Italian Renaissance--Ch. 21


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Italian Renaissance--Ch. 21

  1. 1. Chapter 21 Humanism and the Allure of Antiquity: 15 th Century Italian Art Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
  2. 2. Renaissance Florence
  3. 3. Spread of Humanism <ul><li>Continued maturation of Renaissance culture due to several factors: spread of humanism, political and economic fluctuations throughout Italy and a fortunate abundance of artistic talent </li></ul><ul><li>Humanist principles: emphasis on education and expanding knowledge (esp. of classical antiquity), exploration of individual potential and desire to excel, commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty </li></ul><ul><li>Literature based on a vernacular Tuscan dialect expanded audience for humanist writings </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of movable metal type by German Johann Gutenberg around 1445 – initiated printing and wide distribution of books </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Humanists encouraged individual improvement and rewarded excellence through fame and honor </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth and Power </li></ul><ul><li>Those who struggled for power: Condottieri (military leaders), Princely courts (Urbino and Mantua) </li></ul><ul><li>Princely courts emerged as cultural and artistic centers – the elite and powerful were in the best position to commission art </li></ul><ul><li>Medici Family – lavish patrons of arts/ big banking family </li></ul><ul><li>Art Functioned As: </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of princely sophistication and culture/ form of prestige/ commemorative/ public education/ propaganda/ demonstration of wealth/ source of visual pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in Art: Early Renaissance (ca. 1400 – 1500) </li></ul><ul><li>System of perspective (illusionism)/ depicting anatomy accurately/ revival of portraiture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 21-1 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1401–1402. Gilded bronze relief, 1’ 9” x 1’ 5”. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Florence – Competition of 1401 – East Doors of Baptistery <ul><li>Traits characterizing Renaissance art: new pictorial illusionism, patronage as civic imperative and self-promotion, esteem accorded to artists </li></ul><ul><li>Competition Theme: Sacrifice of Isaac (shows Abraham’s devotion to God) </li></ul><ul><li>7 finalist chosen – only two panels survived (Ghiberti’s and Brunelleschi’s) </li></ul><ul><li>1402 selection committee chose Ghiberti’s panel </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi’s: </li></ul><ul><li>French Gothic quatrefoil frame/ emotional agitation/ his figure’s demonstrate his ability to observe carefully and represent faithfully all the elements of the biblical narrative </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 21-2 LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1401–1402. Gilded bronze relief, 1’ 9” x 1’ 5”. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Ghiberti Wins! <ul><li>Grace and smoothness </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham = Gothic “S” curve pose </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac = Greco-Roman statuary/ first truly classicizing nude since antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in how muscular system and skeletal structure move the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Altar emulates antique models (acanthus scrolls = Roman temple friezes)/ classical references reflect influence of humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Ghiberti was painter and goldsmith/ interested in spatial illusion (landscape and foreshortened angel) </li></ul><ul><li>Cast his in two pieces = lighter and cost less </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 28 door panels 1424 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 21-3 DONATELLO, Feast of Herod, from the baptismal font of Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, ca. 1425. Gilded bronze relief, approx. 1’ 11” x 1’ 11”. Donatello – A Feast in Perspective <ul><li>Shared the humanist enthusiasm for Roman virtue and form </li></ul><ul><li>Astute observer of human life (diverse ages, ranks, conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced both naturalistic illusion and classical idealism in sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Feast of Herod: severed head of John the Baptist is offered to King Herod </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial perspective – opened space of action well into the distance – background (two arched courtyards and groups of attendants) </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Roman illusionism had returned </li></ul>
