Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage /Files/diskriminacija_konsolidiran.pdf Law on Prevention and Protection from Discrimination Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage /Files/diskriminacija_zakon.pdf Policy, Program, Practice Name, Year Responsible Ministry or Agency Web address Bill to the Law on amendments of the Law on Special Register for People Convicted by an Effective Judgement for Crimes of Sexual Abuse of Minors and Pedophilia, April 2013 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=EF F297E3DAE1A84698B89ED7BCA2A0A 3 Bill to the Law on Amendments of the Law on Social Protection Ministry of Labor and Social Policy http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=18 CFB527D17FA3438FA0C83D8D6DBBB 1
  • 47. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page47 is widespread despite the fact that only 7% of mothers and guardians believe that children need to be physically punished. However, every second child at the age between 2 and 14 years is exposed to psychological punishment. Compared with other countries from Southeast Europe, the available data point out that children in the country are more exposed to violence then children in Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. General view of the work of the Megjashi's SOS telephone line for children and youth 0800 1 2222 and of the free legal service, for the year of 201234 show that children in Macedonia are victims of different kinds of neglect. One of the main conclusions is that the children are at least protected in the areas where they should actually be most protected (the home, the school, other institutions in charge of implementation and protection of the children’s rights). In the year of 2012 the total number of contacts on the SOS telephone is 397, with whom we further contacted total of 959 times, 27 of which are children who had courage to report violence or violation of some of their rights. Most common violations of the children’s rights, registered in Megjashi, are the following: - Poverty: 111 children of the total number of children-potential victims live on the edge of the existence, in substandard conditions. - Family violence-106 children of the total number of children-potential victims were unprotected and exposed to violence in their own families. - Inadequate functionality of the institutions in some of the cases-57 children faced institutional inefficiency (problems with determination of authority and jurisdiction of the institutions, untimely reactions, and disrespect of the children’s opinion in cases which are of highest importance of the children, additional victimization and stigmatization of the children who have been victims…) - School violence-there is a doubt that 33 children were unprotected and exposed to violence in their schools. - Doubts for sexual abuse-18 children were victims of sexual abuse or there is a doubt for sexual abuse by a close relative or member of the family. 34 FCEW MEGJASHI, Annual report 2012, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/content/pdf/SOS.izvestaj.2012.pdf
  • 48. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page48 Children are silent and endure violence on a daily basis. They rarely report violence because they are afraid. They are disappointed and discouraged by their parents, their guardians, their teachers and the institutions that need help them and care for them. 2.4.3 Sexual abuse of children Due to a legal gap in the criminal law, paedophiles after release from prison, remain without any surveillance by police, doctors and social services. The experts warn that it is a serious issue because of the incurable mental disorder in these people for which there is a justifiable fear that after serving their time, they assault children again. The practice notices that some offenders are regular recidivists and perpetrators of sexual assault against a child. Sexual assault on a minor is a term used in the Macedonian criminal justice system to describe a sexual act in which one of the participants is under the age of giving consent for the act itself. According to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia, this term describes the criminal act in which an adult performs sexual intercourse or other sexual act upon a child under the age of 14. Despite archiving convicted paedophiles in the Central register, we notice that children are still victims of paedophilia and incest. Over 100 convicted offenders have been officially published. On the average, there are from 20 to 30 verdicts yearly. This number has been registered by the Ministry of Interior although the actual number is often hidden. Even though the punishments for incest and paedophilia have increased, up until now several sentences of 15 years imprisonment have been given. Life imprisonment has been provided under the article 188 of the Criminal Law which says (4) If due to acts referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 serious bodily injury, death or other grave consequences have occurred or the crime has been committed by many people or in a particularly cruel or humiliating way, the offender shall be sentenced to 10 years or life imprisonment. But up to now, no judge has passed this sentence although there have been several cases of recidivists who have committed the crime “sexual assault on a child under the age of 14” several times. No trial court has had the opportunity to impose a more severe penalty since they treat the criminal acts in stack, i.e. they do not treat them unless more children are victims of
  • 49. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page49 paedophilia as a separate criminal offence for each child-victim. The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi proposed measures for greater prevention of paedophiles, such as supervision by the doctors, police and the centres for social works, medical castration which can help the paedophile to control the libido and urge so that they cannot repeat the crime and carrying an electronic bracelet to control their moving by the police. Unfortunately, in the Republic of Macedonia there has not been counselling for victims of abuse in the first 48 hours yet. In this period, the victim should be separated from the place of the act, and mostly that is the home, and the perpetrator of the crime must be in custody as a suspect until the court brings charges for the committed crime. According to the articles 19, 34, 36 and 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the states – signatories commit themselves to protect children from all kinds of sexual abuse and molesting, to protect them from physical or emotional violence, abuse and neglecting, from sexual exploitation and other kinds of exploitation which are harmful for a child and to take measures for better physical and psychological recovery, as well as social reintegration of the child victim. 2.4.4 Chemical dependence In order to provide protection of children from alcohol and cigarettes, the law prohibits advertisement of cigarettes and alcohol, serving alcohol to minors and sale of cigarettes and alcohol in the retail network. 35 Pursuant to the article 204 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia, serving alcohol to minors is a criminal offence and pursuant to this article “Those who serve alcohol to a minor in a restaurant or a shop where alcohol is served and sold, shall be fined or imprisoned from 3 months to 3 years.” If this offence has been committed against a drunk minor, the offender shall be punished with imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years, and if it has been committed against a child, the offender shall be punished with imprisonment of 1 to 5 years. If the crime of 35 See more on: http://ombudsman.mk/upload/documents/Deca-MAK-Alhohol%20i%20cigari.pdf
  • 50. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page50 this article has been committed by a legal person, the offender shall be punished by fine. Below in the article it is said “If the offender of the crime has been punished by imprisonment or probation determined by imprisonment, the court shall impose a ban on performing.”36 Although there are legal provisions which prohibit serving and selling alcohol and cigarettes to minors, in practice, this criminal offence is difficult to be determined and as well as to collect crucial evidence, therefore, children despite the existing legal regulation which theoretically protects them from these vices, are exposed to many potential dangers and they can easily reach alcohol and cigarettes. 2.4.5 Media role, computers and various computer/video games Experience in the field of TV production in Macedonia confirms that the situation is alarming because there is no production for children conveying educational messages and messages for peace building and nonviolent communication among children from a young age. Children are left to the influence and violence presented in the soap operas and the imported programs which are full of violence and pseudo values. Televisions must broadcast and produce programs for children since they are obliged by law as national concessioners. The presence of violence in media and animated film cannot be always controlled, but its influence on the children’s growth and development can be decreased. TV stations must be careful with the lifestyle, culture and mentality of the people living in the country where certain programs of other countries are shown. This is important in order not to encourage stereotypes, prejudice, ethnic or religious intolerance. In order to protect minors from inappropriate content, the Broadcasting Council of the Republic of Macedonia prepared a RULEBOOK for protection of minors from programs that may have harmful influence on their physical, psychological or moral development.37 36 Criminal Code („Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia“ No. 37/96). Law on amendments of the Criminal Law („Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia" No. 80/99, 4/02, 43/03, 19/04, 81/05, 60/06, 73/06, 7 /08 , 139/08 , 114/09, 51/11, 135/11, 1185/2011, 42/2012, 166/2012.
  • 51. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page51 By categorization of the programs, minors should be protected from inappropriate content. Parents only by supervision may establish better communication with their children and take responsibility for their development. It is very important, especially when children are younger, to watch movies together with their parents. The task for the parent would be establishing a limit between fantasy and reality. Even though it is obvious that media have a great influence on the process of upbringing of children and building a system of values, still parents have the last word. They are those who set the foundation on which children develop into mature individuals. The Broadcasting Council38 has the competence in the issue of violence in media. The Committee on the rights of the child in Concluding Observation expressed concern regarding Access to appropriate information: The Committee notes the mandate of the Broadcasting Council to protect children from audio- visual content, which is potentially damaging to their physical, psychological and moral development, and that it has undertaken several measures in this regard. The Committee, however, remains concerned about children’s access to appropriate information in the different languages and about the presence of pornographic and other inappropriate content in the audio-visual and print media. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen measures to continue and raise efforts to ensure that children have access to appropriate information and material and protect children from information and material injurious to their well-being, in particular by enforcing existing legislation and guidelines and systematically monitoring content in the audio-visual and print media, with a view to removing pornographic and other injurious material. The show for children “Our Neighbourhood” was a series to reduce the tensions in the country caused by the conflict of 2001 between the ethnic groups. The aim of the show was to present that children, regardless of their national and religious differences, respect the differences and they can live together in harmony. The only thing that makes them different are their traditions. 37 http://www.srd.org.mk/images/stories/Pravilnik_maloletnici.pdf 38 The Broadcasting Council, http://www.srd.org.mk/
  • 52. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page52 Instead quality media production for children there are other media activities demonstrating media space in Macedonia is burdened with content that do not contribute to peace or content that represent presentation of the activities of the Government in order to demonstrate them to the public. The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi reacted to the media regarding the event at which the work and part of the equipment of the Unit for Quick Ordering of the Ministry of Interior was presented, on April 4, 2011. At the event, batons, helmets and other equipment which does not include firearm were presented in front of 20 children at the age of 4-5 years from the kindergarten “8 Mart”. They were driven in special armoured police vehicles with sirens and they could see the guns which are part of the uniform of the members of this unit. Megjashi reacted to the media after previously sent reaction to the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, the Ombudsman, the head office of the kindergarten “8 Mart” and the Municipality of Kisela Voda. In terms of the aforementioned event after the leak on the SOS phone for children and youth by an anonymous caller, Megjashi contacted the pedagogue of the kindergarten “8 Mart” by phone who during the phone call explained that “It is part of the program for introduction to a soldier, patriotism strengthening and love for the country. If you are interested, I could give you a whole page of reasons for this visit. The visit was realised on the initiation of one of the teachers and the staff deems that this kind of visits to be appropriate.” Megjashi checked the website of the kindergarten www.jdg-8mart-skopje.org.mk and we determined that activities of this kind are not planned in their program for 2010-2011. After the written reaction, Megjashi got a sharp reaction from the Ministry of Interior stating their commitment to children in Macedonia and arguing that children were involved in such activities at the request of parents. The conclusion is that there is a lack in the media space of tools and materials that will promote and advocate, or build peace.
  • 53. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page53 2.4.6 Child Helplines In the Republic of Macedonia, there are the following SOS helplines for children or involving children: SOS phone for children and youth 0800 1 2222 First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjshi SOS line for victims of human trafficking 0800 11 111 La Strada – Open Gate SOS drug helpline 0800 11 444 Association of social workers of the City of Skopje SOS line for women victims of domestic violence 02/ 15 700 NCGE SOS line for women victims of domestic violence 02/ 15 315 Crisis Center Hope SOS line for children victims of abuse and begging and children at social risk 02/ 15 505 SOS line for information, prevention and counselling of HIV/AIDS 080033444 Shelter for women and children victims of violence, Shelter center 070/520-639) Harmonization of the S.O.S helpline for children and youth 0800 1 2222 with the European six digit number for help and support 116 111 Other example is the harmonization of the S.O.S helpline for children and youth 0800 1 2222 with the European six digit number for help and support 116 111. The S.O.S helpline for children and youth, as a service for direct help and support on children and service of public interest is not financially supported from the state yet. The S.O.S help lines in most European countries are treated as services of public interest and are considered to be a need of the children, so the countries take care of its financial sustainability. The Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva, on its 54 meeting, had a look at the reports from its member countries, concerning article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The second periodical report of Republic of Macedonia was checked and few recommendations to the Government of Republic of Macedonia were adopted on the 1514-th session that took place on June 11, 2010. This has been recommended:
  • 54. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page54 ,,The Committee notes the 24 h free S.O.S helpline for children and youth provided by one First Children's Embassy in the World, but is worried that there is not any long term financial support and that it is only available through one specific phone operator, while unavailable through mobile operators’’ The Committee recommends39 that Macedonia shall ensure continuity, including awarding appropriate aids for 24 h. free helpline. The First Children Embassy in the World-Megjashi in its addressing asked the competent institutions to seriously consider the Committee’s recommendations and to financially support the functioning of the S.O.S helpline for children and youth and the free legal service. The S.O.S helpline as a service of public interest needs to be essentially, accessible to all the children and youth, as well as their parents. Therefore the Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva sent a recommendation to the Government of Macedonia for executing a harmonization of the number with the other European lines. In its recommendation, the Committee points out the following: In order to give appropriate answer to the recommendations and in the same time enable an access to the S.O.S helpline for children and youth to all the children in Republic of Macedonia, the First Children's Embassy made written addressing to the Agency for Electronic Communications, where Megjashi asked for the right to use the national shortened number for services harmonized on European Level 116 111. Unfortunately, the S.O.S helpline for children and youth, as a service for direct help and support on children and service of public interest is still not supported by the state. 2.4.7 Computers and various computer/video games Due to the lack of personal experience, the youngest spectators are very receptive when it comes to programs portraying violence. Imitation is a characteristic form of learning in children and if we take into consideration this fact, we could come to a conclusion that unless children are exposed to aggressive and violent 39 Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/MKIndex.aspx
  • 55. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page55 content through television, internet or computer games whose task is “to kill or destroy the enemy”, it is quite probable that intolerance, destructiveness and manipulation may become part of their life system of values. Computer games and animated films encourage creativity and fantasy in children if they are appropriate for their age and are carefully chosen. The messages sent in this way are not direct. Their influence is observed in the subsequent functioning and behaviour of the child. They are hidden they significantly affect the optimal growth and development of the child. Content intended for children should promote educational values. With their help, in an easy and subtle way abstract concepts and values are explained. Despite the educational task, the awakening of the child fantasy is important. Computer games represent a way of fun and leisure of an increasing number of children and adolescents. These games are so sophisticated that they are on the verge of reality. A large number of the computer games have educative content, but also a large number of them are violent and may have a negative influence on children and their perception of reality. Before parents allow their children to play computer games, it is necessary:40 To check content of the computer games To play together with their children in order to experience the video game To set clear rules in relation to the time when video games should be played, the kind of the video games etc. To inform their children on the consequences regarding excessive time in front of the computer, online contacts with strangers etc. If parents notice that their child spends too much time playing computer games and that the child becomes violent, it is necessary to set limits, to encourage their child to participate in various activities not related to using a computer. 40 http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_video_games_playing_with_violence
  • 56. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page56 2.4.8. NGOs and networks for children's rights Macedonian National Coalition of NGO's for Protection of the Rights of the Child (MNCNPRC) MNCNPRC has been formed on November 13, 1997 in Skopje at the initiative of the First Children's Embassy in the World MEGJASHI (FCEWM). The head office of the Coalition Secretariat is in Skopje in the FCEWM. NGOs with their program, targets and goals for child protection join the coalition. Now, with a support from UNICEF the number of the members raised to 16 NGO. The basic aim of the Coalition is to monitor and implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child nationally in Macedonia. In order to have a more complete picture of the respect and rights of children in Macedonia, the Macedonian National Coalition, prepare annual reports as the base for the periodical alternative report. The Coalition acts as an active source of information of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and other UN agencies and programmes concerned with the well- being of children as well as NGOs with the same objective; contributing to the work of the Committee on the Rights of the Child and its working groups during pre-session gatherings. The establishment of the National Coalitions of those dedicated to the protection of the rights of the child is justifiable for following reasons: 1. at international level: integration into the global network of the national coalitions on the rights of the child; developing cooperation and the exchange of information on the implementation of these rights in other countries; the exchange of experience in terms of compiling alternative reports for the Committee on the Rights of the Child and attending pre- session gatherings; utilization of funds allocated for national coalitions; promoting the Macedonian NGO sector concerned with the well-being of children; creating of the new possibilities for cooperation with international stakeholders, etc.. 2. at domestic level: the creating of a National Coalition is to define the network of NGOs in Macedonia dedicated to the protection of the rights of the child; it will provide opportunities for cooperation, exchange of information and the coordination of activities.
