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  • 1. High Empire (96-192 CE) Figure 10-41 Apollodorus of Damascus, model of Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. Reconstruction by James E. Packer and John Burge. 1) Temple of Trajan, 2) Column of Trajan, 3) Libraries, 4) Basilica Ulpia, 5) Forum, 6) Equestrian statue of Trajan. -2 nd Century CE under Trajan, Hadrian and the Antonines = Roman empire reaches greatest geographic extent and height of power TRAJAN (98-117 CE) – SPANISH / government took on greater responsibility for its people’s welfare, instituted social programs/ Trajan popular, granted title Optimus (the Best) -New forum glorified Trajan’s victories in two wars against the Dacians/ huge basilica dominated colonnaded open square/ temple located behind the basilica with two libraries and commemorative Column of Trajan/ equestrian statue of the emperor in center of court -Basilica Ulpia (Trajan’s family name, Ulpius) had apses (semicircular recesses on each short end)/ entrances were on the long side (200 ft. wide)/ clerestory windows
  • 2. Figure 10-42 Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. Figure 10-42 Detail Close detail: Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort Trajan’s Columnar Tomb -Colossal freestanding column with a continuous spiral narrative frieze invented here -128 ft. high/ originally topped with nude statue of Trajan, lost in Middle Ages and replaced with St. Peter/ square base decorated with captured Dacian arms and armor and served as Trajan’s tomb (housed his ashes and wifes) -625 ft. band winds around column and, once painted, low reliefs depict Trajan’s two successful campaigns against the Dacians/ story is told in more than 150 episodes with about 2,500 figures/ bands increase in width toward top of column so easier to see upper portions
  • 3. Figure 10-43 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE. Figure 10-44 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan Markets of Trajan -Housed shops and administrative offices -Made of concrete -Basic unit = Taberna (single-room shop covered by barrel vault)/ wooden inner attic used for storage -Opened onto paved street or onto a great indoor market hall (resembled modern shopping mall)
  • 4. Figure 10-45 Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114–118 CE. Arch of Trajan -Almost identical to Titus arch, but relief panels cover both facades giving it billboard-like function/ advertises emperor’s achievements -Reliefs present him as guarantor of peace and security, benefactor of poor, patron of soldiers and merchants = he was “all things to all people” -In arch’s attic he intermingles with divinities (divinely sanctioned ruler in company of gods)
  • 5. Figure 10-46 Funerary relief of a circus official, from Ostia, Italy, ca. 110–130 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. Trajan Restored Circus Maximus -World’s best horse teams competed in chariot races at Circus Maximus -Below: Art produced for working class = funerary piece of circus official/ continuous narrative = same figure appears more than once in the same space at different stages of a story/ handshake between man and woman is symbol of marriage in Roman art/ she is smaller = less important/ she is standing on base = statue (not alive, died before her husband)
  • 6. Figure 10-47 Portrait bust of Hadrian as general, from Tel Shalem, Israel, ca. 130–138 CE. Bronze, approx. 2’ 11” high. Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Hadrian (117-138 CE) (Spaniard, connoisseur and lover of all the arts, author and architect) -Trajan’s chosen successor -More portraits of Hadrian exist today than of any other emperor except Augustus -41 years old at time of Trajan’s death and always depicted as mature adult who never ages -Models for Hadrian’s artists = statues of mature Greek men/ wearing a beard (Greek influence)/ beards became norm for emperors for more than a century and a half
  • 7. Figure 10-48 Aerial view of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. Figure 10-50 Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. Temple of All Gods - Pantheon -Façade is porch with eight Corinthian columns = traditional -Revolutionary = concrete cylinder with hemispherical dome/ 142 ft. in diameter/ 142 ft. from dome top to floor/ Domes thickness decreases as nears the oculus (30 ft. in diameter and only light source for interior) Domes weight was lessened through use of coffers (sunken decorative square panels) The interior is a single unified, self-sufficient whole, uninterrupted by supporting solids. Walls of marble veneer
  • 8. Figure 10-53 Model of an insula, Ostia, Italy, second century CE. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Figure 10-54 Ceiling and wall paintings in Room IV of the Insula of the Painted Vaults, Ostia, Italy, early third century CE. Ostia – Rome’s Harbor City 90 % of Rome’s population of close to one million lived in multistory apartment blocks called insulae which were made of brick-faced concrete Shops occupied the ground floor, above were apartments Deluxe apartments had private toilets Similar to modern day apartments Finer apartments had mosaic floors and painted walls and ceilings. Right: Frescoed groin vault- central oculus-like medallion surrounded by eight wedge-shaped segments, each segment has white lunette with paintings of birds and flowers