  7. 7. Depicting Objects in Space Perspectival Systems in the Early Renaissance <ul><li>Utilizing perspective involves constructing a convincing illusion of space in two-dimensional imagery while unifying all objects within a single spatial system. It made possible the “rationalization of sight”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks and Romans were well versed in perspectival renderings. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance perspectival systems include: LINEAR AND ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi developed LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (allows artists to determine mathematically the relative size of rendered objects to correlate them with the visual recession into space/ either one-point or two-point) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of one-point linear perspective: Masaccio’s Holy Trinity and Leonardo’s Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>ATMOSPHERIC/AERIAL PERSPECTIVE: the farther back an object is in space, the blurrier, less detailed, and bluer it appear/ color saturation and value contrast diminish as the image recedes into the distance/ sfumato = misty haziness </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of atmospheric/aerial perspective: Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks and Mona Lisa </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 21-5 LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons (detail of FIG. 21-4), east doors, baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze relief, approx. 2’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence. Figure 21-4 LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors (“Gates of Paradise”), baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze relief, approx. 17’ high. Modern copy, ca. 1980. Gates of Paradise – Baptistery, Florence Cathedral <ul><li>GHIBERTI – designed 10 panels (reliefs set in plain moldings) which depict scenes from the Old Testament for the east doorway </li></ul><ul><li>Panel: Isaac and His Sons – creates illusion of space (building and floor in one-point perspective)/ creates aerial perspective by making the figures in the foreground almost fully round in contrast with the background which is barely raised and forms are less distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval narrative method used: several episodes within a single frame </li></ul><ul><li>Classicism: figural poses and motifs </li></ul><ul><li>New Realism: characterization, movement and surface detail </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 21-6 NANNI DI BANCO, Four Crowned Saints, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, ca. 1408–1414. Marble, figures approx. life-size. Modern copy in exterior niche. Original sculpture in museum on second floor of Or San Michele . Statue-Filled Niches of Or San Michele, Florence <ul><li>City officials assigned each of the niches on the building’s exterior to a specific guild for decoration with a sculpture of its patron saint </li></ul><ul><li>1406-1423: niches filled with work by Donatello, Ghiberti and Nanni di Banco </li></ul><ul><li>The niche sculptures provide an ideal vehicle for presenting political, artistic and economic messages to a wide audience </li></ul><ul><li>Nanni di Banco’s Four Crowned Saints: these four Christian sculptors defied an order from Diocletian to make a statue of a pagan deity and were put to death – they put their faith above all else/ seemed appropriate theme since Florence was fighting off invasion threats from King of Naples </li></ul><ul><li>The figures are separated from the architectural setting which allows for them to interact (see postures, gestures and arrangement of drapery)/ </li></ul><ul><li>Shows close study of Roman portrait statues/ shows individual personalities and characteristics </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 21-7 DONATELLO, Saint Mark, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, 1411–1413. Marble, approx. 7’ 9” high. Modern copy in exterior niche. Original sculpture in museum on second floor of Or San Michele. Figure 21-8 DONATELLO, prophet figure, Habbakuk (Zuccone), from the campanile of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1423–1425. Marble, approx. 6’ 5” high. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence. Donatello Saint Mark Zuccone (Pumpkin-Head) <ul><li>Left: St. Mark – Commissioned by linen drapers guild/ incorporates Classical Greek and Roman principles – depicts motion (as body moves, drapery moves)/ drapery does not conceal, but accentuates movement of arms, legs, etc./ weight shift (contrapposto) is shown/ figures independence from architectural setting helps to show bodies movement out of niche </li></ul><ul><li>Right: Zuccone – designed for niches located on the campanile next to Florence Cathedral/ niches 30 ft. above eye level/ details had to be massive to be seen from afar/ the prophet is depicted with harsh, direct realism and bald (like Roman portraits)/ head discloses a fierce personality </li></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 21-9 GENTILE DA FABRIANO, Adoration of the Magi, altarpiece from Santa Trinità, Florence, Italy, 1423. Tempera on wood, approx. 