  • 57. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page57 Member organizations of the informal National Coalition for the Rights of the Child: Health Education and Research Association "Hera" - Skopje Women Civic Initiative "Antiko" - Skopje (network of 18 local organizations); Coalition "All for Fair Trials" - Skopje (coalition of 17 NGOs); "Lajfstart" - Bitola; Youth educational Forum - Skopje; Open Gate La Strada - Skopje, "Open the window" - Skopje; First Children's Embassy in the World "Megjashi" - Skopje Council for Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency - Kavadarci; Association HOPS - Healthy Options - Skopje;, Humanitarian Association "Mother" - Kumanovo; Humanitarian and Charitable Association of Roma in Macedonia "Moon" - Gostivar; Center for Civic Initiative - Prilep; Centre for Sustainable Development "Gate" - Strumica; Association, Macedonian center for Women's rights - Shelter Centre – Skopje AMOS - Bitola Union of Educators for Children With Special needs Open the Windows - Skopje
  • 58. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page58 3. Services for Young Children and Pregnant Mothers 3.1 Services available for Young Children and Pregnant Mother Overall, it might be said that Macedonia does not have developed enough services for young children and pregnant women neither in number nor in quality and capacity. A large number of children are out of those services. For instance, still, as mentioned in the Alternative Report of NGOs for children's rights to the Committee on the Rights of the Child41 , the program for vaccination, the general rate of the immunization in the Republic of Macedonia is 95%, but the rate of coverage of the Roma children is with a lesser volume. According to the analyses of the civil society organizations which work in this area children who are not registered in the master evidence, children who are outside the educational system are excluded from the immunization programs and the state does not have a special strategy which will include these children in an immunization program without charge. Beside the existence of a patronage service which should provide services on the field for all citizens of the country, still, the conditions for work of the patronage staff is on a very unenviable level (they do not possess terrain vehicles and basic medical materials), to be able to provide qualitative services in a rural areas which are difficult to reach. Yet, the field visits by the patronage staff are only formal. Beside the fact that the Law on Health Care guarantees delivery of a baby for every woman in the hospitals without charge, still the experience shows something different. In the gynaecological hospitals outside Skopje, women are not accepted to deliver a baby without charge and if they do not have money to pay for the service, their documents for personal identification are kept. 41 http://megjashi.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/Alternative%20reports%20-B5%20format.pdf
  • 59. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page59 ДОДАТОК 7 - МАПА НА УПРАВУВАЊЕ И УСЛУГИ ПО ГРУПИ НА КОРИСНИЦИ
  • 60. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page60 3.2 Poverty alleviation According to the data of the NGOs, 8% of children are not immunized and even 2% are not in the birth register. 18,000 children are out of the educational process, and those children are, In fact, at risk to become street children. More and more the number of street children has been increasing thus nowadays there have been 2000 street children out of which more than 1000 are in Skopje. Children from the rural areas are obstructed in the access to the basic social services due to the difficult economic situation and the insufficient number of services available for all risk groups. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia in 2010 adopted the National Strategy for Poverty Alleviation and Social Exclusion in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2010- 2020.42 There are numerous indicators of the social phenomena are synthesized and they are further analyzed, compared and presented. Likewise, various measures and activities in many fields have been presented, among which younger and older children, on the basis of which action plans have been formed in recent years with deadlines for each year separately. The main strategic objective in the revised version of this strategy in Poverty Alleviation and Social Exclusion in the Republic through improved use and strengthening the available human and material resources, improvement of the conditions for life, work and social conditions for all the citizens, systematic and institutional co-action for the purpose of more rapid development, higher standard, more quality living and development of the mechanisms for social inclusion of the vulnerable categories of citizen in a local context. In the first version of the strategy, the efforts, measures and activities were focused on accomplishment of the main strategic objective: harmonization of the policies in separate fields in the part of inclusive growth. 43 Children living in poverty are exposed to a greater risk of social exclusion since the lack of resources often limits their educational and development opportunities thus consequently obstructs them to participate in the economic, social and cultural life in their society. 42 National Strategy for Poverty Alleviation and Social Exclusion in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2010-2020 http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/revidirana_str_siromastija.pdf 43 http://www.uncsd2012.org/content/documents/678National%20Strategy%20on%20Alleviation%20of%20Poverty%20and%20Social %20Exclusion%20in%20the%20Republic%20Of%20Macedonia-EN9Nov2010.pdf
  • 61. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page61 The specific strategic objective of this strategy in the field of children is protection children form socially excluded families, children at risk using or abusing drugs and other psychotropic substances and precursors, equal access to health protection and education as well as introduction of the children with their rights. Achievement of this objective would result in: Protection of children form socially excluded families and children at risk Protection of children using or abusing drugs and other psychotropic substances and precursors Improvement of health protection and equal access to it by all children Improvement of the access to education for all children Introduction of children with the Convention on the Rights of the Child In the revised Strategy, the specific objective dedicated to children is applied in Area 3: Social and child protection, building a new social model. The goals and policies in terms of social protection are regarded as one of the most important priorities of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia. A part of those measures is included in the system of social protection, therefore elements of prevention, non-institutional and institutional protection and kinds of social assistance of social protection are present. It is also said that policies and regulations of the Government which are implemented are determined by numerous strategic documents as well as operating programs with which changes are achieved in accordance with the 41 European regulations. Thus, the international documents, conventions and recommendations have a significant places, including: Strategy for Social Cohesion of the European Parliament, the UN Millennium Development Objectives in the first developmental objective: poverty Alleviation and other recommendations on the basis of which gradual approach to the EU legislation is carried out. The expected results of the Strategy in the specific objective dedicated to children (Area 3) remain the same, except for “Improvement of the access to education for all children” is renamed beyond in “Providing access to non-institutional and institutional forms of protection” and the following results are added: Protection of the poorest citizens and Strengthening the
  • 62. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page62 system of social protection. 3.3 Financial support for parents of young children The rights to be protected, as cash benefits, under the conditions determined by the Law on Child Protection are provided by the state with funds of the budget of the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Law on Child Protection, the country provides the following allowances: Child benefit Special benefit One-off financial assistance for a new-born Participation Parental benefit Forms of Child Protection under the Law on Child Protection: • care and education of preschool children; • leisure and recreation for children and • other forms of protection. A great deal of the determined rights by the law can be provided by the local self- government/municipality, the City of Skopje and the municipality in the city of Skopje if the funds are provided from their own sources. The Law on Child Protection defines the minimum rights which are guaranteed by the state in the part financial assistance for children, and for
  • 63. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page63 their parents as well. Cash benefits which are exercised as rights according to the Law are: child benefit, separate benefit, one-off financial assistance for a new-born, participation and material help for the parents in order to help them support, raise care and protect their children. Within the funds determined by the Budget of the Republic of Macedonia for 2013 cash benefits are provided for approximately 54.000 children as a contribution to the parents’ primary responsibility to provide living conditions necessary for the child’s development, i.e. life standard corresponding to their physical, mental, psychological, moral and social development. Based on the Law on Child protection, the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, at the beginning of every year establishes a Program for Child Protection Development. 44 The aim of the program is to implement and improve the system of child protection. The financial assistance for the preschool children’s parents is a part of the children rights protection in the form of cash benefits. Child benefits (child benefits, special benefits and assistance for a new-born child) are special forms of child protection – monthly financial assistance to families on low incomes. a) Child benefit The child benefit is exercised depending on the number of children in a family, the age of the child and the financial situation of the family. This cash benefit is a right of the child which may be exercise by one of the parents. The conditions that the parent must fulfil are: to be a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia, to be a permanent resident of the Republic of Macedonia. The conditions to be fulfilled by the child are: to a be citizen of the Republic of Macedonia and to attend regular school in the country, depending on the age of the child and the financial situation of the family as well as the condition determined by the Law on child protection. Right to child benefit in accordance with the Law on child protection and the relevant bylaw may have a child by reaching the age of 18 if they attend regular school and if the average 44 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/programatrinaesettadetska.pdf
  • 64. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page64 monthly incomes of the family of the child per member do not exceed the limited amount according to the Law. The amount of the child benefit is: 1) for a child up the age of 15, i.e. until they are full-time students in primary school - 740 MKD 2) for a child from 15 to 18 years, i.e. until they are full-time students in the secondary schools - 1.175 MKD.45 By comparison, the average monthly net-salary per an employed person in the Republic of Macedonia, in January 2013 was 21.185 MKD.46 Therefore, if we make a comparison with the amount of the child benefit, they it is evident that the support is minor and it is far from satisfying the basic existential needs. Moreover, if we add to this the series of documents that the applicant must prepare for such kind of cash benefit (the amount of costs to obtain these documents) and to submit them to the relevant centre for social work, we may conclude that the support is more symbolic than essential. 4.03.5: Children's allowances 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Корисници на права Beneficiaries Додаток за деца Child care allowance Број на деца 37 869 35 774 34 423 26 588 22 626 Number of children Број на семејства 20 335 19 235 18 748 13 866 11 450 Number of families Корисници на посебен додаток Recipients of special allowanceБрој на деца 5 175 5 597 5 903 6 350 6 504 Number of children Број на семејства 4 997 5 417 5 708 6 117 6 286 Number of families Еднократна парична помош за новороденче 6 153 6 102 8 950 8 986 8 778 Recipients of package for newborn child Расходи, во илјади денари Expenditures, in '000 denarsДодаток за деца 268 394 279 282260 724214 423178 350 Child care allowance Посебен додаток 211 282 252 851280 503300 854295 146 Special allowance Еднократна парична помош за новороденче 22 036 22 922 42 825 43 303 43 356 Package for newborn child 45 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=02104BBDF585F646B23405B4A961223D 46 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=02104BBDF585F646B23405B4A961223D
  • 65. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page65 b) Special benefit Special benefit is exercised by a child with grave, severe and profound physical and mental disabilities in the development. Right to special benefit has one of the parents of the child for a child who is a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with a permanent residence in the republic by reaching the age of 26 provided that they totally are not institutionally taken care of by the state. A child with special needs with physical or mental disabilities in the development or combined disabilities in the development, up to the age of 26, is provided with a special benefit in the form of a cash benefit. Diagnosis, assessment and opinion for the need to exercise special benefit is provided by a competent body for assessment of the type and degree of disability of the people in the physical or mental development. A child with disabilities in the development and with special needs in terms of the Law on Child protection is: with grave, severe or profound physical disabilities; with mild, moderate or profound mental disability; the most severe forms of chronic diseases with the most severe degree of visual, hearing or speech impairment (a blind person or a practically blind person; a practically deaf or a totally deaf person; a person with complete absence of speech, a person with severely impaired speech due to polio, a person with autism, a person with impaired or lost previously acquired speech) with many (combined) disabilities in the development
  • 66. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page66 The amount of the special benefit is 4.346 MKD. It aligns with the growing of the living costs for the previous year published by the State Statistical Office, in January for the current year. c) One-off financial assistance for a new-born One-off financial assistance for a new-born is provided for the family of a first new-born baby. Right to use one-off financial assistance for a new-born has one of the parents, a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with permanent residence in the Republic of Macedonia for a child born in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The amount of one-off financial assistance for a new-born is 4.829 MKD. It aligns with the growing of the living costs for the previous year published by the State Statistical Office, in January for the current year.47 d) Participation in the costs of care and education in a public institution for children and a kindergarten Depending on the financial situation of the family, participation in the costs of care and education in a public institution for children and a kindergarten is provided. The participation is provided in the cost of service per child paid by the parent. 47 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=99AFD73E6F103F48BEAFE2A11633F0B9
  • 67. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page67 T-06: Children in public institutions for care and education - kindergartens by participation Вкупно Total Деца корисници на партиципација Children beneficiaries of participation Деца кои не се корисници на партиципациј а Children who are not beneficiaries of participation сé all полн износ на месечната уплата full amount of monthly payment до 20 % од месечната уплата up to 20% of monthly payment над 40 % од месечната уплата over 40% of monthly payment Вкупно 2010 Вкупно 2011 Јасли Градинки мала група средна група голема група Комбинирана група Деца со пречки во интелектуалниот или физичкиот развој Група за вонинституционалн а форма на активност Други групи (престој и исхрана) 23 157 25 056 3 673 19 725 7 339 5 479 6 907 1 485 75 98 348 548 9 530 82 127 321 3 6 - 174 166 8 358 185 5 7 2 - 343 183 4 67 14 1 57 68 2 219 101 1 2 - 1 6 - - - - - 22 809 24 508 3 664 19 195 7 257 5 352 6 586 1 482 69 98 Total 2010 Total 2011 Infant nurseries Kindergartens small group medium group big group Combined group Children with intellectual or physical disabilities Group for an extra- institutional form of activity Other groups (food and stay-over) e) Parental child benefit Parental child benefit is a right that the mother exercises for their third living child and who is a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with a permanent residence in the Republic of Macedonia for the last three years prior to the application. Parental child benefit cannot be exercised if the mother at the time of application lives or works abroad. If the mother is not alive, abandoned
  • 68. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page68 the child or due to justifiable reasons is prevented to directly take care of the child, the right instead of the mother may be exercised by the father or the guardian provided that they fulfil the required conditions. The parental child benefit is paid monthly for a period of 10 years.48 In 2013 it is provided that the right to a parental child benefit will be exercised/proceeded by approximately 14.000 children.49 The right to a parental benefit for a third new-born child has been exercised since January 1, 2009 and it is paid monthly for a period of 10 years in the amount of 8.048 MKD. It aligns with the growing of the living costs for the previous year published by the State Statistical Office, in January for the current year. Services and measures of social protection 1. Right to financial assistance for a mother with a fourth child The Law on Social protection in the Republic of Macedonia provides rights to financial assistance for mothers who gave birth to a fourth child. A mother who has given birth to a fourth live born child has had the right to financial assistance since January 1, 2009. The right is exercised by the mother who took care of the children until they have reached the age of 18, who is unemployed and do not receive pension, after the age of 62. The right may not be exercised if the mother has been deprived of the parental right to one of the children. The amount of the financial assistance is 8.000 MKD. It aligns with the growing of the living costs for the previous year published by the State Statistical Office, in January for the current year.50 48 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=3DA4AB1AD26CF1499015A417B3B4ABE1 49 Government of the republic of Macedonia, January 3, 2013, PROGRAM for development of the activity child protection 2013 http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/programatrinaesettadetska.pdf 50 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/default.asp?ItemID=EF904F1FF13510459EECBC5520F647C9
  • 69. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page69 2. Payment salary for half-time work due to care of a child with physical or mental disabilities in the development The right to payment salary for half-time work due to care of a child with physical or mental disabilities in the development and the most severe forms of chronic diseases, determined by the Labour Law, is exercised at the Centre for social work. The amount of the salary payment is 4.800 MKD. It aligns with the growing of the living costs for the previous year published by the State Statistical Office, in January for the current year.51 Contributions and other liabilities are calculated and charged in accordance with the Law on pension and disability insurance. Social contributions are calculated and paid in accordance with the Law on Contributions for Mandatory Social insurance. Overall, all kinds of the provided financial support are very low and are insufficient to cover all anticipated needs. At the same time, the anticipated procedures for exercising those rights are quite complicated. The same happens to the bylaws – they are limited as much as possible - instead of being a relief, they are an obstacle. There are no special policies related to father’s absence during the childbirth or later. Namely, paid leave for childbirth is not separated specifically form other events in the family. Pursuant to the Labour Law, article 136 “The employee entitled to paid leave due to personal and family circumstances (marriage, childbirth (only for the father) and/or death of a close relative) up to seven working days”. 51 See more: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/default.asp?ItemID=EF904F1FF13510459EECBC5520F647C9
  • 70. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page70 Table of benefits - social protection of children, young and adults and child protection Responsibility Services How much Criteria Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Child benefit 740 MKD Only subsidised a child up to the age of 15 or while they are regular students in primary school Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Child benefit 1.175 MKD Only subsidised a child from 15 to 18 years or while they are regular student in secondary school Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Child benefit 4.346 MKD Only subsidised a child with grave, severe and profound physical and mental disabilities in the development. Right to special benefit has one of the parents of the child for a child who is a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with a permanent residence in the republic by reaching the age of 26 provided that they totally are not institutionally taken care of by the state. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy One-off financial assistance for a newborn 4.829 MKD Only subsidised One-off financial assistance for a newborn is provided for the family of a first newborn baby. Right to use one-off financial assistance for a newborn has one of the parents, a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with permanent residence in the Republic of Macedonia for a child born in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Participation in the costs of care and education in a public institution for children and a kindergarten Only subsidised Depending on the financial situation of the family, participation in the costs of care and education in a public institution for children and a kindergarten is provided. The participation is provided in the cost of service per child paid by the parent.
