SOCIOLOGISTS MAKE ANIMPORTANT DISTINCTIONBETWEEN SEX AND GENDER.
SEX Ascribed status – You are born male or female The physical and biological differences between men and women. Sex differences are made evident by physical distinctions in anatomical, chromosomal, hormonal, and physiological characteristics.
GENDER Achieved Status – Learned through the socialization process The social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based, in part, on biological differences An important factor in shaping individuals self image and social identity
RELIGIOUS VIEWSPatriarchal Ideology The belief that men are superior to women and should control all important aspects of society. Almost all societies and religions held this view historically and many still do.
BIOLOGICAL VIEWSEthnologists Observed that sexual differences in behavior exist throughout much of the nonhuman animal world, including primates.Sociobiologists Believe that much of human social behavior has a genetic basis
BIOLOGICAL VIEWSGender-based biology Identifies the biological and physiological differences between men and women as well as differences in responses to drugs.
Gender and Physiological Differences The study of gender roles should take into account relative size and muscle development, longevity, susceptibility to disease and physical disorders.
GENDER INEQUALITY THEORIES Two theoretical approaches have been used to explain male dominance and gender inequality:.
FUNCTIONALIST VIEW Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales (1955) applied functionalist theory to the modern family. Argued that the division of labor and role differentiation by sex are universal principles of family organization and are functional to the modern family. Believe that the family functions best when the father assumes the instrumental role and the mother assumes the expressive role.
Instrumental role Focuses on relationships between the family and the outside world. Involves supporting and protecting the family. Expressive role Focuses on relationships within the family and requires her to provide the love and emotional support needed to sustain the family
CONFLICT THEORY VIEWMen have the better position in society and hold onto it through social processesGender-Role Socialization Lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.
CHILDHOOD SOCIALIZATION Parents carry in their minds images of what girls and boys are like. How they should behave, and what they should be in later life. Parents respond differently to girls and boys right from the beginning.
Three ways women experience discrimination in the business world During the hiring process When women are given jobs with lower occupational prestige than men who have equivalent qualifications receive Through unequal wage policies Women receive less pay than men for equivalent work In the awarding of promotions Women find it more difficult than men to move up the career ladder