9’ 11” x 9’ 3”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Inspired by Late Gothic – Adoration of the Magi by FABRIANO <ul><li>Influenced by the International style of the 1400’s </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate gilded Gothic frame/ to please the lavish taste of the wealthy patron, Palla Strozzi </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate costumes, exotic and ornamental animals/ rainbow of colors with extensive use of gold </li></ul><ul><li>Scene sanctifies the aristocracy in the presence of the Madonna and Child </li></ul><ul><li>Fabriano does insert bits of radical naturalism – animals at different angles and foreshortened </li></ul><ul><li>Predella – ledge at base of altarpiece/ we see modern architectural setting and first nighttime Nativity scene with central light source, the Christ Child </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 21-10 MASACCIO, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1427. Fresco, 8’ 1” x 19’ 7”. Leading Innovator in Early 15 th Century Painting - MASACCIO <ul><li>MASACCIO – studied the work of his contemporaries and created a new style of painting form and content </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute Money – 3 episodes within same fresco = Christ enters town, Christ directs St. Peter to shore to get money from fish’s mouth, Peter pays tax collector/ light comes from source outside of picture/ chiaroscuro gives illusion of deep sculptural relief/ figures express bodily structure and movement/ arrangement of grouped figures is in circle around Christ/ used landscape to set up background, figures in foreground/ one-point linear perspective used on building/ aerial perspective used in background </li></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 21-12 MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1428. Fresco, 21’ x 10’ 5”. Masaccio’s Holy Trinity – Santa Maria Novella, Florence <ul><li>Embodies two principal Renaissance interests: Realism based on observation/ application of mathematics to pictorial organization (perspective) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper level: coffered barrel-vaulted chapel (like Roman triumphal arch) with Virgin Mary, St. John, crucified Christ and God the Father with dove of Holy Spirit/ donors knee in front of pilasters/ figures are in pyramidal composition </li></ul><ul><li>Lower level: tomb containing skeleton with inscription, “I was once what you are, and what I am you will become” </li></ul><ul><li>Uses one-point linear perspective – vanishing point (eye level) at foot of cross = viewers have to look up at the Trinity and down at the tomb </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 21-13 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, dome of Florence Cathedral (view from the south), Florence, Italy, 1420–1436. Early 15 th Century Architecture Brunelleschi - The First Acknowledged Renaissance Architect <ul><li>He had broad knowledge of Roman construction principles/ solved the engineering problem of the design and construction for the dome of the Florence Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Problem = space too wide to be spanned (140 ft.) </li></ul><ul><li>Solution = raised center of dome and designed it around an ogival (pointed arch) section – reduced outward thrust at base/ minimized structure’s weight with thin double shell (first in history) around a skeleton of 24 ribs/ anchored top with heavy lantern </li></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 21-15 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, interior of Santo Spirito (view facing northeast), Florence, Italy, begun ca. 1436. Brunelleschi’s Santo Spirito – Centralization Effect <ul><li>Echoes the clarity and classically inspired rationality that characterized much of his architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by classical buildings such as Roman basilicas </li></ul><ul><li>Santo Spirito fully expresses the new Renaissance spirit that placed its faith in reason rather than in the emotions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 21-15 Alternate View Interior view of nave and choir. view E Figure 21-16 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, early plan of Santo Spirito (left) and plan as constructed (right), Florence, Italy. <ul><li>Cruciform building laid out in either multiples or segments of the dome-covered crossing square - creates harmony throughout interior </li></ul><ul><li>Nave is twice as high as it is wide, the arcade and clerestory are of equal height which means height of arcade equals the nave’s width and so on </li></ul><ul><li>Aisles are subdivided into small squares covered by shallow, saucer-shaped vaults and run all the way around the central space which is covered with a flat roof </li></ul><ul><li>No space for wall frescoes because they would interrupt the clarity of his architectural scheme </li></ul>Santo Spirito – Modular Design by Brunelleschi