  • 71. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page71 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Parental child benefit The right to a parental benefit for a third newborn child has been exercised since January 1, 2009 and it is paid monthly for a period of 10 years 8.048 MKD Only subsidised Parental child benefit is a right that the mother exercises for their third living child and who is a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia with a permanent residence in the Republic of Macedonia for the last three years prior to the application. Parental child benefit cannot be exercised if the mother at the time of application lives or works abroad. If the mother is not alive, abandoned the child or due to justifiable reasons is prevented to directly take care of the child, the right instead of the mother may be exercised by the father or the guardian provided that they fulfil the required conditions. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Right to financial assistance for a mother with a fourth child 8.000 MKD The Law on Social protection in the Republic of Macedonia provides rights to financial assistance for mothers who gave birth to a fourth child. A mother who has given birth to a fourth live born child has had the right to financial assistance since January 1, 2009. The right is exercised by the mother who took care of the children until they have reached the age of 18, who is unemployed and do not receive pension, after the age of 62. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Payment salary for half-time work due to care of a child with physical or mental disabilities in the development 4800 MKD The right to payment salary for half-time work due to care of a child with physical or mental disabilities in the development and the most severe forms of chronic diseases, determined by the Labor Law, is exercised at the Center for social work. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Day care in kindergarten 1.490,00 MKD paid by parents/guardians For children up to 6 years Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Half-day care in kindergarten Parents/guardians pay: Stay with snack – 599 MKD; Stay with combined meal – 806 MKD; Stay without snack 298 for children up to 6 years
  • 72. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page72 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Other forms of care and stay Care for 1 hour Parents/guardians pay: 65 MKD for children up to 6 years Ministry of Labor and Social Policy Stay and feeding Parents/guardians pay: 1.490 MKD from 7 to 10 years Ministry of Health Immunization and vaccination free Pursuant to the legislation, the immunization in the Republic of Macedonia is compulsory for children for 0 to 18 and compulsory on epidemiological indications for every age. Fund for Health Insurance protection during pregnancy and motherhood, 100% of the salary basis Absence from work due to pregnancy, giving birth and motherhood are part of the system for social protection and belong to the part maternity benefits paid by the Fund for Health Insurance. It is 100% of the salary basis. Return to the previous working place is guaranteed after the maternity leave ends. In the Republic of Macedonia, the mother has a right to a maternity leave in a duration of 9 months (28 days before the childbirth), and in case she gives birth to more than one child, the maternity leave lasts for 12 months. The use of maternity leave is optional and the mother can terminate it before the deadline. These financial benefits are valid only for employed mothers for a determined by law period of at least six months before the childbirth
  • 73. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page73 3.4 Schooling and related education services With recent changes in the legislation, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 15 years; it last for nine years and it is organized into three periods as follows: from I to III grade, from IV to VI grade and from VII to IX grade. Primary schools for pupils from I to III grade organize admission and protection of students one hour prior to the start of regular classes. For students from IV to V grade, schools organize extended stay in which students are included at the request of parents. During the extended stay students learn, do homework, do other school tasks and participate in the cultural, artistic and other activities regulated to school participate in cultural arts and other activities regulated by the school curriculum. In primary schools religious education organized as an optional subject, but political and religious action as well as organization and activity, as well as showing religious or political symbols. Educational process in primary schools is carried out in Macedonian and the Cyrillic alphabet, while for the members of the other nationalities, the educational process is carried out in the language and alphabet of the nationalities in a manner determined by the Law on Primary Education. 52 After the initiation of the 9-year primary education, every child at the age of 5 and 5 and a half years must enrol in first grade, but for now, there is no precondition for a child to have attended kindergarten. At the same time, it means that children start school without equal prior knowledge. Therefore, the curriculum for the first grade is more difficult to be acquired by those children who have not attended kindergarten. Thus, there is a discrepancy which is one reason more for the preschool education to become compulsory. In Macedonia, in the cities most of the children have basic prior knowledge when they start first grade, mu the situation is more dramatic in the villages where most of the children do not attend preschool institutions. 3.5. Preschool education and programs 52 Ministry of Education of the Republic of Macedonia http://www.mon.gov.mk/images/pdf/Zakon%20za%20osnovnoto%20obazovanie%202013.pdf
  • 74. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page74 In Macedonia, preschool education is not compulsory, i.e. it is not a precondition to enrol in primary education. In the Law on Primary education53 , as is already said in this research in the part "laws related to children preschool education", are not provisions referring to preschool education, but in certain documents of the Ministry of Education, responsibilities for educational work of the kindergartens are mentioned. Preschool education is a responsibility of the Municipality, while ME is responsible for the curricula (Bureau of Education Development) and the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy is responsible for all other aspects of the work of the preschool institutions.54 KINDERGARTENS The new Law on Child Protection (articles 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 – and whole parts 4, 5 and 6 of Article 57 and further to part 7 which is devoted to natural person that my take care of preschool children, and whole parts 9, 10 and 11 etc) provides 3 forms of “care and education of children”: kindergartens (public and private) centers of early child development (municipal or private) agencies providing services of care of preschool children With the decentralization, kindergartens are the responsibility of the local self-government, but the municipalities do little in the field of social care. Seldom some of the owners of the kindergartens decide to ask for a license (according to the new Law on Child Protection) since they believe that it will not be profitable. One of the main reasons for the delay of the whole process of legalization of the private kindergartens and playgrounds is the old law. In these circumstances, the state will have the authority and responsibility of: legislation, partial financing, external control of the quality of the work of kindergartens, development of standards or indicators foe effective kindergarten, accreditation of the programs for training of the educational and managerial staff, licensing of the competencies, activities and titles of educators 53 Education Law, http://www.mon.gov.mk/download_mk/Documents/Zakoni/zakon+za+osnovnoto+obrazovanie.pdf 54 The Education and the decentralization, Skopje 2006, page 11, http://www.osce.org/mk/skopje/19360
  • 75. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page75 and directors, determination of state curriculum which must be obeyed by every kindergarten, public financing. The State Education Inspectorate carries out inspection of the work of the Kindergartens in the field of education. Law on Educational inspection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 52/2005; 81/2008; 148/2009; 57/2010 and 51/2011) http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/Law%20on%20inspection%202011%20MK.pdf Educational Inspection is carried out by the State Education Inspectorate and authorized inspectors of the Municipality and the City of Skopje. Carrying out inspection includes inspection of the quality of the educational process and efficiency through evaluation of the work of the educational institutions as well as carrying out inspection of the implementation of the laws. Educational inspection is carried out in the primary and secondary schools and kindergartens by carrying out inspection of the process of keeping pedagogical register and documentation as well as their issuing and use in the preschool, primary, secondary…. Bureau for Education Development develops the kindergarten curricula on the basis of the Standards for Early Child Development (prepared by UNICEF). In Macedonia, preschool education is not compulsory and it is not a precondition for enrolment. Preschool institutions are responsibility of the municipality, but the whole preschool activity is regulated by the Law of the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, i.e. the new Law on Child Protection where pedagogical or educational work of the kindergartens is regulated. Then, the question is: who is responsible of the educational curricula given the fact that the Bureau of Education Development and Education Inspectorate are within jurisdiction of ME? Therefore, the responsibilities intermingle and the role of ME is not known. Since ME nowhere refers to preschool education and its departments are included in the work of the preschool institutions, i.e. have strong roles, by preparing curricula and carrying out inspection. Kindergartens organize care, stay, feeding, protection, education, sport, culture activities, measures and activities for improvement and health maintaining and encouragement of the intellectual, emotional, physical, mental and social development of a child up to 6 years, i.e. up to
  • 76. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page76 the inclusion in primary education. Data demonstrate that only 14% of preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia attend formal preschool program, which represents one of the lowest rates in south-eastern Europe. It is partially due to the fact that some parents regard kindergartens wrongly as day centres for care, but also due to the fact that there are kindergartens in only 50 municipalities out of 84 in the country. Only 15% of the children with disabilities attend primary school. Only 60% of Roma children enrol in primary school, whereas only 40% of them finish it. 55 Prices of services provided by the public institution for children – kindergarten for realisation of the programs for care and education of children are paid monthly as follows: DAY CARE PROGRAM For children up to 7 years – 1490 MKD HALF-DAY PROGRAM Stay with snack…………………599 MKD Stay with combined meal…………. 806 MKD Stay without snack ………………………298 MKD OTHER FORMS OF STAY One-hour care............................... 65 MKD STAY AND FEEDING OF A CHILD from 7 to 10 years..............................490 MKD Public services for ECE - KINDERGARTENS activities The activity of the kindergartens is realized through organizing and implementing programs which with respect to the duration of the programs, they are: day care, half-day care and shortened programs, pilot programs, extended stay program and non-institutional activities for children. The 55 Early child development and quality education , http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/15963_16144.html
  • 77. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page77 choice of the program that the child will attend is made by the parent depending on the cost of the program itself. Currently, according to the data from the State statistical Office, there are 54 public services for children (kindergartens) located in 40 municipalities, and in addition, in 7 more municipalities, care and education is organized in facilities belonging to another municipality. Considering that in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, there are 84 units of the local self- government without analysing smaller units- settlements, it points out that the number of facilities for care and education of children in the Republic of Macedonia does is not satisfactory. Recent data from the State Statistical Office in the Publication for “Public institutions for care and education of children – kindergartens”56 from 2009, 2010 and 2011 shows that the number of children in the public institutions for care and education of children – kindergartens- is 22.213 in 2009, then 23.157 in 2010 or 25.056 in 2011. Furthermore, it says that these institutions provide health protection, feeding and day care for the children in accordance with their developmental needs up to the age of 6, in several groups. The role of nursery is to provide full care and certain education of the children up to the age of 2. The kindergartens (small, middle and large group) systematically deal with care, upbringing and education of children from 3 to 6 years. The combined group of children systematically deals with care, upbringing and education of children from 12 months to 6 years. Children with intellectual or physical disabilities are those who are blind and visually impaired, deaf and with hearing impairments, children with physical disabilities, as well as children with difficulties in behaviour and personality. Care and education of these children is organized in the regular groups in the kindergartens. 56 State Statistics Office http://www.stat.gov.mk/PrikaziPublikacija_1.aspx?rbr=246
  • 78. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page78 број на установи број на деца број на домови број на ученици и студенти број на установи број на корисници number of number of number of number of pupils number of number of institutions Children homes and students institutions recipients 1989 638 39 330 38 9 530 .. ... 1990 648 39 334 38 9 718 2 217 1991 645 38 065 37 9 456 ... ... 1992 648 35 318 41 10 054 2 332 19921) 49 36 306 1993 49 35 559 41 9 952 ... ... 1994 263 36 896 43 9 535 2 242 19952) 275 38 245 42 9 087 2 254 1996 280 37 506 42 9 062 2 218 1997 285 36 666 41 9 100 2 380 1998 295 37 766 42 8 961 2 382 1999 295 38 348 42 8 750* 2 213 2000 297 37 801 43 9 132 2 196 2001 299 36 502 42 9 285 2 157 2002 302 36 417 41 7 750 2 169 2003 307 36 605 42 8 207 2 194 2004 309 36 392 43 8 719 2 208 2005 513) 20 9673) 41 8 428 3 250 2006 51 21 525 42 8 417 3 264 2007 51 20 564 39 7 991 3 280 2008 51 21 711 40 7 759 3 253 2009 52 22 213 40 7 540 3 257 2010 54 23 157 39 7 851 3 258 2011 54 25 056 39 7 955 3 255 2012 ... ... 39 8 209 ... ... 1) Од 1967 до 1992 година, податоците за организациите за згрижување и воспитание на деца од предучилишна возраст се однесуваат на учебна година, а од 1992 година на календарска година. Бројот на организациите во 1992 и 1993 година е намален поради
  • 79. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page79 прибирање на податоците на ниво на работна организација, а од 1994 година податоците за јасли, градинки и забавишта при предучилишна организација се однесуваат на календарската година и податоците се на ниво на работни организации. Податоците за забавиштата при основно училиште од 1994/1995 година се однесуваат на учебната година за самостојни и централни основни училишта што имаат забавишта. 2) Почнувајќи од 1995 година, истражувањата за деца лишени од родителска грижа, деца попречени во физичкиот и психичкиот развој, воспитно-запуштени деца и млади и за згрижување на возрасни лица се со годишна периодика 3) Видeте во методолошките објаснувања на страница 142 4) Видете во методолошките објаснувања на страница 14257 These data demonstrate low percentage of attendance of preschool institutions by children in the Republic of Macedonia, which is quite worrying since many pedagogues and psychologists emphasize the development of the children in the first six years of their life and the importance of the organized educational process. It is interesting to note the fact that the number of children enrolled in the kindergartens in 2010 and 2011 increased in comparison with 2009, but it is not known whether it is owing to the opening of new kindergartens or it only the number of children in the groups increased. Likewise, the situation with the available capacities in the kindergartens is not satisfactory as opposed to the number of children in the state belonging to the group of children who might be taken care of in the kindergartens (children up to the age of 6) which is approximately 164.000 and the number of the children taken care of in the permanent network of public institutions – kindergartens which is around 21.000. Therefore, the number of children represents only 12,8% which is a very low percent given that this segment of upbringing and education is not mandatory but it is very important for the development of the children’s personality and their socialization.58 57 State statistical Office, http://www.stat.gov.mk/PrikaziPublikacija_1.aspx?rbr=246, page 144 58 Government of the Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of labor and social policy of the Republic of Macedonia, Strategy for demographic development of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2015 http://e-demokratija.mk
  • 80. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page80 After the Concluded Observation of the CRC to the Republic of Macedonia in 2010, there is an improvement in the referring system about the data regarding the percentage of inclusion of children of the Roma community and other ethnical communities in preschool institutions. It is evident in this table that there is an increase in the number of Roma children and Albanian children.
