THESE USUALLY AFFECT FAMILY TIES WITH EXTENDED FAMILY
STATUS – People marry similar education, occupation level, social cirles RACE Only 5 % of marriages are mixed race RELIGION Some religions sanction, all encourage marrying within.
SINGLE PARENT, GAY COUPLE, EXTENDED FAMILY, STEP FAMILY, TWO WORKING PARENTS
FAMILY AND MARRIAGE
After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following Explain the functions of the family. Describe the major variations in family structure. Define marriage and describe its relationship to the phenomenon of romantic love. Describe the various rules governing marriage. Explain the ways in which mate selection is not random.
FAMILY ARRANGEMENTS FAMILY – DEF: A social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, and reproduction. TRADITIONAL FAMILY includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, of the sexually cohabiting adults.
Do you agree with this definition?How would you define a family?
FAMILY STRUCTURESNuclear family The most basic family form and is made up of a married couple and their biological or adopted children. The nuclear family is found in all societies, and it is from this form that all other (composite) family forms are derived.
FAMILY STRUCTURESPolygamous families Nuclear families linked together by multiple marriage bonds, with one central individual married to several spouses. - Polygynous when the central person is male. - Polyandrous when the central person is female. Common family arrangement around the world
FAMILY STRUCTURES Extended families Other relations and generations in addition to the nuclear family. Along with married parents and their offspring, there may be: - parents’ parents - siblings of the parents - siblings’ spouses and children - in-laws.
FAMILY FUNCTIONS Family is a universal institution that fulfills the functions listed before, the methods used will vary by culture Not all functions are seen in all societies
GENERATIONAL RELATIONSPatrilineal system Generations are tied together through the males of a family; all members trace their kinship through the father’s line. Matrilineal system The generations are tied together through the females of a family. Bilateral system Descent passes through both females and males of a family.
FAMILY AUTHORITY Patriarchal family • Describe situations in which most family affairs are dominated by men. Matriarchal family • Most family affairs are dominated by women, is relatively uncommon but does exist.
MARRIAGEMarriage DEF: An institution found in all societies, is the socially recognized, legitimized, and supported union of individuals of opposite sexes.Marriage is the binding link that makes the institution of family possible.
MARRIAGERomantic love as the reason for marriage is a value in American Society - 81% of U.S. women express that deep feelings are more important than money.Most cultures do not value romance, they focus on economic and social relations.
MARRIAGE RULES Endogamy Limit the social categories from within which one can choose a marriage partner. Exogamy, Require an individual to marry someone outside his or her culturally defined group. Monogamous Each person is allowed only one spouse at a time. Polygamy an individual may have more than one spouse
MARITAL RESIDENCEMarital residence rules govern where a couple will live after marriage.. - Patrilocal residence - Calls for the new couple to settle down near or within the husband’s father’s - Matrilocal residence - Calls for the new couple to settle down near or within the wife’s mother’s - Bilocal residence - New couples choose whether to live with the husband’s or wife’s family of origin. - Neolocal residence - The couple may choose to live virtually anywhere,
HOMOGAMY Is the tendency to marry those that are like ourselves. Although the U.S. does not have actual rules about this, homogamy is still very prevalent.
The Transformation of the FamilyFamilies of industrialization faced three pressures
FAMILY TRANSFORMATION Industrialism demands that workers be geographically mobile so that a workforce is available wherever new industries emerge. Industrialism requires a certain degree of movement between the social classes. The modern nuclear family is more open to inheritance and descent through both sides of the family, allowing all children opportunity to rise in society.
FAMILY TRANSFORMATION Decline of the traditional family structure can also be attributed to the postponement of marriage high divorce rates. Marriage rate may be down but cohabitation is up. Cohabitation Unmarried couples living together out of wedlock
AMERICAN NUCLEAR FAMILY By early 1900s, American Nuclear Family: - Child-centered - Greater equality for women - Decreased link with extended families - Greater social mobility - Greater geographical mobilit - Marriage based on romantic ideal - Clear separation of work and leisure
NUCLEAR FAMILY CHANGES In the modern era there has been a transfer of family functions from the family to outside institutions (school, courts, etc) Childlessness among married couples has been increasing in recent years. Couples are marrying older and bearing children at an older age
NUCLEAR FAMILY CHANGES Divorce became easier as most states passed laws that allowed “no fault” divorces. Statistics suggest co-habitation before marriage increases divorce rates. - or is this due to the demographics of those who cohabitate (young, poor, low education)
STEPFAMILIES/BLENDED FAMILIES Stepfamilies, also known as blended families, are transforming basic family relationships. The largest group of stepfamilies is composed of families formed by the remarriage of divorced men and women. Today 17% of families involve a step-child
SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES The growth in single parent households has been influenced by three trends: - High divorce rates - A increase in the percentage of babies born to unwed mothers - The rapid growth of cohabitation
GAY AND LESBIAN FAMILIES A phenomenon that is not new but one that has become more and more visible is the household consisting of a gay or lesbian couple. - In some states these couple have the same ability to adopt children as “traditional families”
SINGLES The proportion of households having one person living alone increased from 17% to 26% between 1970 and 2005. - This could reflect a delay in living with others or a trend towards single lifestyles or it could reflect the aging population.
CONCLUSION The traditional family is being replaced, in part, by new family arrangements that may better suit today’s lifestyles. There is little evidence that the family as a institution is in decline or weakening. The functions it serves are vital to society.
GROUP EXERCISE GOING BACK TO THE FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY, HOW IS THE NUCLEAR FAMILY VARIANT YOU’RE GIVEN, MORE ABLE, LESS ABLE OR EQUALLY ABLE TO PROVIDE EACH OF THESE FUNCTIONS? EXPLAIN!!