  17. 17. Figure 21-17 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, facade of the Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, Italy, begun ca. 1440. Central-Plan: Pazzi Chapel by Brunelleschi <ul><li>Pazzi family’s gift to the church of Santa Croce in Florence and served as chapter house </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is placed on the central dome-covered space </li></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 21-19 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, interior of the Pazzi Chapel (view facing northeast), Santa Croce, Florence, Italy, begun ca. 1440. Interior Room (under central dome) – Pazzi Chapel <ul><li>Interior trim = gray stone called “pietra serena” (serene stone) which stands out against white stuccoed walls </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi used a basic unit in his design that allowed for a balanced, harmonious and proportioned space </li></ul><ul><li>Medallions in dome’s pendentives consist of glazed terracotta reliefs representing the Four Evangelists and 12 Apostles on pilaster-framed wall panels add color accents to the tranquil interior </li></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 21-21 MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, interior court of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445. Figure 21-20 MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, facade of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi by BARTOLOMMEO <ul><li>Commissioned by Cosimo de’ Medici / Heavy rustication on ground floor accentuates its strength/ upper levels have smoother surface – appears lighter as the eye moves upward/ cornice provides lid for the structure </li></ul><ul><li>Palazzo is built around interior open colonnaded court – first of its kind </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 21-22 PAOLO UCCELLO, Battle of San Romano, ca. 1455. Tempera on wood, approx. 6’ x 10’ 5”. National Gallery, London. Uccello – Battle of San Romano <ul><li>Uccello was trained in International style/ received commission from Lorenzo de’ Medici to paint series of panels for his bedchamber </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes commemorate Florentine victory over Sienese in 1432/ bright orange fruit is symbol of Medici family/ the use of perspective is seen in the foreshortened broken spears, lances and fallen soldier on ground/ rendered 3-D forms </li></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 21-23 DONATELLO, David, late 1420s – late 1450s. Bronze, 5’ 2 1/4” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Figure 21-24 ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO, David, ca. 1465–1470. Bronze, approx. 4’ 1 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. DAVID Donatello Verrocchio Left: first freestanding nude since ancient times/ Donatello reinvented the classical nude/ commissioned by Medici for the Palazzo Medici courtyard/ David is the symbol of the independent Florentine republic/ David possesses the relaxed classical contrapposto stance and proportions and beauty of Greek gods – this appealed to Medici who was a humanist Right: Verrocchio directed studio-shop in Florence and had many students (Leonardo da Vinci as one)/ this David displays a narrative realism – shows sturdy, wiry youth who stands with jaunty pride/ depicts muscles and veins
  22. 22. Figure 21-25 ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO, Hercules and Antaeus, ca. 1475. Bronze, approx. 1' 6” high with base. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence . Figure 21-26 ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO, Battle of the Ten Nudes, ca. 1465. Engraving, approx. 1 3” x 1’ 11”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (bequest of Joseph Pulitzer, 1917). Pollaiuolo – The Human Figure in Action <ul><li>Right: small-scale scuplture, Heracules and Antaeus , commissioned by Medici/ displays stress and strain of the human figure in violent action/physical conflict/ subject of Greek mythology and emphasis on human anatomy = Medici preference for humanist imagery/ symbolizes glory of Florentine republic </li></ul><ul><li>Below: engraving, Battle of Ten Nudes / interest in realistic presentation of human figures in action/ developed figures lean and muscular- appears ecorche (as if without skin)/ variety of poses and from numerous viewpoints (like Greek vase painters)/ preferred parallel hatching in reference to the engraving </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 21-27 SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1482. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5’ 8” x 9’ 1”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Botticelli’s Birth of Venus – Inspired by Poetry <ul><li>Botticelli – best known artist who produced works for the Medici/ Zephyrus (west wind) blows Venus to her sacred island of Cyprus, nymph runs to meet her with mantle/ nude female figure = innovation/ influenced by Hellenistic Aphrodite of Knidos and could have caused trouble for Botticelli but he was protected by powerful Medici/ he created a style of visual poetry (seemed to ignore areas of perspective and anatomy) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Figure 21-28 SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Portrait of a Youth, early 1480s. Tempera on panel, 1’ 4” x 1’. National