Teamwork and working in teams have become staple phrases in organizations. Moreover, both terms (teams and teamwork) have an aura of “that's the way things should be done.” This presentation seeks to address some issues surrounding teams and teamwork. The underlying premise is that a team is a particular way of organizing in order to achieve a specific task. Not all tasks require teams . Teams and teamwork, therefore, are not an end in themselves but rather a means to a specific end . I posit there is no “intrinsic” value in teams and teamwork.
1. Teams and teamwork Manuel E. Contreras KNL/SDI March 2009 This presentation does not represent the official position of the Inter-American Development Bank or its member countries. It was developed for training purposes only. The author gratefully acknowledges the comments of Christel Steinvorth and Gabrielle Vetter to a previous version. The usual caveats apply.
2. Contents <ul><li>What are we speaking about? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a team? </li></ul><ul><li>Four lenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, accountability and commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of high performance teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team performance model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five dysfunctions of a team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where is your team? </li></ul>
5. 1. A small number of people 2. With complementary skills 3. Who share a c ommon purpose and goals 4. A commitment with a common vision of progress. 5. And mutual responsibility What is a Team? Source: Katzenbach & Smith, 1993
6. Team building is not about getting everyone to see things the same way. An effective team leverages each team member’s unique way of seeing, thinking and acting in order to illuminate all possibilities, minimize risk and produce effective results . Source : Katzenbach & Smith, 1993
7. Focusing on Team Basics Performance Results Skills Accountability Commitment Collective Work Products Personal Growth * Problem solving * Technical/ functional * Interpersonal * Mutual * Small number of people * Individual * Specific goals * Common approach * Meaningful purpose Source : Katzenbach & Smith, 1993
8. Ten characteristics of a high performance team Source : Biech (2008) Clear Goals Defined Roles Open and Clear Communications Effective Decision Making Balanced Participation Valued Diversity Managed Conflict Positive Atmosphere Cooperative Relationships Participative Leadership
10. The five dysfunctions of a team Inattention to RESULTS Avoidance of ACCOUNTABILITY Lack of COMMITMENT Fear of CONFLICT Absence of TRUST Source : Lencioni, 2005
11. And what about cross-functional teams? <ul><li>What happens in a matrix structure ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do these conceptual frameworks or lenses apply? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, how ? </li></ul>Working with allies, enemies and other strangers
12. Issues in cross-functional teams <ul><li>Empowerment through a greater need to clarify team’s authority </li></ul><ul><li>Team leadership with greater process skills </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary management: flow of info to and from all stakeholders (vertical and horizontal) </li></ul>
13. Questions to evaluate team behavior <ul><li>Was there a “compelling” shared sense of direction? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the team task clear? </li></ul><ul><li>Were roles and responsibilities clearly defined? </li></ul><ul><li>Was there trust among the team members? </li></ul><ul><li>Was conflict acknowledged and managed? </li></ul><ul><li>Did learning take place? </li></ul>
15. Bibliography <ul><li>Biech, E. (ed). The Pfeiffer Book of Successful Team-Building Tools . 2 nd ed. San Francisco, CA, Pfeiffer, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Hackman, R. J. Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Performance. Cambridge, MA. Harvard Business School Press, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Katzenbach, J.R. and Smith, D.K. The wisdom of teams . New York, Harper Business, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Lencioni, P. Overcoming the five dysfunctions of a Team . San Francisco, CA., Jossey Bass, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Parker, G.M. Cross-functional Teams: Working with Allies, Enemies, and Other Strangers, John Wiley and Sons, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Web Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Team Model </li></ul><ul><li>Leading a Team of Strangers </li></ul>