  • 81. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page81 T-05: Children in public institutions for care and education - kindergartens according to declared ethnic affiliation Вкупно Total Маке- донци Macedo- nians Ал- банци Alba- nians Турци Turks Роми Roma Власи Vlachs Срби Serbs Бошњац и Bosniaks Други национа л- ности Other Не се изја- сниле Unde- clared Вкупно 2010 Вкупно 2011 Јасли Градинки мала група средна група голема група Комбинирана група Деца со пречки во интелектуалниот или физичкиот развој Група за вонинституционалн а форма на активност Други групи (престој и исхрана) 23 157 25 056 3 673 19 725 7 339 5 479 6 907 1 485 75 98 577 20 657 1 469 220 304 100 205 99 2 101 22 103 1 722 206 501 93 174 166 3 88 3 388 187 19 21 13 25 10 - 10 17 660 1 061 119 473 80 133 127 3 69 6 693 383 32 75 29 52 45 2 28 4 962 266 46 82 24 36 36 1 26 6 005 412 41 316 27 45 46 - 15 918 451 68 7 - 4 28 - 9 65 8 - - - 1 1 - - 72 15 - - - 11 - - - 520 50 - - 3 4 - - - Total 2010 Total 2011 Infant nurseries Kindergartens small group medium group big group Combined group Children with intellectual or physical disabilities Group for an extra- institutional form of activity Other groups (food and stay-over) The total available capacity of the public institutions for children – kindergartens is 22.472 places, and in them, the number of the taken care of children is 21.155 thus the utilization rate is 94%.
  • 82. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page82 However, if the situation with the utilization of the capacities at the level of municipalities, i.e. at the level of public institutions, is analysed, it can be noticed that this rate somewhere is below 50%, whereas in others, the number of taken care of children is quite higher than the existing capacity. 1) Up to 2004/2005, the preschool age group comprised children from 0 to 7+ years of age, in the
  • 83. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page83 day-care centres (nurseries), kindergartens (small, medium and big group), nursery schools within preschool organisations and nursery schools within elementary schools, reference date 30 September. 1) Since 2005/2006, public institutions for care and education of children - kindergartens cover children up to the age of 6, organized and divided into several types of groups (infant nurseries, kindergartens, combined group, children with physical or intellectual disabilities, group for an extra-institutional form of activities, preparatory group in primary education (0 group) and the other groups (food and stay-over), reference date 30 September. The gross rate equals the overall number of children taken care of within the kindergarten group regardless of the age, divided by the number of the population usually covers that specific age group. The net rate equals the overall number of children taken care of within the kindergarten group at certain level of age for children complying with the age defined by law, and divided by the number of the population usually covering that specific age group.59 Care and education of preschool children as an activity is organized and provided in public and private institutions for children. Institutions for care and education of children are: public (municipal kindergarten and kindergarten of the City of Skopje) and private kindergarten. Care and education is carried out in kindergartens, and for children not included in these institutions, possibilities for organizing other shortened non-institutional forms are provided. (Official Gazette of RM 98/2000). Apart from the formal system for preschool education in the kindergartens, in Macedonia there are also so-called informal centers or a system of alternative centers for early child development (ECD) which, in fact, are not or still are not part of the state system. As in many countries, ECD Centers aim at providing services like the others, marginalized groups of children, in contrast to the services provided by the more formal institutions. Programs in kindergartens60 59 STATE STATISTICS OFFICE PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FOR CARE AND EDUCATION OF CHILDREN - KINDERGARTENS, 2011 http://www.stat.gov.mk/Publikacii/2.4.12.01.pdf 60 Ministry for Labor and Policy, Programs in kindergartens http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=1228234A1F156D439D6598AA6C111A4E
  • 84. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page84 Organization and content of the activity is realized through programs. The educational work in a public kindergarten is carried out in accordance with the Basics of the program for educational work with preschool children in public kindergartens prepared by the Bureau of Education Development and which are adopted by an act of the Minister. The basics of the program regulate particularly theoretical basics and principles, objectives on which the program is based, examples of activities, expected results and cooperation with parents. Other programs of realization of the activity of a public kindergarten are created by a scientific institution, i.e. a specialized professional institution, and are adopted by an act of the Minister. The program for care and education in a private kindergarten is adopted by the founder after previously obtained positive opinion by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy. The Minister gives the opinion at the proposal of a commission consisting of two representatives of a scientific institution, or institution, one representative of the Bureau of Education Development, one representative of the Ministry. The expenses of the commission are covered by the founder of the private kindergarten. The program depending on the type, size and nature of the activity contains the conditions, criteria and standards for carrying out the activity, determined by this Law as well as the duration, objective and content of the activities. In a private kindergarten, care and education of preschool children may be realized in accordance with the programs which are decided by the body of the private kindergarten in accordance with the act of foundation. When the educational program in a private kindergarten goes according to the special pedagogical and other principles (Steiner, Decroly, Montessori), the Minister gives a positive opinion after the commission has determined that the program has been recognized by a relevant international association. Kindergartens according to the duration carry out programs for: -day care -half-day care -shortened programs
  • 85. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page85 -pilot programs -non-institutional forms of child activities Kindergartens may also carry out a program of extended stay for children according to the needs and working hours of the users of these services. Day care programs last form 8 to 11 hours and may be carried out in the morning, in the afternoon or alternately. Half-day care program last form 4 to 6 hours and may be carried out in the morning, in the afternoon or alternately. Shortened programs last form 240 to 600 hours a year. Day care and half-day care programs are intended for children before starting primary school and include care and education of children. Shortened programs are intended for children of underdeveloped areas and mountainous and border regions and settlements with birth rate lower the half of the average birth rate in the Republic of Macedonia and for children at the age of 3 years to starting primary school and include care and education with or without feeding of children. Shortened programs are also intended for children on prolonged hospitalization. Non—institutional activities – are short programs in a duration of 3 hours daily which may include: games, game activities, creative workshops, child workshops in the field of culture and art, sport activities intended for children at the age of 3 years to starting primary school – these are organized and carried out in public kindergartens after previous approval of the Minister in the opinion of the Commission. The work in the kindergartens is organizes in groups depending on the age of the children, usually in homogeneous groups as follows: to 12 months …………………………………. from 6 to 8 children from 12 months to 18 months…………………….. from 8 to 10 children
  • 86. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page86 from 18 months to 2 years …………………………..from 10 to 15 children from 2 years to 3 years……………………………….from 12 to 15 children from 3 years to 4 years …………………………………from 15 to 18 children from 4 years to 5 years ………………………………..from 18 to 20 children from 5 years to 6 years…………………………………..from 20 to 25 children Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this article, depending on the age of the children, it may be organized: Heterogeneous group - to 2 years………………………………………..from 10 to 12 children; from 2 years to starring primary school……………………………………….from 18 to 20 children Combined group – 12 months to starting primary school …………………..from 15 to 20 children Group of disabled children………………………………………………..from 5 to 8 children Group of children from 6 years, i.e. from starting primary school to 10 years…………………….. from 20 to 30 children In the groups of the points 1 and 2 of this article, one child with mild mental or physical disabilities may be included; therefore, the number of children is reduced by 2 children. Notwithstanding, depending on the working conditions, the need of children and parents or programs for carrying out the activity, the public kindergarten in the groups may have more or less children than the number of children approved by the founder of the institution on grounds of previously obtained written opinion from the Minister. Public kindergarten adopts a curriculum. Inclusion of children with special needs In the Macedonian model of inclusive education in children with special needs include: children with disabilities in psychological development, blind or visually impaired children, deaf or children
  • 87. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page87 with hearing impairment, children with speech problems, physically disabled children, chronically ill, with disabled behaviour, with learning disabilities, with emotional problems, without parents, from families with disrupted family relations, from culturally-depressed families, children not knowing the language of instruction, with children-refugees, with displaced children and gifted children. Within the preschool system, inclusion of children with special needs has its own normative structure in the amendments to the Law on child protection. For that purpose, it is provided that qualified professionals work with them thus to ensure quality in the work. Likewise, the legal basis is given in terms of breaking the barrier with respect to the language. Therefore, the right to attend the educational process in their mother tongue is guaranteed to the members of the other ethnic communities the percentage of which is significant and to which Macedonian is not their mother tongue. CENTERS FOR EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT (ECD) - PUBLIC AND PRIVATE In Macedonia, the official kindergartens have represented the sole institutions for ECD for many decades. In 2004, with the National Strategy for the Development of Education 2005-2015 and the amendments on the Law on Child Protection, the urgent need of alternative forms in preschool education, which will include all the children regardless of their background, was emphasized. Particularly, the issue of realization of the indisputable legal rights of the less privileged children in reality was highlighted. Within the National Program for the Development of Education of the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, it is outlined that: “Early child development will represent one of the priorities of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, and help from the civil sector in the realization of this goal will be valuable.” 61 The study on Early Child Education points out that in the Republic of Macedonia the process of defining the Standards for Early Learning and Development started in 2006 on the initiative of UNICEF Office – Skopje within the cooperation with the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy. The primary objective of this initiation was to develop a set of nationally acceptable standards for 61 National program for the development of education 2005-2015 http://www.npro.edu.mk/ http://www.npro.edu.mk/dokumenti/strategija- mk.pdf
  • 88. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page88 early learning and development in positive outcomes in the holistic development in children from 0 to 6 years (in the family, in kindergartens, children's recreation centres, as well as various informal forms of child care and education). In the National Development Plan 2008 – 2013, the Republic of Macedonia within the framework of better education for everyone also integrated early child development aimed at preschool children. In order to monitor the development of preschool children, adoption and implementation of the Standards for Early Learning and Development were set for this age group. Likewise, the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, within the Strategy for Demographic Development of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2015 planned taking appropriate measures and activities, particularly in the part of expanding the network of kindergartens, in order to enable equal access for all children, especially for children from the rural or disadvantaged municipalities, but at the same time measures to increase the inclusion of preschool children. With the process of decentralization, in the next period it is expected that the self-government units will take responsibility in the field of early child development (ECD). The transfer of the powers from central to local level should raise the awareness of the local authorities for maximum use of the existing capacities (infrastructure and personnel) so that the local community represents a pillar in the realization of the educational process in preschool children. It is positive that I certain municipalities have already started implementing the centres of ECD in their programs. National legislation (Law on Child Protection) in the Republic of Macedonia defines early child development as preschool education that includes, in addition to the measures for child care, measures and activities to promote the health and to improve intellectual, emotional, physical and social development. Expected values that children should possess in the achievement of the Standards for Early Learning and Development in the Republic of Macedonia are: independence, creativity, initiative, responsibility for themselves and for the environment, acceptance and respect for the different of themselves, tolerant behaviour and solidarity, and respect for the community and the state as a whole. There are not priority domains in child development. Respecting the holistic approach in the educational process and avoiding the tendency to favour certain domains in the development of child's personality, in the development of the standards for early childhood development in the
  • 89. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page89 Republic of Macedonia, attention is given to the following domains: Physical health and motor development Socio-emotional development Development of a learning approach Development of language, literacy and communication Cognitive development and acquisition of general knowledge To a large extent, development in little children is accomplished complementary though related developmental domains so that the progress that a child makes in one domain has a great influence on the development and progress that the child makes in another developmental domain. The complementary relationship and the mutual conditionality in all the domains imposed the holistic approach as a sole approach to the development of the standards for early learning and development in the Republic of Macedonia. Standards are expectations for what children are supposed to and may do at a certain age. Every expectation is inseparably related to the age. The standards for early learning and development in the Republic of Macedonia refer to the age interval form 0 to 6 years (or from 0 to 72 months), divided into the following age groups: 0-2 years (0-6 months, 6-18 months and 18-24 months) 2-3 years (24-36 months) 3-4 years (36-48 months) 4-6 years (48-60, 60-72 months) The division of the age groups is determined by the legislation on which the work of the kindergartens and the division of children into groups is organizes. According to a UNICEF study “Fair Play” published in 2010, the range of children at the age of 4 and 5 years in the formal kindergartens is 23%. Most of these children come from families in the urban areas where both of the parents have incomes and almost all mothers of these children