Gallery of Art, Washington (Andrew W. Mellon Collection). The Rise of Portraiture – Revival in 15 th Century <ul><li>Increased emphasis on individual achievement and recognition that humanism fostered = portraiture revival </li></ul><ul><li>Popular: commemorative portraits of deceased, patron portraits, ¾ and full-face portraits, bust-length portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Botticelli- Portrait of a Youth: ¾ and full-face increased information available to viewers about subject/ young man is highly expressive psychologically – delicacy of pose, head’s graceful tilt, elegant hand gesture, etc./ Botticelli is one of great masters of line (pure outline with light shading within the contours) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 21-29 DONATELLO, Gattamelata (equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni), Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy, ca. 1445–1450. Bronze, approx. 11’ x 13’. Figure 21-30 ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO, Bartolommeo Colleoni (equestrian statue), Campo dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy, ca. 1483–1488. Bronze, approx. 13’ high. <ul><li>Revival of equestrian statues (like Marcus Aurelius)/ irresistible strength and unlimited power/ left forehoof of horse on orb </li></ul>Honor the Deceased Deceased Condottieres (Military Leaders) of Venice <ul><li>Horse moves in prancing stride/ figure rises in saddle/ together depict brute strength </li></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 21-32 DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Birth of the Virgin, Cappella Maggiore, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1485–1490. Fresco. Ghirlandaio – Summarizes Florentine Art at End of 15 th Cen. <ul><li>Cycle of frescoes depicting scenes from the lives of the Virgin and St. John the Baptist for the choir of Santa Maria Novella </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of the Virgin – St. Anne reclines while midwives prepare infant’s bath/ the patron’s family members proceed in, holding a prominent place in the composition = secularization of sacred theme/ artists depicted living persons of high rank present in biblical dramas often stealing the show from the saints </li></ul><ul><li>Clear spatial representation, statuesque, firmly constructed figures, rational order and logical relations among these figures and objects, arrangement of figures = Early Renaissance style </li></ul>
  27. 27. Figure 21-33 LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, Italy, ca. 1452–1470. ALBERTI – First Renaissance Architect to Understand Roman Architecture in Depth <ul><li>Alberti – advocated a system of ideal proportions and argued for the central plan as ideal form for Christian churches/ argued that an arch should be supported by a section of wall (a pier) and not by a column – disposed of medieval arcade used for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>He applied classical elements to contemporary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Palazzo Rucellai: </li></ul><ul><li>Flat, very 2-D façade/ classical cornice crowns the palace/ rustication/ smooth, flat pilasters/ creates sense that building gets lighter in weight at each level/ Roman influence = different capitals for each story (like Colosseum) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Figure 21-34 LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, west facade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1458–1470. Rucellai Family Commissions Façade for Santa Maria Novella <ul><li>ALBERTI takes cue from pre-Gothic medieval design for the new façade of this 13 th century Gothic church </li></ul><ul><li>Pediment-capped temple front in upper part is supported by pilaster enframed arcades with six tombs and three doorways </li></ul><ul><li>Height = Width, so entire façade can be placed in square (he defined areas using simple numerical ratios = harmonic relationships) </li></ul><ul><li>Façade also introduced THE SCROLLS- unifying element </li></ul>ALBERTI: Used Classically Derived Mathematics to Distinguish Work – Revived True Spirit of High Classical Age of Ancient Greece
  29. 29. Figure 21-36 FRA ANGELICO, Annunciation, San Marco, Florence, Italy, ca. 1440–1445. Fresco, 7’ 1” x 10’ 6”. Images of Piety and Devotion <ul><li>FRIAR ANGELICO: His art focused on serving the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1430’s commissioned to produced frescoes for the San Marco monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciation – appears at top of stairs leading to friar’s cells/ shows simplicity, serenity/ painted with pristine clarity/ it reflects the artist’s simple and humble character </li></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 21-37 ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO, Last Supper, the Refectory, monastery of Sant’Apollonia, Florence, Italy, 1447. Fresco, approx. 