  • 9. Figure 10-55 Neptune and creatures of the sea, floor mosaic in the Baths of Neptune, Ostia, Italy, ca. 140 CE. Figure 10-56 Funerary reliefs of a vegetable vendor (left) and a midwife (right), from Ostia, Italy, second half of second century CE. Painted terracotta, approx. 1’ 5” and 11” high, respectively. Museo Ostiense, Ostia. Baths of Neptune- Black and White Floor Mosaic Ostia – Workers’ Tombs Common people: Communal tombs adorned with small painted terracotta plaques immortalizing activities of middle-class merchants and professional people Vegetable seller Midwife delivering baby Scenes of daily life for Roman funerary reliefs
  • 10. Figure 10-57 Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 1 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. Figure 10-58 Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 1 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. The Antonines (138-192 CE) (Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus) After Pius’ death, Marcus and Lucius erected memorial column Pedestal: Apotheosis (ascent to the heavens) of Antoninus and his wife = classical tradition with well-proportioned figures, personifications (Rome with shield, Field of Mars as youth holding Egyptian obelisk) and single ground line corresponding to panel’s lower edge Pedestal: Decursio (ritual circling of the imperial funerary pyre)/ adopted nonclassical conventions of art of lower classes (stockier figures, ground is whole surface of relief, etc.) Artists seeking new direction, looking at plebeian art
  • 11. Figure 10-59 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, approx. 11’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome. Figure 10-60 Portrait of Marcus Aurelius, detail of a relief from a lost arch, Rome, Italy, ca. 175–180 CE. Marble, approx. life-size. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius -Superhuman grandeur/ larger than normal in relation to horse/ conveys awesome power of godlike Roman emperor as ruler of whole world -Medieval Period: was not melted down (pagan image) because thought it was Constantine -Inspired Renaissance sculptors to portray their patrons on horseback -Used drill for hair, beard and eyes creating bold patterns of light and shadow -Roman emperor appears weary, saddened and even worried -Sculptor went beyond verism to show the ruler’s character, thoughts and his soul
  • 12. Figure 10-61 Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, ca. 140–150 CE. Marble, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland. Figure 10-62 Asiatic sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman, from Rapolla, near Melfi, Italy, ca. 165–170 CE. Marble, approx. 5’ 7” high. Museo Nazionale Archeologico del Melfese, Melfi. From Cremation to Burial -Romans began to favor burial over cremation. -Required larger containers for their remains, this led to sudden demand for sarcophagi -Greek mythology popular subject for sarcophagi -Repetition of sarcophagus compositions indicates sculptors has access to pattern books -Sarcophagus production major industry during High and Late Empire -Western style = reliefs on front & sides, Eastern style = reliefs on all four sides
  • 13. Figure 10-63 Mummy portrait of a man, from Faiyum, Egypt, ca. 160–170 CE. Encaustic on wood, approx. 1’ 2” high. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. Roman Mummy Portraits Egypt became Roman province in 30 BCE, continued to bury dead in mummy cases Painted portraits on wood with encaustic replaced traditional stylized portrait masks Refined use of brush and spatula/ master of textures and light/ sensitive portrayal of deceased’s calm demeanor Most likely painted when subject was still alive
  • 14. Late Empire (192-337 CE) Figure 10-64 Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt, ca. 200 CE. Tempera on wood, approx. 1’ 2” diameter. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Figure 10-66 Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, approx. 5’ 6” high. Castle Museum, Tripoli. -Roman power begins to erode/ economy declines -Pagan ancient world gradually transforms into the Christian Middle Ages The Severans (193-235 CE) -Septimius Severus (African-born general) rules -Left: Family Portrait/ tondo format painted with tempera (pigments in egg yolk) on wood/ emperor’s hair is gray = advanced age/ younger son erased by older son, Caracalla (succeeded his father, had his brother murdered, memory damned and ordered death of his own wife) Right: Relief from Arch of Severus/ Late Antique Style: no motion, stately stillness/ second row figures have no connection with ground line/ frontal figures/ more non-naturalistic, non-classical elements
  • 15. Figure 10-65 Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Figure 10-68 Reconstruction drawing of the central hall (frigidarium) of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE. Figure 10-67 Plan of the central section of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE. 1) Natatio, 2) Frigidarium, 3) Tepidarium, 4) Caldarium, 5) Palaestra. The bathing, swimming, and exercise areas were surrounded by landscaped gardens, lecture halls, and other rooms, all enclosed within a great concrete perimeter wall. Ruthless Caracalla- His portrait captures his suspicious, fearful and brutal character Erected Baths of Caracalla with imperial funds to win public’s favor/ made of brick-faced concrete/ walls up to 140 ft. high/ covered almost 50 acres/ symmetrical in design/ cold, warm and hot water baths/ had open-air performances/ fenestrated groin vaults/ stuccoed vaults/ mosaic floors/ marble-faced walls/ colossal statuary/1,600 bathers at a time/ furnaces circulated hot air through hollow floors and walls
