Chapter 3

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  • Ask for examples: material: houses, cars, computers nonmaterial: captialism, indviduality, freedom of self expression, care for children, legal system language: language both enables the use of ideas and can inhibit them
  • Chapter 3

    1. 2. <ul><li>Understand how culture makes possible the variation in human societies. </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINE Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the difference between material and nonmaterial culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of language in shaping our perception and classification of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe cultural universals </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what subcultures are </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the roles of innovation, diffusion, and cultural lag in cultural change. </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>CULTURE IS A BLUEPRINT FOR LIVING IN A PARTICULAR SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>All that human beings learn: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To believe as they mature and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Human beings have basic biological needs; they must eat, stay warm, protect themselves, reproduce and raise children </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other animals, humans methods for meeting these needs can vary widely. This is due to the habits and methods taught through socialization </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Food choices and food preparation: Most Americans would not eat: </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs, Monkeys, Horses, Ants, Larvae </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>The term used by sociologist to describe the difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own. The expectations of “normal” behavior can be quite different. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture shock can also be experienced within a person’s own society. This is usually the result of some sub-culture: Prison or the Military. </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>ETHNOCENTRISM . Is the process of making judgments about other cultures according to the customs and values of your own culture. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL RELATIVISM , the recognition that social groups and cultures must be studied and understood on their own terms before valid comparisons can be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural relativism is used by sociologists and anthropologists to avoid ethnocentrism </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Sociologists find it helpful to break down culture into 3 separate components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>material culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of human technology—all the things human beings make and use, from small hand-held tools to skyscrapers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonmaterial culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the totality of knowledge , beliefs , values , and rules for appropriate behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>NORMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared within a culture and that prescribe limits of acceptable behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They define “normal” expected behavior and help people achieve predictability in their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms have varying levels of prescriptive force, how closely one is expected to adhere to them </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central values of the culture . </li></ul><ul><li>Violations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong negative reactions, social disapproval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desecration of a church or temple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual molestation of a child, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norms that have a large range of expected adherence, depending on the situation and individual outlook. </li></ul><ul><li>Violations- people viewed as peculiar or eccentric </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t stare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear clothes in public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond when spoken to </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Folkways change much more easily than mores </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of changing folkways: </li></ul><ul><li>Not too long ago a man was always expected to hold a door open for a woman, and a woman was never expected to hold a coat for a man. </li></ul><ul><li>How much have norms about proper dress in reference to how much of the body is visible changed over time? </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand what mores have changed about the correctness of rape, murder, child abuse, etc. </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Ideal norms </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>They are taught to children at a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be simple </li></ul><ul><li>- 10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not lie </li></ul><ul><li>Real norms </li></ul><ul><li>Norms that are expressed with qualifications and allowances for differences in individual behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify how people actually behave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect the fact that a person’s behavior is guided by norms as well as unique situations. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>VALUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A culture’s general orientations toward life—its notions of what is good and bad, what is desirable and undesirable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America - “Rugged Individualism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan - Work together and respect others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values can also be understood by looking at patterns of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>How do people in a society behave? </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Language enables humans to organize the world around them </li></ul><ul><li>Language makes it possible to teach and share values </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the principal means through which culture is transmitted </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>All people are shaped by the selectivity of their culture, a process by which some aspects of the world are viewed as important while others are virtually neglected </li></ul><ul><li>Sapir-Whorf hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues that the language a person uses determines his or her perception of reality </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Consider the number of words and expressions pertaining to technology that have entered the English language in the last 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>twittering </li></ul><ul><li>texting </li></ul><ul><li>cyberspace </li></ul><ul><li>virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>hackers </li></ul><ul><li>phishing </li></ul><ul><li>Spamming </li></ul><ul><li>googling. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>What does it mean to say that culture is symbolic? </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Symbol - Anything that represents something else and carries a particular meaning recognized by members of a culture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need not share any quality at all with whatever it represents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand for things simply because people agree that they do. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>EVERY CULTURE USES SYMBOLS, BOTH LANGUAGE AND PHYSICAL PATTERNS, TO EXPRESS COMMONLY HELD MEANINGS. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SAME SYMBOL MAY HAVE A VERY DIFFERENT MEANING IN ANOTHER CULTURE OR DIFFERENT SYMBOLS MAY MEAN THE SAME THING IN DIFFERENT CULTURES </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Cultural Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>A process by which human beings adjust to changes in their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in eating habits as other foods becomes more plentiful or less expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in attitudes towards marriage and childbearing outside of marriage. (What might this be an adaptation to? Why is it occurring?) </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Def: DIFFUSION - the movement of cultural traits from one culture to another. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be marked by a reformulation in which the cultural trait is modified in some way so that it better fits the new culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>American culture adopting Yoga as a health regimen and largely ignoring it’s spiritual meanings. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Describes the phenomenon through which new patterns of behavior may emerge, even though they conflict with traditional values </li></ul><ul><li>Material culture (technology) usually can change much faster than non-material culture (norms and values) </li></ul><ul><li>This can lead to stress and strains between different elements of the culture </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society. </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>OCCUPATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVIANT </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHIC </li></ul><ul><li>ETHNIC </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Certain models or patterns that have developed in all cultures to resolve basic social problems. </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Taboo - The prohibition of a specific action. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Incest Taboo </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Rites of passage - Standardized rituals marking major life transitions </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Rites that mark the reaching of puberty, they separate acceptable behavior/expectations for adults vs children </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>DIVISION OF LABOR – In all societies groups divide the responsibility for completing tasks among members </li></ul><ul><li>MARRIAGE AND FAMILY – All cultures have an organization of a smaller group that consists of some combination of parents and children </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Every Culture contains Ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Strongly held beliefs and values </li></ul><ul><li>They are the cement of social structure. </li></ul><ul><li>A common ideology is what allows the members of society to see themselves as a group </li></ul>

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