15’ x 32’. Images of Piety and Devotion <ul><li>CASTAGNO: commissioned to produce frescoes for Sant’ Apollonia monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Last Supper – located in dining hall/ shows interest in perspective (illusion of 3-D space) – but shows inconsistencies, can’t see both ceiling and roof and side walls not parallel </li></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 21-38 FRA FILIPPO LIPPI, Madonna and Child with Angels, ca. 1455. Tempera on wood, approx. 3’ x 2’ 1”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fra Filippo Lippi - Madonna and Child with Angels <ul><li>Friar Lippi was unsuited for monastic life – indulged in misdemeanors from forgery to embezzlement/ Medici’s intervention on his behalf at papal court kept him from severe punishment and total disgrace </li></ul><ul><li>At age 18 met Masaccio and witnessed decoration of Brancacci Chapel/ was also influenced by relief sculptures of Ghiberti and Donatello </li></ul><ul><li>Madonna and Child with Angels : master of line – fluid line unifies the composition and contributes to the precise and smooth delineation of forms/ used live models for reference when painting/ preferred real landscapes (site specific) – features of Arno River Valley/ he humanizes this theme </li></ul>
  32. 32. Figure 21-39 LUCA DELLA ROBBIA, Madonna and Child, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, ca. 1455–1460. Terracotta with polychrome glaze, diameter approx. 6’. Relief Sculpture for the Masses – Della Robbia <ul><li>Later half of 15 th century: increased demand for devotional images for private chapels and shrines contributed to growing secularization of traditional religious subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>LUCA DELLA ROBBIA: discovered way to produce Madonna images so persons with modest means could buy them = heat-fused potters’ glazes to sculpture = glazed terracotta reliefs (“della Robbia ware”) </li></ul><ul><li>These works were inexpensive, durable and decorative – were popular and created flourishing family business for Della Robbia </li></ul><ul><li>Madonna and Child : done in tondo format and set into wall of Or San Michele/ Luca introduced high-key color into sculpture (suggests gaiety, festiveness, freshness) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Figure 21-40 PERUGINO, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1481–1483. Fresco, 11’ 5 1/2” x 18’ 8 1/2”. Pope Sixtus IV summons artists to decorate walls of Sistine Chapel <ul><li>PERUGINO – Christ hands keys to St. Peter with 12 Apostles and Renaissance contemporaries looking on/ one point perspective is used – vanishing point located at centrally planned temple/ triumphal arches (Arch of Constantine, Roman influence – tie between St. Peter and Constantine) frame composition and create triangle with temple in middle/ created foreground, middle and background space which is symmetrical/ orderly </li></ul>
  34. 34. Figure 21-41 LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, west facade of Sant’Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed ca. 1470. The Princely Courts - Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga - Mantua <ul><li>PRINCELY COURTS: referred to a power relationship between the prince and the territory’s inhabitants based on imperial models/ princes felt responsible for the vitality of cultural life in their territories and art was a major component for developing a cultured populace/ visual imagery also appealed to the princes because it could be used as propaganda to reinforce their control/ prince selected court artists (great opportunity) = major art commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzaga ruled Mantua/ powerful military leader/ determined to build city that was the envy of all Italy </li></ul><ul><li>ALBERTI: commissioned by Gonzaga to rebuild Sant’ Andrea/ he locked together two Roman architectural elements – the temple front and the triumphal arch (this combo. was already feature of classical architecture)/ façade is smaller than rest of church behind it (because Alberti wanted to equalize the vertical and horizontal dimensions)/ exterior elements such as pilasters, barrel vault are repeated on the interior/ façade pilasters, as part of wall, run uninterrupted for 3 stories (colossal or giant order) = favorite motif of Michelangelo </li></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 21-43 LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, interior of Sant’Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed ca. 1470. Interior of Sant’ Andrea - Mantua <ul><li>ALBERTI got rid of the medieval columned arcade/ we see thick walls alternating with vaulted chapels/ massive dome over crossing support/ huge barrel vault with coffered look </li></ul><ul><li>ALBERTI criticized the traditional basilican plan (aisles on either side of nave) because colonnades blocked the view for the faithful in the aisles, so he wanted to create a single huge hall with independent side chapels branching off at right angles </li></ul>