  • 16. Figure 10-71 Battle of Romans and barbarians (Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, approx. 5’ high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome. Figure 10-71 Detail Roman general (perhaps Ostilianus, Emperor Dicius' son, died 252 AD) and his horse Soldier Emperors (235-284 CE) – Time of continuous civil war, generals declared emperors by troops, then murdered by other generals -3 rd century burial of dead widespread even in imperial family/ sarcophagi popular in Rome -Above: Battle between Romans and Goths/ no illusion of space/ floating ground lines/ mass of intertwined, moving bodies/ central horseman stands out = fearless commander assured of victory/ has emblem of Mithras carved on forehead (Persian god of light, truth and victory over death)/ rejects classical style
  • 17. Figure 10-72 Sarcophagus of a philosopher, ca. 270–280 CE. Marble, approx. 4’ 11” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. Insecurity of times led many Romans to seek solace in philosophy. -On sarcophagi in 3 rd century, deceased assumes role of learned intellectual/ Roman philosopher holding scroll, also might depict Christ flanked by his apostles (popular for Christian burials)/ frontal figure and subordinate flanking figures are common in Early Christian art
  • 18. Figure 10-73 Plan and reconstruction drawing of the Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Lebanon, third century CE. Decline in respect for classical art also seen in architecture. Temple of Venus - Stone -Circular domed cella set behind a gabled columnar facade -Platform is scalloped/ entablature is scalloped -Five-sided Corinthian capitals with corresponding pentagonal bases -Arch inserted within the triangular pediment
  • 19. Figure 10-74 Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, approx. 4’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (284-306 CE) -In order to restore order to Roman empire, Diocletian decided to share power with his potential rivals. -293- established the tetrarchy (rule by four) and adopted title of Augustus of the East -When Diocletian retired in 305, it collapsed -Division of Roman Empire into eastern and western spheres survived throughout the Middle Ages (Latin West and Byzantine East) -Right: Artist tried to represent the nature of tetrarchy itself- to portray four equal partners in power/ made of purple marble/ embrace one another/ large cubical heads on squat bodies/ drapery is schematic and bodies are shapeless/ faces are emotionless masks/ human figure is conceived in iconic terms
  • 20. Figure 10-76 Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE Figure 10-76 Detail Raking view of South face from ESE, with figures on bases of columns. Figure 10-77 Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, approx. 3’ 4” high. Constantine (306-337 CE) Constantine attributed his victory at the battle of the Milvian Bridge to the aid of the Christian god/ 313 issued the Edict of Milan, ending persecution of Christians/ founded a New Rome on site of Byzantium and named it Constantinople/ 325 Christianity official religion of Roman Empire/ Constantinian art is a mirror of transition from classical to medieval world -Right: Arch commemorates defeat of Maxentius at Milvian Bridge/ triple passageway/ sculptural decoration is taken from other monuments, recut heads and added labels -Reuse of statues and reliefs = decline in creativity and technical skill and/or Constantine wanted to be associated with the “good emperors” (Trajan, Hadrian, etc.) of the 2 nd cen.
  • 21. Figure 10-78 Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 6” high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. Constantine – Depicted as eternal youthful head of state -8 ½ ft. tall head is fragment of a once enthroned statue of the emperor that was made of brick core, wooden torso covered with bronze and head and limbs of marble/ held an orb, symbol of global power in left hand/ eternal authority, power is depicted- his is absolute ruler
  • 22. Figure 10-79 Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Italy, ca. 306–312 CE. Basilica Nova (New Basilica) -Constantine’s gigantic portrait sat in the western apse of the Basilica Nova (like Greco-Roman divinity in temple cella) -300 ft. long and 215 ft. wide/ brick-faced concrete walls 20 ft. thick supported by coffered barrel vaults in the aisles/ walls and floors marbled and stuccoed/ groin vaults and clerestory windows permitted ample light in nave
  • 23. Figure 10-80 Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (exterior). Figure 10-81 Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (interior). Constantine’s Basilica-like Audience Hall – Aula Palatina -Brick exterior -190 ft. long and 95 ft. wide -lead framed panes of glass for the windows -wooden, coffered ceiling -main hall, no aisles, apse with arch Parallels many Early Christian basilicas Later converted into a Christian church