Chapter 6

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SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND GROUPS

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  • First two are on next slide, discuss 3-6
  • This is applying the idea of mechanical and organic solidarity to the discussion of how individuals are integrated into society
  • Delegation of both power and responsibility – Heirarchical top down
  • Chapter 6

    1. 1. SOCIAL GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS
    2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following : <ul><li>Explain the functions of groups. </li></ul><ul><li>◗ Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. ◗ </li></ul><ul><li>◗ Understand the role of reference groups. </li></ul><ul><li>◗ Know the influence of group size. </li></ul><ul><li>◗ Understand the characteristics of bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><li>◗ Know what the concept of “the iron law of oligarchy” is . </li></ul>
    3. 3. THE NATURE OF GROUPS <ul><li>In everyday speech the term is used for almost any occasion when two or more people come together. </li></ul><ul><li>In sociology we use several different terms for various collections of people, not all of which are considered groups. </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Social groups interact according to established statuses and roles </li></ul>
    4. 4. SOCIAL GROUP - SOCIOLOGY <ul><li>A social group consists of a number of people who have: </li></ul><ul><li>Common identity </li></ul><ul><li>Some feeling of unity </li></ul><ul><li>Certain common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Shared norms </li></ul>
    5. 5. SOCIAL GROUP <ul><li>A social group has a purpose and is therefore important to its members, who know how to tell an “ insider ” from an “ outsider.” </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO SOME GROUPS IDENTIFY INSIDERS? </li></ul>
    6. 6. SOCIAL GROUPS <ul><li>Six characteristics of social groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Permanence beyond the meetings of members, that is, even when members are dispersed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Means for identifying members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mechanisms for recruiting new members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Goals or purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Social statuses and roles, that is, norms for behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Means for controlling members’ behavior </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. PRIMARY VS SECONDARY GROUPS <ul><li>The difference between primary and secondary groups is based on the kinds of relationships their members have with one another. </li></ul>
    8. 8. PRIMARY GROUPS <ul><li>DEF: Involve interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another and in a situation, who know one another intimately , and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: FAMILY - OTHER EXAMPLES?? </li></ul>
    9. 9. SECONDARY GROUPS <ul><li>A secondary group </li></ul><ul><li>Is characterized by much less intimacy among its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually has specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Is formally organized and is impersonal . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: WORKPLACE </li></ul><ul><li>- OTHER EXAMPLES????? </li></ul>
    10. 10. FUNCTIONS OF GROUPS <ul><li>To function properly, all groups, both primary and secondary , must </li></ul><ul><li>Define Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Make Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Set Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Assign Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Control Members’ Behavior </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Defining Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>A method for determining who belongs to the group and who does not (symbols, rituals, language, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>A leader is someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influence in a group. All groups must grapple with the issue of leadership. </li></ul>
    12. 12. LEADERSHIP ROLES <ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><li>Both types are crucial to the success of a group. </li></ul>
    13. 13. LEADERSHIP ROLES <ul><li>Instrumental leadership </li></ul><ul><li>In which a leader actively proposes tasks and plans to guide the group toward achieving its goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive leadership </li></ul><ul><li>A Leader works to keep relations among group members harmonious and morale high </li></ul>
    14. 14. SOCIAL AGGREGATE <ul><li>DEF: A social aggregate is made up of people who temporarily happen to be in physical proximity to each other, but share little else. </li></ul><ul><li>What else does a social aggregate lack, that a social group possesses? </li></ul>
    15. 15. REFERENCE GROUP <ul><li>DEF: A group that an individual uses to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a comparison point against which people measure themselves and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Is often a category we identify with, rather than a specific group we belong to. </li></ul>
    16. 16. SMALL GROUPS <ul><li>Many kinds of social groups, such as families, peer groups, and work groups, that actually meet together and contain few enough members so that all members know one another. </li></ul><ul><li>As a group grows larger, the number of relationships within it increases, which often leads to the formation of subgroups . </li></ul>
    17. 17. DYAD AND TRIAD <ul><li>DYAD - DEF: A group of two . This is the smallest possible group </li></ul><ul><li>TRIAD - A group of three </li></ul><ul><li>The addition of a third member, creates uncertainty because it introduces the possibility of two-against-one alliances. </li></ul>
    18. 18. LARGE GROUPS/ ASSOCIATIONS <ul><li>DEF: Groups which are purposefully created interest groups that have clearly defined goals and official methods </li></ul><ul><li>Because of their size associations need to break up work into tasks which can be assigned to individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>They also have a formal and informal structure </li></ul>
    19. 20. Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Durkheim <ul><li>Every society has a collective conscience, </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: a system of fundamental beliefs and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Social solidarity emerges from the people’s commitment and conformity to the society’s collective conscience . </li></ul>
    20. 21. Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Durkheim <ul><li>A mechanically integrated society is one in which a society’s collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Organically integrated society social solidarity depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks. </li></ul>
    21. 22. SIMILAR TO DURKHEIM’S SOLIDARITY TONNIES VIEW OF SOCIAL RELATIONS <ul><li>GEMEINSCHAFT </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS ARE INTIMATE, PERSONAL AND COOPERATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>SIMILAR TO MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY </li></ul><ul><li>GESELLSCHAFT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS ARE IMPERSONAL AND INDEPENDENT </li></ul><ul><li>SIMILAR TO ORGANIC SOLIDARITY </li></ul>
    22. 23. BUREAUCRACY <ul><li>A formal, rationally organized, social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally every series of actions is functionally related to the purposes of the organization. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Weber’s Bureaucracy: An Ideal Type <ul><li>IDEAL TYPE is a simplified, exaggerated model of reality used to illustrate a concept. </li></ul><ul><li>For bureaucracy Weber identified six ideal characteristics by which it could be identified </li></ul>
    24. 25. SIX CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACIES
    25. 26. THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY <ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations that were originally idealistic and democratic eventually come to be dominated by a small self-serving group of people who achieved positions of power and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>More likely in large organizations because decision making becomes centralized and the heirarchical structure stifles dissent. </li></ul>
    26. 27. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Different societies have different ways of doing things, although the same social needs are met. </li></ul><ul><li>Social institutions are the vehicle (means) for doing these things. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Institutions DEF: The ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society’s needs. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Social Institutions meet social needs in five basic areas:
    28. 29. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Social organization DEF: T he relatively stable pattern of social relationships among individuals and groups in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relationships are based on systems of statuses, social roles, norms, and shared meanings that provide regularity and predictability during social interaction. </li></ul>

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