  36. 36. Figure 21-45 Andrea Mantegna, interior of the Camera degli Sposi (Room of the Newlyweds), Palazzo Ducale,Mantua, Italy, 1474. Fresco. Gonzaga’s Palazzo Ducale decorated by MANTEGNA <ul><li>Camera degli Sposi (Room of the Newlyweds) – took 9 years for Mantegna to finish the fresco series/ scenes of Gonzaga and family showing activities of courtly life </li></ul><ul><li>MANTEGNA created first completely illusionistic decoration of an entire room using ACTUAL ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS AND MURAL PAINTINGS INTEGRATED TOGETHER (like Second Style of Roman wall painting found in Pompeii) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 21-46 Andrea Mantegna, ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi (Room of the Newlyweds), Palazzo Ducale,Mantua, Italy, 1474. Fresco, 8’ 9” in diameter. Ceiling of Room of the Newlyweds – “di sotto in su” Trompe l’oeil – Deceives the Eye <ul><li>MANTEGNA decorated the room’s ceiling with the first “di sotto in su” (from below upwards) perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque ceiling painters developed this technique </li></ul><ul><li>The oculus is an “eye” looking down </li></ul><ul><li>Cupids (sons of Venus) are FORESHORTENED/ painted spectators smile down on the scene/ peacock is symbol of Juno (Jupiter’s bride) who oversees lawful marriages </li></ul><ul><li>This illusionistic painting climaxes almost a century of experimentation with perspective </li></ul>
  38. 38. Figure 21-47 ANDREA MANTEGNA, Saint James Led to Martyrdom, Ovetari Chapel, Church of the Eremitani (largely destroyed, l944), Padua, Italy, ca. 1455. Fresco, 10’ 9” wide. Mantegna – Unusual Viewpoints <ul><li>1455 – Fresco in Ovetari Chapel (largely destroyed in WWII) </li></ul><ul><li>St. James Led to Martyrdom – condemned saint stopping, on his way to death, to bless a man who rushed from the crowd and kneels before him </li></ul><ul><li>Mantegna did his research – motifs on barrel-vaulted triumphal arch, antique attire served as model for soldier’s costume, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique perspective – we are below looking up at the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Linear perspective is confusing/inconsistent for the right part of the composition (buildings) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Figure 21-48 ANDREA MANTEGNA, Dead Christ, ca. 1501. Tempera on canvas, 2’ 2 3/4” x 2’ 7 7/8”. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. Dead Christ – Realistic Study in FORESHORTENING? MANTEGNA – Overwhelming power/ he reduced the size of the figures feet (would have covered much of body) so the viewer could fully see the dead body of Christ/ serves the purpose of devotion
  40. 40. Figure 21-49 PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Finding of the True Cross and Proving of the True Cross, San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy, ca. 1455. Fresco, 11’ 8 3/8” x 6’ 4”. The Princely Court - Urbino <ul><li>Urbino ruled by Federico da Montefeltro (military leader) who was a great art patron </li></ul><ul><li>Federico commissioned Piero Della Francesca to create fresco cycle in apse of church of San Francesco in Arezzo/ cycle represents episodes from the legend of the True Cross/ unearthing of buried crosses (left) and true cross restores a dead man to life (right)/ background contains lots of geometric shapes/ concern is shown for light and color </li></ul><ul><li>Della Francesca believed highest beauty resides in forms that have clarity and purity of geometric figures </li></ul>
  41. 41. Figure 21-50 PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Enthroned Madonna and Saints Adored by Federico da Montefeltro (Brera Altarpiece), ca. 1472–1474. Oil on panel, 8’ 2” x 5’ 7”. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. Della Francesca’s Brera Altarpiece <ul><li>Enthroned Madonna and Saints Adored by Federico da Montefeltro – Frederico, in armor, kneels at Virgin’s feet, behind him, St. John the Evangelist (his patron saint)/ Frederico’s wife should be on left side, but has died (her absence shows his loss)/ ostrich egg hanging from shell is dedicated to Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric clarity in background architecture </li></ul>
  42. 42. Figure 21-51 LUCA SIGNORELLI, Damned Cast into Hell, San Brizio Chapel, Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, 1499–1504. Fresco, approx. 23’ wide. 1490’s Florence – Political, Cultural and Religious Upheaval Dominican monk, Savonarola, denounced humanism and encouraged “bonfires of the vanities” for citizens to burn classical texts, scientific treatises and philosophical publications/ banished the Medici and other wealthy families from Florence <ul><li>Pictorial equal to Savonarola’s fiery passionate sermons: </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNORELLI – Damned Cast into Hell </li></ul><ul><li>End of the world, St. Michael and hosts of Heaven hurl the damned into Hell where they are tortured by demons/ </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular bodies in violent action in wide variety of poses and foreshortened/ each figure studied from model </li></ul><ul><li>Horrible consequences of sinful life (last seen this vision on tympanum of St. Lazare showing Last Judgment in chapter 17, ca. 1130) </li></ul>