  • 90. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page90 have completed secondary school or higher education. The number of Albanian or Roma children that are included is small. Furthermore in this study it says that the research on the contributions of ECD demonstrates that with these programs the biggest return is achieved when they aim at the most marginalized. But exactly these groups continue being excluded. The financial situation in the country cannot explain the low degree of children enrolled in the preschool education; in comparison with the other countries in the region considering the income per capita. Given the high costs and the fact that the kindergartens, first and foremost, serve the richest groups, it is unlikely that the kindergartens will expand rapidly in order to include the poorest groups. Even though the centres for ECD seem to be less important than the formal kindergartens in respect to the total number of enrolled children – nowadays they are attended by approximately 800 children as opposed to 17,500 attending kindergartens – yet they represent a critical factor in the innovation of the ECD’s architecture in the Republic of Macedonia.62 The ECD centres primarily aim at including children from the most marginalized and the poor communities. Therefore, the program activities in them are more comprehensive than in the formal system of preschool education. The most important functions of ECD centres, different from the formal kindergartens, are the support from the local community in the identifying the vulnerable groups of children, organization of activities focused on providing support for little children and implementation of the Standards for Early Learning and Development (SELD) with which better readiness of the children for formal education is achieved. Likewise, unlike the formal system, ECD centres are focused on the cooperation with the parents, assistance and support for improved access to the basic social services for their children. The centres work for 2 hours daily. The question is whether a 2-hour daily program is sufficient to obtain the developmental stimulus desired for these children? On the other hand, UNICEF prepared a program Early Child Development – Materials for parents and other family members63 62 UNICEF Financial viable plan for equal access to early childhood programs in the country, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/UNICEF_Fair_Play_MK.pdf 63 UNICEF, Early childhood development - materials for parents and other family members, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/12189_20281.html
  • 91. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page91 The following titles are in Macedonian and Albanian: Aggression among children, Movement and music, Body movement, Geometrical patterns, Fruit or vegetables graphs, Sand games, Puppet plays by counting fingers, Making decisions, Early learning recipe, Recipes for cookies without baking, Cutting with scissors, What is missing and Time for bathing. According to the UNICEF analysis form April and May 2010, in 17 out of 22 centres supported by UNICEF, in general, Centres do not have sufficient finances and suffer from lack of instructional materials, sanitary facilities, opportunities for playing outside, etc. Municipalities take responsibility for providing space, but rarely do they contribute to the operating costs as salaries and materials. During the terrain visits that were conducted for the purpose of this report in June 2010, it was also noticed a mixed picture where richer communities, such as Bitola, give greater support for the Centres than the poorer communities, such as Radovish. The total number of the children enrolled in these 17 Centres is approximately 800. 64 In the same study it is emphasized that the average state subsidy per child is 53,710 MKD and that there is a big imbalance in the enrolment of the children in the preschool programs, even in 35 municipalities which are privileged to receive block grants. In order to calculate the unit cost, to the amount of the average state grant per child of 53,710 must be added the fee paid by the parents. That fee at yearly level is 17,880 MKD (1490 MKD). The total amount of these two components - from the state and from the parents- is 71,590 MKD per child in a year. Or in other words: enrolling a child in a day care program in a kindergarten in the course of a year costs almost half the annual income of an average Macedonian citizen. 3.6. Health cervices HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN Health protection of children in the Republic of Macedonia is realized through primary health protection within preschool and school dispensaries helped by a higher degree of the secondary and tertiary health protection in the hospitals and clinics. 64 Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Early child development, www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ran_detski_razvoj.doc
  • 92. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page92 Preventive health protection is defined in the Program for active health protection of mothers and children65 , Program for immunization and Program for systematic examination of school children and youth. Preventive health protection takes places within health institutions as following: - Mandatory immunization in accordance with the Program for Mandatory Immunization of the Population in the Republic of Macedonia - Systematic examinations of pupils and students in accordance with the program for systematic examinations of pupil and students in the Republic of Macedonia - Preventive dental protection for children up to 14 years - Systematic examinations of infants and young children (in accordance with the program for active protection of mothers and children the Republic of Macedonia) 65 Ministry of Health, Program for active health protection of mothers and children in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013, http://mz.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/majki-i-deca-2013.pdf
  • 93. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page93 *Since 2006 the data are presented according to a new method of recording and reporting the visits66 Death of infants is one of the basic indicators in order to assess health status of children in the Republic of Macedonia. It is not only an indicator of the health status of children, but also of development of health service, degree of care of the community to provide the best standard in the domain of children’s health as well as development of the community as a whole. During the first years after gaining independence in 1991, the rapid development of the country was followed by a big progress in relation to health protection of mothers and children. Mortality rate decreased, and immunization rate increased. However, dynamics of improvements has slowed recently and has failed to keep pace with the bigger economic achievements in the country. 66 State Statistical Office, 04.02. Health Care, T-04.02.11: Infant and preschool children health car
  • 94. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page94 As the country moved away from its socialist past and went through a political and economic transition, the initiations in health helped to prevent hundreds of unnecessary deaths in children. The country achieved impressive results in decreasing of mortality in children under the age of 5 years, from 36 per 1000 births in 1990 to 11 per 1000 births in 2008. Professional delivery in hospitals became universal, expect for the Roma community. The immunization rate has maintained stability at around 95% in the last decade. In 2003, the country was the first in the region to receive a certificate of eradication of iodine deficiency. HIV/AIDS rates are less than 0,1%.67 In 2011 a further decline in the number of dead infants was observed which resulted in decrease of the infant mortality rate from 7,6 in 2010 to 7,5 per 1000 live births. The infant mortality rate in children under the age of 5 years, though varies, still shows a decreasing trend and in 2011 it was 8.6 per 1000 live births.68 T-03.02.11: Infant deaths by age group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Вк уп но 234 223 278 185 172 Total До 30 де на 180 171 221 137 115 Under 30 days 0-6 дена 136 117 167 98 81 0-6 days До 24 час а 59 47 74 34 30 Under 24 hours 1 ден 30 32 37 25 21 1 days 2 дена 11 14 18 14 15 2 days 3 дена 6 11 9 11 6 3 days 4 дена 8 5 9 6 2 4 days 5 дена 11 7 9 3 3 5 days 6 дена 11 1 11 5 4 6 days 7-13 дена 26 23 31 17 15 7-13 days 14-20 дена 9 17 12 11 8 14-20 days 21-27 дена 8 11 9 8 9 21-27 days 28-29 дена 1 3 2 3 2 28-29 days 1 месец 21 19 22 14 24 1 month 2 месеца 8 5 9 10 13 2 months 3 месеци 6 7 6 3 6 3 months 67 UNICEF, Health of mothers and children, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/15963.html 68 State Statistical Office, www.stat.gov.mk, vital statistics/page 83/84
  • 95. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page95 4 месеци 6 4 3 3 1 4 months 5 месеци 2 3 2 3 3 5 months 6 месеци 1 - 4 3 3 6 months 7 месеци 4 2 2 5 2 7 months 8 месеци 3 6 3 4 - 8 months 9 месеци 1 3 3 - 2 9 months 10 месеци 2 1 2 - 2 10 months 11 месеци - 2 1 3 1 11 months Г-03.02.3: Стапка на перинатална смртност и стапка на смртност кај доенчињата, 2002-2011 G-03.02.3: Perinatal mortality rate and infant mortality rate, 2002-2011 Prenatal mortality is three times higher than the EU average, and immunization coverage is far lower in the rural areas and in certain ethnic groups. The World Health Organization recommends that women have at least four medical examinations during pregnancy. Yet, the national average is 2,8 medical examinations during pregnancy. Only 4 per 10 pregnant women have regular medical examinations during the first three months which is a key point in prevention of complications occurrence. There are some areas where children are not vaccinated, with a significant disparity in Roma and Albanian community and those living in rural areas. According to the Institute for Mother and Child Health Protection, the Republic of Macedonia has made a lot to improve the health status of mothers and children and has achieved a significant
  • 96. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page96 progress to reduce maternal and infant mortality and child mortality. Two of the 8 UN Millennium Development Goals (goal 4 and 5) that must be achieved by 2015 refer to health of these two groups. They are decrease of maternal mortality (by3/4) and decrease of mortality of children under the age of 5 years (by 2/3).69 UNICEF has also been developing a broader diet plan dealing with anemia, which represents one of the biggest reasons for complications during pregnancy. Immunization of children Compulsory vaccination of children in Macedonia is implemented in accordance with the laws and bylaws of this area and it is free. Pursuant to the legislation, the immunization in the Republic of Macedonia is compulsory for children for 0 to 18 and compulsory on epidemiological indications for every age. In accordance with the Rules of immunization and the Law on protection of the population from infectious diseases, vaccination is given against tuberculosis, hepatitis type B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, paralysis, measles, rubella, mumps and against human papilloma viruses. The National Program for Immunization is one of the programs financed from the Budget of the Republic of Macedonia, coordinated by the Ministry of Health. With the funds from the immunization program, the yearly needs of vaccines are provided every year. The program is set up every year and in it the age groups subjected to vaccination within the year, the vaccines and the manner of vaccination are noted.70 According to the data from the NGOs, 8% of the children in Macedonia are not immunized. A project - Roma Health Mediators Within the implementation of the Decade of Roma 2005-2015 and the Strategy for Roma in the Republic of Macedonia, in 2010, the Ministry of Health in collaboration with the civil sector started implementing the project “Roma Health Mediators”. The aim of this project is to 69 Institute for Mother and Child Protection, http://www.zds.com.mk/majkideca.html 70 Ministry of Health, Strategy for Immunization in the Republic of Macedonia 2012-2020 with the Action Plan 2012-2015 http://mz.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/strategija_imunizacija.pdf
  • 97. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page97 overcome the differences in the communication of the Roma population and health professionals, to identify people and families with no access to health protection through terrain visits and their informing on the access to a health protection and health insurance and informing on the availability of free health services provided with the preventive and curative programs of the Ministry of health and improvement of Roma health status. Within the project, 15 health mediators in 8 institutions in the appropriate municipalities with dominant Roma population have started since May 16, 2012. Health mediators are to be found in the Health institutions in the relevant municipalities so that they could be easily accessible to the population and health professionals.71 3.7. Social Policy The rate of unemployment in Macedonia is 30,6%. According to the data of the State Statistics Office, in the 4 quarter of 2012, active population in the Republic of Macedonia consists of 948,125 people out of which 657,849 are employed and 290,276 are unemployed. That is one of the reasons because of which the problem with child poverty cannot be solved immediately. It must be set as a priority and all parties should actively be included in its elimination. In that level the social policy system is crucial, but there a lot of obstacles, for e.g. the low monthly amount for social assistance offered by the state as an assistance is really of small help for the families under risk. The longer functioning of the family system with a minimum of financial resources causes dissatisfaction of the needs and ruining of the family balance. It is concluded that there is a large number of administrative procedures in the provisions that regulate the right to social assistance in the Law on Social Care which limit the right of the child to get an efficient care. Based on the Regulation book for the manner and the conditions for exercising the right for a financial compensation for an assistance and care by another person (Official gazette 102/06) it is necessary to submit 26 documents which are issued by different relevant institutions72 . The situation is not much different with the other rights as well, such as the right to a social care, the right for an additional amount for children, the right to a special additional amount, etc. 71 Ministry of Health, http://mz.gov.mk/romski-zdravstveni-medijatori-2/ 72 FCEW MEGJASHI, NGO Alternativ report, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/Alternative%20reports%20- B5%20format.pdf
  • 98. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page98 Institutions for Social Welfare in Macedonia: T-04.03.9: Institutions for social welfare 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Домови за доенчиња и мали деца 1 1 1 1 1 Infant and small children homes Корисници 106 87 98 115 108 Recipients Вработени 62 65 65 65 65 Employees Детски домови 1 1 1 1 1 Children and youth homes Корисници 91 82 75 59 60 Recipients Вработени 36 45 44 44 44 Employees Установи за згрижување на деца и 1 млади без родители и родителска грижа 1 1 1 1 Institutions for children and juveniles lacking parental care Корисници 83 84 84 84 87 Recipients Вработени 40 40 44 40 42 Employees Установи за згрижување на лица со 3 посебни потреби 3 3 3 3 Institutions for care for persons with disabilities Корисници 502 477 432 390 378 Recipients Вработени 283 325 319 301 301 Employees Меѓуопштински центри за социјална 27 работа 27 30 30 30 Intermunicipal centres for social work Вработени 795 1 007 1 025 1 040 1034 Employees Заводи - центри за стручно 1 оспособување и вработување на инвалиди 1 1 1 1 Institutions for professional training and employment Корисници 156 156 138 148 149 Recipients Вработени1) 43 42 43 44 44 Employees1) Трговски друштва за вработување на 377 инвалиди 362 338 268 251 Trade companies for employment of disabled persons Приватна сопственост 377 362 338 268 250 Private ownership Друга сопственост - - - - 1 Other ownership Корисници 2 283 2 412 2 353 2 394 2292 Recipients Приватна сопственост 2 283 2 412 2 353 2 394 2287 Private ownership Друга сопственост - - - - 5 Other ownership Вработени1) 5 171 5 437 5 342 5 551 5302 Employees1) Приватна сопственост 5 171 5 437 5 342 5 551 5291 Private ownership Друга сопственост - - - - 11 Other ownership Установи-домови за возрасни лица 4 5 5 5 152) Institutions for adults Корисници 481 532 542 555 854 Recipients Вработени 125 120 122 132 250 Employees Заводи за згрижување, воспитание и 1 образование на деца и млади 1 1 1 1 Reception centres for care and education of children and juveniles Корисници 27 32 22 23 25 Recipients Вработени 36 39 40 40 40 Employees Установи за згрижување на деца и 1 млади со воспитно-социјални прлеми 1 1 1 1 Institutions for care for children and juveniles with educational and social difficulties Корисници 62 64 59 55 48 Recipients Вработени 21 39 37 33 32 Employees 1) Including recipients (disabled persons). 2) See notes on methodology, page 143
  • 99. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page99 ДОДАТОК 5 - МАПА НА СИСТЕМОТ НА УПРАВУВАЊЕ
  • 100. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page100 3.8 Culture and information In the official documents of the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (laws, annual programs) it is said that vacation and recreation of the children is basically realized in children resorts, but other forms of exercising this right may be included. But, it is known that, unfortunately, there is only one resort that still operates from the network that used to operate. Other ways of protection refer to the activities on the field of cultural, publishing, care and educational activity in order to encourage development of the child’s personality, their talent, mental, physical, and creative and other skills as a preparation for individual and responsible life. If needed, other programs are developed. 3.9. Policies and practices for pregnant mothers Within the system of social protection, there are various measures aiming at women’s protection during pregnancy and motherhood, as well as care of the new-born after the birth. Absence from work due to pregnancy, giving birth and motherhood are part of the system for social protection and belong to the part maternity benefits paid by the Fund for Health Insurance. It is 100% of the salary basis. Return to the previous working place is guaranteed after the maternity leave ends. In the Republic of Macedonia, the mother has a right to a maternity leave in a duration of 9 months (28 days before the childbirth), and in case she gives birth to more than one child, the maternity leave lasts for 12 months. The use of maternity leave is optional and the mother can terminate it before the deadline. These financial benefits are valid only for employed mothers for a determined by law period of at least six months before the childbirth. Women dealing with agriculture may use the maternity benefits only of they are registered and if they actively engaged in agriculture and are socially insured.
