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Chapter 6

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SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND GROUPS

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND GROUPS

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  • First two are on next slide, discuss 3-6
  • This is applying the idea of mechanical and organic solidarity to the discussion of how individuals are integrated into society
  • Delegation of both power and responsibility – Heirarchical top down
  • Transcript

    • 1. SOCIAL GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS
    • 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following :
      • Explain the functions of groups.
      • ◗ Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. ◗
      • ◗ Understand the role of reference groups.
      • ◗ Know the influence of group size.
      • ◗ Understand the characteristics of bureaucracy.
      • ◗ Know what the concept of “the iron law of oligarchy” is .
    • 3. THE NATURE OF GROUPS
      • In everyday speech the term is used for almost any occasion when two or more people come together.
      • In sociology we use several different terms for various collections of people, not all of which are considered groups.
      • DEF: Social groups interact according to established statuses and roles
    • 4. SOCIAL GROUP - SOCIOLOGY
      • A social group consists of a number of people who have:
      • Common identity
      • Some feeling of unity
      • Certain common goals
      • Shared norms
    • 5. SOCIAL GROUP
      • A social group has a purpose and is therefore important to its members, who know how to tell an “ insider ” from an “ outsider.”
      • HOW DO SOME GROUPS IDENTIFY INSIDERS?
    • 6. SOCIAL GROUPS
      • Six characteristics of social groups:
        • 1. Permanence beyond the meetings of members, that is, even when members are dispersed
        • 2. Means for identifying members
        • 3. Mechanisms for recruiting new members
        • 4. Goals or purposes
        • 5. Social statuses and roles, that is, norms for behavior
        • 6. Means for controlling members’ behavior
    • 7. PRIMARY VS SECONDARY GROUPS
      • The difference between primary and secondary groups is based on the kinds of relationships their members have with one another.
    • 8. PRIMARY GROUPS
      • DEF: Involve interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another and in a situation, who know one another intimately , and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles.
      • EX: FAMILY - OTHER EXAMPLES??
    • 9. SECONDARY GROUPS
      • A secondary group
      • Is characterized by much less intimacy among its members.
      • Usually has specific goals
      • Is formally organized and is impersonal .
      • EX: WORKPLACE
      • - OTHER EXAMPLES?????
    • 10. FUNCTIONS OF GROUPS
      • To function properly, all groups, both primary and secondary , must
      • Define Boundaries
      • Choose Leaders
      • Make Decisions
      • Set Goals
      • Assign Tasks
      • Control Members’ Behavior
    • 11.
      • Defining Boundaries
      • A method for determining who belongs to the group and who does not (symbols, rituals, language, etc)
      • Choosing Leaders
      • A leader is someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influence in a group. All groups must grapple with the issue of leadership.
    • 12. LEADERSHIP ROLES
      • Two types
      • Both types are crucial to the success of a group.
    • 13. LEADERSHIP ROLES
      • Instrumental leadership
      • In which a leader actively proposes tasks and plans to guide the group toward achieving its goals.
      • Expressive leadership
      • A Leader works to keep relations among group members harmonious and morale high
    • 14. SOCIAL AGGREGATE
      • DEF: A social aggregate is made up of people who temporarily happen to be in physical proximity to each other, but share little else.
      • What else does a social aggregate lack, that a social group possesses?
    • 15. REFERENCE GROUP
      • DEF: A group that an individual uses to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior.
      • Provides a comparison point against which people measure themselves and others.
      • Is often a category we identify with, rather than a specific group we belong to.
    • 16. SMALL GROUPS
      • Many kinds of social groups, such as families, peer groups, and work groups, that actually meet together and contain few enough members so that all members know one another.
      • As a group grows larger, the number of relationships within it increases, which often leads to the formation of subgroups .
    • 17. DYAD AND TRIAD
      • DYAD - DEF: A group of two . This is the smallest possible group
      • TRIAD - A group of three
      • The addition of a third member, creates uncertainty because it introduces the possibility of two-against-one alliances.
    • 18. LARGE GROUPS/ ASSOCIATIONS
      • DEF: Groups which are purposefully created interest groups that have clearly defined goals and official methods
      • Because of their size associations need to break up work into tasks which can be assigned to individuals.
      • They also have a formal and informal structure
    • 19.  
    • 20. Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Durkheim
      • Every society has a collective conscience,
      • DEF: a system of fundamental beliefs and values.
      • Social solidarity emerges from the people’s commitment and conformity to the society’s collective conscience .
    • 21. Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Durkheim
      • A mechanically integrated society is one in which a society’s collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience.
      • Organically integrated society social solidarity depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks.
    • 22. SIMILAR TO DURKHEIM’S SOLIDARITY TONNIES VIEW OF SOCIAL RELATIONS
      • GEMEINSCHAFT
      • COMMUNITY
      • RELATIONSHIPS ARE INTIMATE, PERSONAL AND COOPERATIVE
      • SIMILAR TO MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY
      • GESELLSCHAFT
      • SOCIETY
      • RELATIONSHIPS ARE IMPERSONAL AND INDEPENDENT
      • SIMILAR TO ORGANIC SOLIDARITY
    • 23. BUREAUCRACY
      • A formal, rationally organized, social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity.
      • Ideally every series of actions is functionally related to the purposes of the organization.
    • 24. Weber’s Bureaucracy: An Ideal Type
      • IDEAL TYPE is a simplified, exaggerated model of reality used to illustrate a concept.
      • For bureaucracy Weber identified six ideal characteristics by which it could be identified
    • 25. SIX CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACIES
    • 26. THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY
      • Oligarchy
      • Organizations that were originally idealistic and democratic eventually come to be dominated by a small self-serving group of people who achieved positions of power and responsibility.
      • More likely in large organizations because decision making becomes centralized and the heirarchical structure stifles dissent.
    • 27. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
      • Different societies have different ways of doing things, although the same social needs are met.
      • Social institutions are the vehicle (means) for doing these things.
      • Social Institutions DEF: The ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society’s needs.
    • 28. Social Institutions meet social needs in five basic areas:
    • 29. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
      • Social organization DEF: T he relatively stable pattern of social relationships among individuals and groups in society.
      • Social Relationships are based on systems of statuses, social roles, norms, and shared meanings that provide regularity and predictability during social interaction.