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Indian Art Before 1200
 

Indian Art Before 1200

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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    Indian Art Before 1200 Indian Art Before 1200 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6 Paths to Enlightenment: The Art of South and Southeast Asia before 1200 Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e
    • South and Southeast Asia
    • Goals
      • Understand the late Neolithic origins of Indian and Southeast Asian art and culture.
      • Understand how the indigenous beliefs and the beginnings of Buddhism and Hinduism influenced the art and architecture.
      • Identify hallmarks of architecture from Hindu and Buddhist monuments.
      • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the varying appearances of the human figure in art.
      • Identify hallmarks of temple and monastic architecture in Southeast Asia
      • Understand the role of the monarchs in Southeast Asia in the middle ages.
    • 6.1 India and Pakistan
      • Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley.
      • Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period.
      • Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems.
      • Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties.
      • Understand the artistic influences of the Gandhara and Mathura regions of the Kushan dynasty.
      • Explore the Buddhist and Hindu imagery and temples of the Gupta dynasty and afterwards in India.
    • The Indus Valley
      • Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley.
      • Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period.
    • Figure 6-1 Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE.
    • Figure 6-2 Robed male figure, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8” high. National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi.
    • Figure 6-3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite coated with alkali and baked, approx. 1 3/8” X 1 3/8”. National Museum, New Delhi.
    • Art and Architecture in the Early Dynasties
      • Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties.
      • Explore the construction and purpose of the Buddhist Stupa.
    • Figure 6-4 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx. 7’ high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath.
    • Figure 6-5 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east).
    • The Early Art of Buddhism
      • Understand how the early art of Buddhism relates to pre-Hindu ideas and imagery.
      • Understand why abstract imagery – the wheel, the bohdi tree -- is also used in early Buddhism.
    • Figure 6-7 Yakshi, detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE.
    • Figure 6-8 Interior (left), section (top right), and plan (bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE.
    • Gandhara and Mathura
      • Examine the design traditions and influences in the Buddhist art from Gandhara.
      • Understand why the Buddhist art from Mathura presents a different tradition.
    • Figure 6-9 Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high. Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh.
    • Figure 6-10 The life and death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2’ 2 3/8” X 9’ 6 1/8”. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
    • Figure 6-11 Buddha seated on lion throne, from Mathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Muttra.
    • Figure 6-12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, from Sarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone, 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath.
    • Figure 6-14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century.
    • Figure 6-15 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief approx 22’ X 13’; Vishnu 12’ 8” high.
    • Art of the Guptas
      • Examine the Buddhist and Hindu imagery of the painted caves of Ajanta.
      • Explore ideas of Buddhist and Hindu coexistence in Shiva and Vishnu imagery.
    • Figure 6-16 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, late sixth century.
    • Figure 6-17 Shiva as Mahadeva, Cave 1, Elephanta, India, ca. 550–575. Basalt, Shiva 17’ 10” high.
    • Figure 6-18 Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century.
    • Figure 6-19 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta, detail of facade of the Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century.
    • Figure 6-20 Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, and Draupadi rathas.
    • Figure 6-21 Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010
    • Figure 6-22 Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. (View looking northwest and plan).
    • Figure 6-23 Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000.
    • Figure 6-24 Shiva as Nataraja, bronze in the Naltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai, India, ca. 1000.
    • The Belief Systems
      • Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems.
      • The Vedas: great religious knowledge written in Sanskrit
      • The Upanishads: samsara, karma, moksha (nirvana)
      • Hinduism: an outgrowth of indigenous beliefs coupled with the Vedas and the Upanishads, codified between 8-500 bce.
      • Buddhism: a reaction to indigenous beliefs begun with the preaching of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha after 500 bce.
    • 6.2 Southeast Asia
      • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia.
      • Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia.
      • Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia.
      • Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.
    • Art of Southeast Asia
      • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia.
      • Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia.
    • Figure 6-25 Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, eleventh to twelfth century. Granulite, Buddha approx. 46’ long.
    • Figure 6-26 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800.
    • The Human Image in Southeast Asia
      • Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia.
    • Figure 6-27 Harihara, from Prasat Andet, Cambodia, early seventh century. Stone, 6’ 3” high. National Museum, Phnom Penh.
    • The Khmer Kingship
      • Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.
    • Figure 6-29 Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of twelfth century.
    • Figure 6-31 Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia, ca. 1200.
    • Discussion Questions
      • What ideologies in Buddhism and Hinduism determined the appearance of figures in art and architecture?
      • Why does the Buddha’s appearance change in different places and time periods?
      • Do you think that the Gandharan style is the result of Alexander the Great and the Greeks contact with India? Explain why or why not (or to what extent).
      • What is the purpose of the Stupa and how is it similar or different from other large scale architecture we have examined?