  • 101. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page101 4. Quality System in Macedonia Policy, Program, Practice Name Responsible Ministry or Agency Web address The Law on Accreditation Institute for Accreditation of the Republic of Macedonia http://www.iarm.gov.mk/ 4.1 National Qualifications Framework At state level, the Institute for Accreditation of the Republic of Macedonia has been formed.73 The system of quality control in Macedonia, based on the Law on accreditation74 is based on the institutional pillars: Institute for standardization, Bureau of metrology and Institute of accreditation. The Institute is a full member of the European Organization for Accreditation which is supposed to mean that it satisfies the relevant international criteria of performing accreditation activities. The Ministry of Labor and Social Policy grants status to organizations of public interest which perform social services. Since 2004, an organization entered in the register carried out by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy may perform action in the field of social protection, under condition, in a manner and a procedure determined by the Law on Social Protection. Inclusion of associations and civil organizations in this sphere is provided in the National Program for Development of Social Protection 2011-2021. There are 53 registered organizations in the resister of civil organizations operating in the field of social protection carried out by this Ministry. Civil organizations are active in the spheres of employment, social solidarity, equal opportunities, domestic violence, support of disabled people, marginalized groups, child protection and so on. 73 Institute for Accreditation of Republic of Macedonia, http://iarm.gov.mk 74 Official Gazette of R.M. No. 120/2009, 02.10.2009, Law on Accreditation, http://iarm.gov.mk/images/stories/dokumenti/Law.pdf
  • 102. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page102 But the role of the civil organizations in this sphere still is not sustainable enough; the activities are not characterized by a great diversity of services and apply to a limited circle of users.75 Civil organizations, especially associations, are more active in the implementation of services in the field of education, health etc. The Foundation of Educational and Cultural Initiatives “Step by step” – Macedonia, has developed the concept of “Professional Learning Communities” which gives an opportunity for support and broadening the knowledge that educators gain through various workshops and seminars. When teachers or educators work together, they mutually motivate themselves to maintain their dedication to new and effective teaching practices. For that purpose, new models encouraging professional development of the employees in the kindergartens are needed. It is an attempt for a change towards improvement of the quality of the preschool education in the Republic of Macedonia through formation of “Professional Learning Communities” – a model tried in 8 schools included within the USAID project for primary education. Each team of the selected schools was led by a team of mentors consisting of advisors from the Bureau of Education Development and educational coordinators from the Foundation “Step by Step”. In the preschool institutions where the planned activities are to be realized, it is expected a culture of constant professional development among the employees to be created thus to improve the work in the whole kindergarten and to ensure quality educational practice. All planned activities are in accordance with the principles of competent teachers for the 21st century (ISSA Pedagogical Standards and ISSA Quality Resource Pack), developed by the International Association "Step By Step" and the Foundation for Educational and Cultural Initiatives "Step by Step" Macedonia. Introduction with these principles will encourage the members of the professional learning communities of the preschool institutions to think in a creative way and to act in accordance with the postulates of the interactive pedagogy gaining special skills and techniques that will help them practice their own newly acquired knowledge thus to contribute to improvement of the quality of the preschool education in the Republic of Macedonia. The planned activities are to be realized in a period of 2 years. 75 http://www.nvosorabotka.gov.mk/dmdocuments/Predlog_Strategija_2012-2017.12.01.2012.pdf
  • 103. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page103 Trainings of teachers working with preschool children In the research on trainings of teachers, various issues raised. Firstly, there is not a systematized database through which the number of the teachers that have passed any kind of peace education could be seen. In the period after 2001, the number of workshops, trainings, educations devoted to peace contents increased. Likewise, a large number of different NGOs held trainings on these topics primarily due to the post-conflict tensions and the necessity to address these issues, but also due to the fact that finances are relatively easily obtained for anything called “interethnic issue.” Primary and secondary school teachers as well as preschool teachers had a priority in these peace educations. Rare programs designed exclusively for preschool age like the trainings of the staff in Mozaik kindergartens or “Step by step” programme are exceptions. Furthermore, if an approximate number is determined, the question of what kind of training is about, i.e. more detailed thematic or different systematization is still unanswered. Due to the sensitivity in the interethnic relations, a large part of the trainings are done under neutral or acceptable names and topics, while one of the main objectives – interethnic dialog and cooperation easily delayed. Likewise, from one-day workshop lasting 2 hours to one-day workshops lasting 7 hours, from one topic treated in the whole workshop to many topics treated in one workshop, from the duration of a workshop to the number of trainers/educators host, the differences are individual and big. The third step would be an analysis of the trainings. If different organizations hold certain trainings on the same topic, then it is important the manner it is treated and transferred to the participants and the differences arising from the organisational approach itself. Again, there are big differences primarily in the manner of learning, whether it is more oriented to lecturing or theory, or it is more oriented to experiential learning and finding personal solutions etc. Since Peace Education is not carried out on exactly defined contents and working units transferred to the others, various organizations have been trying in various manners to influence resolution of problems. Different approaches have their own values, but then it is difficult to find a mutual basis in the analysing and using the experiences form the conducted educations.
  • 104. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page104 4.2 Quality assurance in Civil Society Organizations Macedonia is in the initial stage of introducing quality systems of CSO. Orientation, similar to the Slovenian model and to what is being done in BiH, is towards adaptation to the ISO management standard. In Macedonia there are several civil organizations which have implemented the ISO standard (ISO 9001:2008). At present, creation of a local base of knowledge and setting an institutional basis for implementation of such system which will allow certification of quality system auditors in NGO and certified quality managers in NGO is being done. The new law on Civil Organizations76 raised the standards and if the NGOs observe to it, then it may be said that they manage with quality. However, the pressure for increased quality in the work of the NGOs constantly grows as a result not only of the Law on associations and Foundations which introduces requirements and whose fulfilment means achievement a minimum level of standards, but also because of: -The requirements of the donors which raise the criteria and which apart from good projects, they pay more attention to the organizational capacities (strategic plans, procedures and systems, financial management capacities etc.) -The necessity to ensure sustainability of CSO since without a proper quality of the services, the organizations cannot expect to achieve good results, impact and a good public image. Furthermore, awareness building of the NGOs on this issue is needed, and more detailed information about the existing standards is needed. The advantages and challenges of introducing systems to ensure quality To the most representatives of the NGO sector with whom within this research we discussed about these issues, the implementation of quality systems represents a quite serious and complex process which requires significant invested resources: - Time -1-3 years for implementation and continuous process of system maintenance) 76 Собрание на Република Македонија, Указ за прогласување на Законот за здруженија и фондации, http://www.nvosorabotka.gov.mk/dmdocuments/kosjv/ZAKON%20ZA%20ZDRUZENIJA%20I%20FONDACII.pdf
  • 105. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page105 - People devoted to the proses, first of all, will, patience and dedication by many stakeholders: Civil Organizations (CSO), those organizations/institutions which will undertake to manage the process and which will need to invest experts and create infrastructure to support the process of implementation and maintenance the standards as well as probable certification. The NGO representatives, in general, believe that the advantages of the implementation of standards in the work of NGOs are in providing a complete focus on the target groups, security, and capacity increase for all the employees and reduced costs on work.77 Likewise, the advantages reflect in: -Improved management and increased focus on the organizational development - Increased efficiency and increased services offered by CSO -Building institutional memory -Improved image and credibility, increased trust -Improved management of the people in the organization and increased motivation - Organizations to exchange experiences and good practices -Implementation of standards will contribute to increase of experiences -Organizations need to fight to achieve sustainability of the processes and the activities which they undertake, not only to achieve sustainability of the organization -If minimum standards in the functioning of the civil organizations are set, it will contribute for them to be more credible, more quality to the donors, decision makers and target groups - Stabilization of the organization (each of the employees knows their role) -Rules and procedures enable more quality realization of the projects -Greater efficiency and transparency -Achievement of goals and tasks and increased responsibility of the organization 77 TACSO Macedonia http://www.tacso.org/documents/reports/?id=5066 Report of the national conference "The quality of the NGOs work", Ohrid 14-15.06.2011
  • 106. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page106 -Target groups get more quality service and easier access to information -It is much easier to work when there are rules, codes etc. -Implementation of these systems leads to more quality work of the organization -Of great importance is the existence of a resource center providing support during these processes -Organizations to have a certain protocol in order not to wander from one to another field -Finding a suitable model of standards which does not require a lot of sources -With the existence of ready manuals, plans and codes, new people in the organizations are easier to fit in Before the implementation of standards in the Macedonian civil society, various challenges rose, starting from the beliefs that the certification might have negative influence on the civil activism and sector in general, that the civil sector is yet to be discussed for minimum standards or standards applying to all CSO as well as to the need of specific standards by areas of action. However, part of the civil organizations, i.e. their representatives consider that organizations must adapt to the circumstances and to change the procedures and rules that do not function in accordance with the legal regulations and ethic norms. Likewise, standards should adapt to the development level of the organization. Implementation of standards makes NGOs more credible in their activities. But to reach the standards, the organizations need to turn to themselves and establish minimum standard inside so that they become stronger. Often it happens to the organizations someone else to write and impose the standards on them which is a challenge for them since they do not have institutional standards which they already use and which function for them in a probably sort of different way. Standards are positive for the organizations and should apply. However, it does not mean that the organizations must accept everything of the standards. It is sufficient only the minimum, basic standard as well as the thing that corresponds to their conditions. Likewise, successful practices noticed in certain organizations may be imposed as functioning rules. Standards are needed to
  • 107. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page107 meet the needs of the target groups, but also to respect the legal provisions. Other challenges lie in certain obstacles in the implementation of quality systems, such as: -time (for consistent monitoring of the rules, it is necessary to have a person who will constantly take care of it) - Frequent change of the staff in the organizations - In certain organizations, most of the people spend their time outside their offices (terrain activities) – Necessity of more information on the process and benefit of the CO standardization - While choosing the system of standardization, to examine well what is the most suitable for us - To choose a system adapted according to the size of the organization The process is important, i.e. the way to reach the system - Trainings for the process of standardization are needed - More workshops to explain the whole process of implementation of standards - Mentoring in the introduction of the standards with a dispersed approach (local mentors) -The state to co-finance the CSO certification78 At national level, there is no body that carries out evaluation or certification of the quality of the NGOs and there is no strategy to monitor the quality of their work. It this is done, a lot of attention must be paid due to the specificity of the activities of the CSO. 78 A report of the National conference: The Quality of the work of the civil organizations, http://www.tacso.org/documents/reports/?id=5066
  • 108. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page108 4.3 Written internal policies of the organization The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi developed systems and internally written and unwritten work procedures. In the everyday work, FCEWM rely on the following written procedures: -Charter of The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi as a system of values of the organization -CODE of NGOs for children’s rights protection adopted my Megjashi and signed by 15 civil organizations - SOS phone for children and youth has standardized their activities according to Child Help Line work standards of SOS lines in the world 0800 12222 -Rulebook for work with children not attending school taken care of in the Day center for street children - New procedures for dealing on grounds of anonymous leaks and reports on the SOS phone for children and youth 0800 1222 - Rulebook to prevent money laundry and terrorism financing. A person in the organization is in charge of monitoring and implementation of this Rulebook -Rulebook for protection and dealing on grounds of personal data protection -Rulebook for document archiving - The First Children’s Embassy who leads the Macedonian National Coalition on the Rights of the child signs a memorandum of cooperation with partner organizations to prepare a shadow report on the situation of the children’s rights - Rulebook for using free days, annual leave and sick leave to employees - Every year a financial and descriptive plan for the current year is prepared -Annual program for the activities of the organization -Megjashi has a rulebook on accounting and every year they conduct external independent
  • 109. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page109 financial audit -If they have a financial opportunity, they carry out external assessment for the current programs and project. - Prepared and revised strategic plan 2012-2015 5. Monitoring and Evaluation 5.1. Monitoring and evaluation of the preschools institutions At present, in Macedonia there are the following systems for supervision and evaluation of quality of the educational system: State Education Inspectorate is responsible of supervision in the implementation the laws and other regulations and acts of the work of the educational institutions. Professional supervision or qualitative aspects of the work of the school is the responsibility of the Bureau of Education Development. According to the Law on Educational Inspection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 52/2005; 81/2008; 148/2009; 57/2010 and 51/2011)79 the State Education Inspectorate during 2013 will carry out inspection in the kindergartens as well, in the part of education: Article 1 The Law on Education regulates the organization, responsibilities and powers of the education inspection that is carried out by the State Education Inspectorate and authorized inspectors of the municipality and of the City of Skopje (hereinafter education inspectors). 79 Law on Education Inspection, http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/Law%20on%20inspection%202011%20MK.pdf
  • 110. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page110 Article 2 Carrying out educational inspection includes supervision of the quality of the educational process and the efficiency through evaluation of the work of the educational institutions of the primary and secondary education and carrying out supervision of the implementation of the laws, other regulations and general acts in the field of education. Educational inspection is carried out in: primary schools, secondary schools, kindergartens, institutions for adult education, institutions for education and training of students with special educational needs (hereinafter educational institutions. In higher education and scientific institutions, inspection of the implementation of the laws regulating high-educational and scientific work on issues determined by this law is carried out. Article 9 The State Education Inspectorate carries inspection over: 1) existence of conditions for carrying out the activity in the educational, high-educational and scientific institutions, and student dormitories. 2) realization of the educational process in preschool, primary and secondary education... 12) keeping pedagogical register and documentation as well as their issuing and use in preschool, primary and secondary education and student dormitories. 5.2. Quality control of education One of the rare documents which insist on introduction of standards in Education are: - National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, Draft-program for Providing and Quality Control of Education -National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015 which as an accompanying document contains the following document important for this research: Program for Development of Preschool Education. Within the National Program for Providing and Quality Control of Education, it is emphasized that
