No genetic evidence associated with physical trait groupings normally recognized Legal - mostly based on who is not white? Differential treatment Social - Those who self define themselves as a race.
Racial and Ethnic Minorities Chapter 10
HISTORIC CONCEPT OF RACERace A category of people who are defined as similar because of a number of physical characteristics.
HISTORIC CONCEPT OF RACEThroughout history, races have been defined along Genetic Lines - No association Legal Lines - Power based Social Lines - Group membership Can you identify any problems associated with these means of definition?
SOCIAL DEFINITION If a person presents themselves as a member of a certain race and others respond to that person as a member ofthat race, then it makes little sense to say that they are not a member of that race.
SOCIAL DEFINITION The social definition of race is the decisive one in most social interactions. It pays little attention to an individual’s hereditary physical features. No different than ethnic self definition of people with a similar culture
TERMS USING RACEMultiracial Ancestry Children who are born to parents of multiple races- representing more than one race. Ancestors comes from more than one race Example - White/AsianInterracial Marriage Marriage between two people of differing racial groups. Example - Black/White •
ETHNIC GROUPSEthnic group DEF: Has a distinct cultural tradition that its own members identify with and that may or may not be recognized by others. Its members may be scattered throughout existing countries or live in a narrow geographical area. Most of them form sub-cultures in a society
ETHNIC GROUPS May or may not have their own separate political unit (state, political party, etc) They may have had one in the past or aspire to have one in the future They usually have high internal loyalty and often possess distinctive folkways
THE CONCEPT OF MINORITY Not defined as a small group in Sociology DEF: A group of people who, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in society for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of discrimination. - RACE, ETHNICITY, RELIGION, AGE, GENDER,
PREJUDICE Prejudice means a “prejudgment” or “an attitude with an emotional component DEF: prejudice as an irrationally based negative attitude toward certain groups and their members (Prejudice can be positive also).
FUNCTIONS OF PREJUDICE First, a prejudice, because it is shared, helps draw together those who hold it. Second, when two or more groups are competing prejudice can make it easier on the conscience if one can write off competitors as somehow less than human or inherently unworthy. Third, psychologists suggest that prejudice allows us to project onto others parts of ourselves that we do not like, creating a feeling of superiority
DYSFUNCTIONS OF PREJUDICE It does not provide a true picture of the social world. It can lead to discrimination, but does not always do so. It can prevent society, for optimizing potential human resources
DISCRIMINATION Prejudice is a subjective feeling, discrimination is an overt action. DEF: Discrimination refers to differential treatment, usually unequal and injurious, accorded to individuals who are assumed to belong to a particular category or group.
MERTON’S TYPOLOGYUnprejudiced NondiscriminatorsPeople are neither prejudiced against the members of other racial and ethnic groups, nor do they practice discrimination.Unprejudiced Discriminators Are not themselves prejudiced, but will tolerate discrimantion. Includes those who constantly think of expediency.
MERTON’S TYPOLOGYPrejudiced Nondiscriminators People who hold negative views of other groups and who do not accept the ideal of equality for all, but conform to it and give it lip service when the slightest pressure is applied.Prejudiced Discriminators The bigots, pure and unashamed. Individual’s who are prejudiced and voice and/or practice discrimination
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination Refer to social arrangements that restrict the life chances and choices of a specifically defined group in comparison with those of the dominant group.
Patterns of Racial and Ethnic RelationsThere are a limited number of possible outcomes when different groups come togetherAssimilation Is the process whereby groups with different cultures come to have a common culture. Refers to the fusion of cultural heritages.
ASSIMILATION Integration of new elements with old ones. It is usually tilted towards the group with more powerThe transferring of culture from one group to another is a highly complex process, often involving the rejection of old ideologies, habits, customs, attitudes, and language.Anglo conformity refers to The renunciation of the ancestral cultures in favor of Anglo-American behavior and values
PLURALISM The development and coexistence of separate racial and ethnic group identities within a society Is a philosophical viewpoint that attempts to produce what is considered to be a desirable social situation.
PLURALISMTheory Celebrates the differences among groups of people. Provided a means for minorities to resist the pull of assimilation by allowing them to claim that they constitute the very structure of the social order. Assumes that the minority is a primary unit of society and that the unity of the whole depends on the harmony of the various parts.
SUBJUGATION The subordination of one group and the assumption of a position of authority, power, and domination by the other.
SEGREGATION Segregation, a form of subjugation, refers to the act, process, or state of being set apart. It places limits and restrictions on the contact, communication, and social relations among groups.
EXPULSION The process of forcing a group to leave the territory in which it lives. Can be accomplished through forced migration. The relocation of a group through direct action EX: AMERICAN INDIANS/TRAIL OF TEARS
ANNIHILATION The deliberate extermination of a racial or ethnic group. EX: Nazi Germany killing of Jews and Gypsys