  • 111. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page111 the standards which are insisted upon in the separate sections (sub-programs) of the National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia represent a solid basis for building clear and practically feasible procedures for monitoring and evaluation of the quality of the educational services which schools provide for the users.80 The National Program is precise on what and how something should be undertaken or done, but the implementation of it encounters huge difficulties and resistance in practice, particularly in the field of primary and secondary education. A typical example is the external evaluation. But let’s see what is the most important in terms of preschool education in this program adopted due to the inefficient functioning of the system for providing and quality control because of many reasons f which the most important are: unclear division of the responsibilities in this domain of existing institutions as well as the lack of an institution whose primary task will be to follow the trends in achieving the standards at state level. 5.3. Quality control standards In the same document, National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, Plan for Implementation of the System with Dynamics of the Activities it is pointed out that the system for providing and quality control of the education should be completely normatively reregulated. The provisions are not sufficient. They state who supervises the work of the educational institutions, who evaluates the quality of education, who carries out external evaluation and exams etc. The standards will be used as indicator to determine the achievements of the students in different circumstances and they may be used by different subjects interested in the situation of the education. Many things in connection with this significant task need to be normatively regulated Only with a good and complete normative regulation it will be provided to be obeyed and practiced irrespective of the political (party) interests and structures. 80 National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, Draft-program for Providing and Quality Control of Education http://www.see-educoop.net/education_in/pdf/macedonia-kontrola_i_kvalitet.pdf
  • 112. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page112 Therefore, in the same National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, is clear said "it is necessary to develop and adopt amendments to the laws on preschool education... (or to develop new laws on preschool, secondary and vocational education)" in the fields referring to all aspects related to providing and quality evaluation in education, assessment of the achievements of the students and the work of the managerial and other staff in the educational institutions (principals, educators, teachers and professional workers). Standards are basis for providing and control of the desired quality. It is necessary to have 3 groups of standards for providing and quality control in education: Standards for (pre)conditions – for the necessary space, equipment, teaching materials, textbooks, appropriate and sufficient teaching staff, standards for financing schools etc. These are national standards with which the state provides everything that must be provided so that an educational institution is registered to perform appropriate educational activity. Standards for the process – This includes standards for a curriculum in the broadest sense of the word, i.e. for the syllabuses and curriculums which provide the objectives, content, standards for planning and organization of the educational work, for the teaching methods and assessment manners, for the organization of the educational work (number of students in a class or educational group, number of teachers, size of the school, total number of working days and their organization throughout the year – calendar of the academic year) etc. Standards of achievements represent accepted descriptions of the levels of quality and quantity of knowledge that students are expected to achieve by the end of a certain period of education. Curriculums determine what students are supposed to know an be able as a result of acquisition of the content provided by the program, and the standards of achievements represent specifying and differentiating of the achievements by levels. Such specifying and differentiating enables objective and valid view of the achievements of the students and facilitates their measurement and evaluation.
  • 113. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page113 6. People 6.1. Champions The Ombudsman of the Republic of Macedonia as a new institution in the legal system of the Republic of Macedonia is established by the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 52/91, 1/92, 31/98 and 91/01) in 1997. The Law on Ombudsman (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 60/03) determines the competence of protection of the constitutional and legal rights of the citizens when they are violated by bodies of the state administration and other bodies and organizations having public authority. The Ombudsman performs the matters of their competence on grounds of and within the framework of the Constitution and Law as well as the international legal acts on human rights and freedoms. National Coalition for the Rights of the Child in their Alternative Report on the rights of the child with respect to the Ombudsman outlined the following conclusions which still are valid though the report was made 4 years ago.81 Regarding the Ombudsman, the NGOs concluded that there is bigger motivation and cooperation with this institution, but recommended is increasing of its competences. It is needed to improve and staff the department that works on protection of children’s rights, and above all, specialize it in only this area (Ombudsman who works on protection of children’s rights, also works in other areas, such as health, etc...) Although FCEW Megjashi since 1996 has advocated for the creation of a separate institution Children's Ombudsman, this institution was reduced only at level of one Deputy Ombudsman. Although the Government in its report provides information on "Children's Ombudsman and his work”, we must stress that this is a separate department dealing with children's rights, but the Deputy Ombudsman who works on children’s rights, also works on health cases and other thematic areas. Children's Ombudsman should have the authority to perform investigations, to bring charges, to lead procedures and monitor the final outcome of the procedure. 81 Alternative report of the nongovernmental organizations to the state reports about the situation with the rights of the child in the Republic of Macedonia, pages 23/24, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/Alternative%20reports%20-B5%20format.pdf
  • 114. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page114 Regarding the existence of a Department for Protection of the Rights of the Child within the Ombudsman institution, there is a need for increasing the awareness on the existence of this department, targeting children, but also parents and schools. Also, the NGOs emphasize the fact that there is legal opportunity and obligation to report crimes: Article 142 2 of the Criminal Code provides that public authorities, institutions that perform public competences and other legal entities are obliged to report criminal acts which are prosecuted ex officio, for which they are being notified or find out in other way. Based on the data available to the Coalition, the Ombudsman during all these years has made 2 to 3 charges. In none of the cases that we, the members of the coalition have, the Ombudsman has not filed criminal charge in direction of protecting the rights of the child. After his passivity, NGOs are forced to independently file criminal charges to the Public Prosecution. At the end of this observation, Coalition recommend that establishment of a Children's Ombudsman as a special separated institution which will be fully committed to protection of children’s rights. In its Concluding observations of 11 June 2010 the Committee on the Rights of the Child gave the following recommendations to the Republic of Macedonia, in regard to the Ombudsman: to ensure that the institution of the Ombudsman is fully in line with the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles, General Assembly resolution 48/134, annex), taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 2 on the role of independent national human rights institutions in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child (CRC/GC/2002/2), and seek accreditation from the International Coordinating Committee of the national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights; The Committee recommend Macedonia to ensure that the deputy Ombudsman is accessible to children and adequately equipped to receive and investigate complaints of violations of child rights in a child-sensitive manner, and ensure that children and their families are aware of the possibility to submit complaints to this institution and ensure the unit on child rights protection within the institution of the Ombudsman has the capacity, authority, resources and financial independence necessary to carry out its mandate effectively.
  • 115. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page115 When speaking of the children’s rights, the role of the First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi - the Republic of Macedonia is unarguable. 82 Megjashi as a small organization has a huge influence on the society, which is generally unusual for an NGO to have so big impact. In the 21-year work, Megjashi has been making a lot of changes in the society, not only in the field of children’s rights but also in the field of peace. The peace education component is deeply rooted in the work of Megjashi from the very beginning. It is evident, in the documentary83 about 20th anniversary of Megjashi and other documents. The Megjashi's dedication to the peace approach in the children's rights is spreading in the context of building non-violent democratic society with unusual range of activities successfully adapted to the needs of children in the new unexpected acute crisis situations and moments in the society - from humanitarian, protection of the refugees and sheltering them, from protection, promotion, advocacy... The peace component is evident when Megjashi often criticize not only the institutions in Macedonia, but the international institutions, as well. Though, Megjashi, at the same time, cooperates with them. Megjashi demanded resignation of Minister of Defence and it was the first and last time here in Macedonia for an NGO to demand resignation, it was due to child abuse for more than political purposes: using children to join NATO. It is only one from more examples...All the 21-year work of Megjashi is dedicated to realization of the vision of society which children learn in their schools about peace, cooperation, solidarity and non-violence. In 2001 Megjashi was the first recipient ever of an award for civil society and democracy given “in recognition of its lasting and sustainable contribution to the establishment of democratic society in Macedonia.” Also Megjashi has a big trust in the citizens in Macedonia. About the trust, you can see: English, http://childrensembassy.org.mk/2011en-ns_article-conducted-research-on-confidence- in-the-civil-organizations.nspx or Macedonian, http://www.mcms.org.mk/images/docs/2011/doverbata-vo-makedonija- 2010.pdf 82 The First Children's Embassy in the World Megjashi - Republic of Macedonia http://childrensembassy.org.mk/home.nspx 83 The First Children's Embassy in the World Megjashi - Republic of Macedonia, Documentary Full version with English subtitles 1992- 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ghzWKYuJ6A
  • 116. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page116 Data-bases of services providers/NGOs Even though the Republic of Macedonia received candidate status for EU membership, still it falls behind many other countries in transition in tits socio-economic development and faces many social problems, and much is to be done in order to improve the quality of the social services. Faced with these facts, the state grants status to NGOs which will carry out educational or social services of public interest. There is already such register in the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy. Civil organizations are registered and they are active in providing social services, especially in the fields where the state has small capacity, like the situation with providing day centres for socially vulnerable people, helplines and other services with limited human or material resources In the Republic of Macedonia, there are several civil organizations that carry out services which the state allows to be serviced by the civil sector. Namely, the Association of the children’s rights and the First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi have services that provide services of public interest for care of the street children. The Shelter Center and Open Gate have a shelter for women-victims of violence and human trafficking. The First Children’s Embassy in the World Megjashi and some women organizations have direct services for help through special phone numbers for protection of children and women – victims of violence and other kinds of abuse (see the Child Help Line part - 2.4.6.). There are several volunteering services for home care created by NGOs which provide services by using volunteers to provide services. Here are: “Humanost” in the municipality of Aerodrom; “Sumnal” in Shuto Orizari; “Kitka” in Prilep; “OFO” iin Sveti Nikole; “Multikultura” in Tetovo, “Prodolzhen zhivot” in Strumica; and “Nov zhivot” in Shtip. All these face problems in maintenance of the services and with the wide range of the needs of the users.84 Referral systems/statistical data Regarding the system of reference, i.e. record, collection and selection of data, in the recent years there has been a significant improvement but still it is necessary to further strengthen the systems for collection and analysing of data at the national and local level to promote adoption of policies based on evidence. 84 Citizens based analyzes Report, kvalitet na socijalnite uslugi, 2010, http://undp.org.mk/content/Publications/People-centered%20Analyses%20MK%20web.pdf
  • 117. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page117 Absence of a system for record, collection and selection of statistical data of the Centres for Social Work, municipalities, schools and other state institutions in the field of interest is evident. To have a full picture of the situation with the rights of the children and in line with more quality protection of the rights of the children, it is necessary to keep records of the number of the children-victims by specifying the type of abuse and violation of the children’s rights. With respect to the statistics related to the children at risk, street children, human trafficking, victims of domestic violence, victims of paedophilia, there are positive implications to determine the exact number of children. There is no record of the children not included in the educational system, i.e. the municipalities that have accurate evidence of the children not attending school are rare. 85 We can conclude that it is evident that progress has been made in the last several years in terms of collection of social statistical data through the State Statistics Office, but still it should be worked more in this field, especially when we speak about the collection of the data from social, health or education sector. The data at national level are routinely collected by the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy – but these are partial and sometimes not objective, it is said in the Alternative Report on the children’s rights. 86 The Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and its departments face a similar problem collecting data and monitoring of the programs. For instance, the Centres for Social Work (CSW) routinely do not collect data for different people which may be used for analysis at central level and the monitoring of the programs and evaluation are constantly neglected which inadvertently lead to protection of unethical or illegal transactions and obstructs the reforms in the sector. Statistical data for the social protection of children, young and adults and child protection are collected by regular annual surveys. Social welfare includes data on:87 juvenile and adult recipients of social welfare and forms, measures and services; institutions for children lacking parental care; 85 Alternative Report of the nongovernmental organizations to the state reports on the situation with the rights of the child in the Republic of Macedonia, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/makedonski%20B5%20format.pdf 86 page 26, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/Alternative%20reports%20-B5%20format.pdf 87 State Statistical Office, http://www.stat.gov.mk/OblastOpsto_en.aspx?id=3
  • 118. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page118 institutions for care of persons with disabilities; reception centres and institutions for children and juveniles with educational and social difficulties; institution for adults; institutions for professional rehabilitation; intermunicipal centres for social work and homes and boarding schools for pupils and students Child care covers the data on: children's allowances and public institutions for child care and education - kindergartens. Data on juvenile and adult recipients of social welfare and forms, measures and services and data on children's allowances are collected with a regular annual survey for the period 1 January to 31 December. Data on institutions for accommodation of young children, juveniles and adults, and intermunicipal centres for social work are collected with a regular annual survey, reflecting the situation as on 31 December. Homes and boarding schools for pupils and students provide lodging, food and education for pupils (in elementary, secondary schools and secondary religious schools) and students during the education outside their parents'/supporters' place of residence. Data on homes for pupils in elementary and secondary schools, homes for secondary religious school students and dormitories for students who are educated outside their parents'/supporters' place of residence refer to the situation as on 31 March. Data on public institutions for child care and education - kindergartens are collected with a regular annual survey, with 30 September as reference date.
  • 119. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page119 Interested networks to be included in the PRECEDE In Macedonia, there is not an other network expect Macedonian NGO Coalition for the Rights of the Child, which could be interested to be include in the PRECEDE. But, two key organizations are expected to be included in the following period. We suppose that the Nancen Dialog Center and the Mozaik would be interested to include and support this initiative. By inclusion of these two organizations of the civil sector the capacities of the organizations will be strengthened in terms of the processes of reconciliation and unity through education of children from early childhood 7. Recommedations PART TWO: INTERIM RECOMMENDATIONS A. Skills and knowledge of NGOs for policy and practice research Most of the NGOs in Macedonia do not have experience in practice research, but we believe that there is no need to develop such skills and knowledge in the period when the project is in its pilot phase more attention should be paid to the other bullet points. The knowledge about the policies could be integrated in the other trainings contents. B. Skills and knowledge for monitoring policy and evaluation To provide training of NGOs for Project Management for Peace Work and Peace Education- Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Training and activities are probably carried out with quality, but there is a problem of no mechanism to monitor the activities that are carried out.
  • 120. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page120 C. Skills and knowledge for advocacy and lobbying To make the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Education and Bureau for Education Development to be partner of the PRECEDE project. They do not have finances for that, of course, but they open the door for our goal :). One such project to be formalized may take up to two years, but it is a guarantee that there will be no obstacles for that purpose and the entry of NGOs involved in PRECEDE into the kindergartens will be guaranteed. To have regular meetings with the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy in order to attain the objectives of PRECEDE Training of NGOs for advocacy and lobbying in the field of ECED; With the NGOs network organize strategy paper and common or individual NGO s plan for advocacy and lobbying, with action plans; Organize a strategic planning workshop at national level to discuss the steps and conduct an actor's mapping with the level of their influence; Organize the presentation of the PRECEDE developed concept with media, related ministries, teachers, parents councils, kindergartens and directors, representatives of the Bureau for Development of Education...; Develop contacts with local and international/intergovernmental organisations (e.g.UNICEF) in Macedonia active in the field of ECED and peace education. D. Toolkit development and testing Develop a manual for the NGOs with the Institutes of Pedagogy and other related institutions as Bureau for Education Development and other organizations in order to involve them in peace education in ECED and lobbying for it. Existence of various written documents, reports, documentations for various trainings could be compiled in one place.
  • 121. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page121 E. Capacity building for civil society organizations Integrate part of the NGOs staff into the training program; Integrate participants from the related Ministries and bodies in the trainings as well as some of them as experts; The NGOs involved in the trainings should be multi-ethnic Each training to be conducted by trainers from Macedonia, multiethnic teams. The experiences from abroad are welcome but together with domestic trainers; Develop training plans for NGOs in the field of peace education in ECED Development of NGOs organisational internal capacities in the area of peace building and non- violent conflict transformation. To develop SWOT-analysis for NGOs Basic training of NGOs for non-violent transformation of conflicts Offer basic trainings for motivated members of NGOs for Peace education in ECED to more NGOs; Organize advanced trainings for NGOs members who will continue to work (e.g. with the aim to integrate Peace Education content, methods and values into their organization first of all and after some period if the project continues to implement it in the preschool institutions). Make a previous analysis of the trainings in terms of how different organizations provide a certain training on topics of peace building for the NGOs; the way it is developed, which methodology is used and transferred and the differences that result from the organizational access since the social and the political context in Macedonia are not supportive of peace contents, including dealing with the past and reconciliation. Hence, identification of all individuals and organizations may be of great help. Additionally, attention should be paid to identification of those politically active but interested to support these processes. The process of introducing these topics should be careful, oriented to dialog and cooperation with a wide circle of potentially interested, through explanation of the social benefits for all. The thing that should be avoided and which often happens is addressing the government by the NGOs for the things that they have not done for the last 20 years. For that approach, NGOs which have long experience in participatory peace building should be used.
  • 122. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page122 Various NGOs in Macedonia have a certain amount of knowledge, skills and experiences related to these issues. The thing that is missing is the greater cooperation among them and a clear mutually articulated space for action. For that purpose, it should be invested in the capacities of those organizations which want and have the energy to encourage the cooperation in the NGO sector or those which already have a history of cooperation with different organizations. Use of positive examples of exiting Macedonian-Albanian cooperation in the NGOs themselves as well as inter-organizationally should be used in the promotion of these values through a personal example. NGOs more often act together publically encouraged by the injustice and the society problems. (March for Peace, Police Brutality etc). This trend should be supported and develop, but at the same time to be used to increase cooperation and mutual action for peace building. To form a network of teaching staff which has passed educations, with information on the education it has passed and the field they are interested to work on. In the work of the NGOs there is a lack of relation between theory and practice, academic and activist field as if were opposing. Certification/accreditation of the training and trainers. To provide trainings for the national NGO network for the Quality assurance and quality standards for the NGOs in relation to the Macedonian conditions, with a presentation of the experiences from the neighbouring countries. Other recommendation: As Macedonia does not have a special Law of Preschool Education this analysis demonstrates the necessity of creation and adoption of a law on ECE in which Peace Education will be a component part.
  • 123. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page123 Bibliography 1. Ombudsman of the Republic of Macedonia, protecting children from alcohol and cigarettes http://ombudsman.mk/upload/documents/Deca-MAK-Alhohol%20i%20cigari.pdf 2. A report of the National conference: The Quality of the work of the civil organizations, http://www.tacso.org/documents/reports/?id=5066 3. Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution, Study on Multiculturalism and Inter-ethnic Relations in Education, UNICEF Country Office, Skopje, 2009, p. 12 4. Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 52/91, 01/92, 31/98, 91/2001, 84/2003, 07/2005,03/2009. 5. Foundation of educational and cultural initiatives STEP BY STEP http://www.stepbystep.org.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=64&Itemid=49&l ang=mk 6. Government of the Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Labor and Social Policy of the Republic of Macedonia, Strategy for Demographic Development of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2015 http://e-demokratija.mk 7. Government of the Republic of Macedonia, January 3, 2013, PROGRAM for development of the activity child protection 2013 http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/programatrinaesettadetska.pdf 8. Institute for Accreditation of Republic of Macedonia, http://iarm.gov.mk 9. Institute for Mother and Child Protection, http://www.zds.com.mk/majkideca.html 10. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Standards for early childhood development www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ran_detski_razvoj.doc 11. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Early child development, www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/ran_detski_razvoj.doc 12. Ministry of Health, Program for active health protection of mothers and children in the Republic of Macedonia for 2013, http://mz.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/majki-i-deca-2013.pdf 13. Ministry of Health, Strategy for Immunization in the Republic of Macedonia 2012-2020 with the Action Plan 2012-2015
  • 124. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page124 14. http://mz.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/strategija_imunizacija.pdf 15. Ministry of Health, Roma health mediators, http://mz.gov.mk/romski-zdravstveni-medijatori-2/ 16. Ministry of Local Self-Government , mls.gov.mk/files 17. Ministry of Local Self-Government, Law on Self-Government, Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 29/1996 and 68/2004 18. Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Macedonia, Comparative overview of the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and Convention on the Rights of the Child, May 2010 19. Ministry of Education, Strategy for Integrated Education, p.24 http://mon.gov.mk/images/stories/dokumenti/integrirano_obrazovanie/policy_paper_adopted_m k.pdfMinistry 20. Ministry of Education of the Republic of Macedonia, Education Law http://www.mon.gov.mk/images/pdf/Zakon%20za%20osnovnoto%20obazovanie%202013.pdf 21. Education Law, http://www.mon.gov.mk/download_mk/Documents/Zakoni/zakon+za+osnovnoto+obrazovanie.pd f 22. Ministry of Education, Law on Education Inspection, http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/Law%20on%20inspection%202011%20MK.pdf 23. MOZAIK, Programme, http://www.sfcg.org/programmes/macedonia/mozaik.html. 24. MOZAIK, Audio story (English), The project for a bilingual kindergarten in Macedonia is a lasting success, http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/mk/features/setimes/audio_story/2012/12/27/a udio_story-06 25. National Action Plan on the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Macedonia 2012-2015 (NAP) adopted by the Government, http://www.nkpd.gov.mk/images/Image/NPAPD%202006- 2015%281%29.pdf. 26. National Program for the Development of Education 2005-2015 http://www.npro.edu.mk/ http://www.npro.edu.mk/dokumenti/strategija-mk.pdf 27. National Program for Development of Education in the Republic of Macedonia 2005-2015, Draft-
  • 125. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page125 program for Providing and Quality Control of Education http://www.see- educoop.net/education_in/pdf/macedonia-kontrola_i_kvalitet.pdf 28. National Strategy for Poverty Alleviation and Social Exclusion in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2010-2020 29. http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/revidirana_str_siromastija.pdf 30. National Strategy for Poverty Alleviation and Social Exclusion in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2010-2020, Statistics Office 31. http://www.uncsd2012.org/content/documents/678National%20Strategy%20on%20Alleviation%2 0of%20Poverty%20and%20Social%20Exclusion%20in%20the%20Republic%20Of%20Macedonia- EN9Nov2010.pdf 32. Assembly of Republic of Macedonia, Official gazette 1991, 16. http://www.sobranie.mk/default.asp?ItemID=892AAAF8C601DB4885DC010E52A00678 and http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/7A7AE998652140F8B5D7A54FF150BAB5.pdf 33. Assembly of Republic of Macedonia, Decree declaring the Law on Associations and Foundations http://www.nvosorabotka.gov.mk/dmdocuments/kosjv/ZAKON%20ZA%20ZDRUZENIJA%20I%20FO NDACII.pdf 34. State Statistical Office of Macedonia, State Statistical Office, www.stat.gov.mk, vital statistics/page 83/84 35. State statistical Office Republic of Macedonia, http://www.stat.gov.mk/Default_en.aspx; 36. State Statistical Office, 04.02. Health Care, T-04.02.11: Infant and preschool children health car 37. UNICEF Skopje assessment system reform to protect children in FYROM Macedonia, December 2007 38. UNICEF, UN CRC Concluding Observations, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/CRC.C.MKD.ConcludingObesrvaitonsENG.pdf 39. UNICEF, Early child development and quality education, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/15963_16144.html 40. UNICEF, Health of mothers and children, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/15963.html
  • 126. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page126 41. UNICEF, Children and municipalities, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/Decata_i_opstinite_MK_FINAL_za_na_WEB_05.pdf 42. UNICEF, Early childhood development - materials for parents and other family members, http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/macedonian/12189_20281.html 43. UNICEF Financial viable plan for equal access to early childhood programs in Republic od Macedonia, Settembri 2010 http://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/UNICEF_Fair_Play_MK.pdf 44. UNDP, Citizens based analyzes Report, Gragjanski based analysis, quality of social services, 2010http://undp.org.mk/content/Publications/People-centered%20Analyses%20MK%20web.pdf 45. UNDP and SEEU, People Centered Analysis, April 2010, p58, State Statistics Office, http://www.stat.gov.mk/OblastOpsto.aspx?id=2 46. Stip, Action plan for children http://www.stip.gov.mk/index.php/mk/lokalen-ekonomski- razvoj/akcioni-planovi 47. UNICEF, Standards for early childhood development http://www.erisee.org/downloads/2013/2/Standards%20for%20early%20childhood%20education %202009%20MK.pdf 48. The Macedonian Coalition of NGOs on the Rights of Children, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/2010-ns_article-preporaki-na-komitetot-za-pravata-na- deteto-dostaveni-do-vladata-na-republika-makedonija-po-osnov-vt.nspx 49. OSCE, The Education and the Decentralization, Skopje 2006, page 11, http://www.osce.org/mk/skopje/19360 50. OSCE, Age, Contact, Perception, How Schools Shape Relations Between Ethnicities, Skopje, Jan 2010, p. 14 51. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/MKIndex.aspx 52. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Committee on the Rights of the Child, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/ENACARegion/Pages/MKIndex.aspx, Concluding observations (2010), OPSC : Concluding observations (2010), OPAC : Concluding observations (2010) 53. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, Official gazette 1991, 16. http://www.sobranie.mk/default.asp?ItemID=892AAAF8C601DB4885DC010E52A00678 and
  • 127. THIS PROJECT IS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) Civil Society Facility (CSF) The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission Page127 http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/7A7AE998652140F8B5D7A54FF150BAB5.pdf 54. Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, Criminal Code, No. 37/96. 55. Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, 16.04.2010, http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/623772ADC92FEE42A1DB496E1E190648.pdf 56. Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, Law on amendments of the Criminal Law, No. 80/99, 4/02, 43/03, 19/04, 81/05, 60/06, 73/06, 7 /08 , 139/08 , 114/09, 51/11, 135/11, 1185/2011, 42/2012, 166/2012. 57. Official Gazette of R.M. No. 120/2009, 02.10.2009, Law on Accreditation, http://iarm.gov.mk/images/stories/dokumenti/Law.pdf 58. http://www.nvosorabotka.gov.mk/dmdocuments/Predlog_Strategija_2012-2017.12.01.2012.pdf 59. STATE STATISTICS OFFICE, PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FOR CARE AND EDUCATION OF CHILDREN - KINDERGARTENS, 2011 http://www.stat.gov.mk/Publikacii/2.4.12.01.pdf 60. Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Programs in kindergartens http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=1228234A1F156D439D6598AA6C111A4E 61. TACSO Macedonia http://www.tacso.org/documents/reports/?id=5066 Report of the national conference "The quality of the NGOs work", Ohrid 14-15.06.2011 62. The FCEW MEGJASHI, Annual report 2012, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/content/pdf/SOS.izvestaj.2012.pdf 63. The First Children's Embassy in the World MEGJASHI, Alternative report of the nongovernmental organizations to the state reports about the situation with the rights of the child in the Republic of Macedonia, pages 23/24, http://www.childrensembassy.org.mk/WBStorage/Files/Alternative%20reports%20- B5%20format.pdf 64. The First Children's Embassy in the World Megjashi - Republic of Macedonia, Documentary Full version with English subtitles 1992-2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ghzWKYuJ6A 65. The Broadcasting Council , Broadcasting Council of the Republic of Macedonia, Regulation on the protection of minors from harmful programs that may affect their physical, mental and moral development, http://www.srd.org.mk/images/stories/Pravilnik_maloletnici.pdf