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Art history chap._24_a
Art history chap._24_a
Art history chap._24_a
Art history chap._24_a
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Art history chap._24_a

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  • 1. Chapter 24 Of Popes, Peasants, Monarchs, and Merchants Baroque Art Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
  • 2. Europe in the 17 th Century
  • 3. Baroque Art
    • Chapter coverage includes:
    • -17 th century Baroque Art in Italy, Spain, Flanders, Dutch Republic, France and England
    • -Late Baroque Art and Architecture of early 18 th century in England, Germany and Italy
    • Cultural production of the 17 th and early 18 th centuries in the West is often described as “Baroque”
    • Baroque Art is a style of complexity and drama that is usually associated with Italian art of this period
    • Shifting Geopolitical Landscape in 17 th century Europe
    • Between 1562 and 1721 all of Europe was at peace only four years
    • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648- started as conflict between militant Catholics and Protestants)/ concluded with Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 (reconfigured territorial boundaries and granted freedom of religious choice throughout Europe)/ responsible for political restructuring of Europe (building of nation-states)
  • 4.
    • 17 th century – European societies began to coordinate their long-distance trade more systematically/ allure of expanding markets, rising profits and access to wider range of goods contributed to relentless economic competition between countries during this period
    • Changes in financial systems, lifestyles and trading patterns, along with expanding colonialism, fueled creation of a worldwide marketplace
    • Bank of Amsterdam founded in 1609 – center of European transfer banking
    • Triangular trade began (trade between three parties)- allowed for larger pool of desirable goods which affected European diets and lifestyles (coffee, tea, sugar, tobacco, rice)
    • The prosperity such trading generated affected social and political relationships, necessitating new rules of etiquette and careful diplomacy
    • With increased disposable income, more of newly wealthy spent money on ART, expanding the number of possible sources of patronage
    • By 1700, growth of moneyed class contributed to emergence of Rococo
    Development of a Worldwide Market
  • 5. Figure 24-2 CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606–1612. Baroque Art of 17 th Century - ITALY
    • Much of Italian Baroque Art was aimed at propagandistically restoring Catholicism’s predominance and centrality/ used as teaching tool
    • 17 th century Italian Baroque Art and Architecture characteristics: dramatic/theatrical, grandiose scale, elaborate ornateness – all used to spectacular effect
    • Pope Paul V commissioned MADERNO to complete St. Peter’s in Rome, 1606
    • Maderno had to work with the preexisting structure/ his design for the façade was never fully executed
    • Clergy rejected the original central plan (by Bramante and Michelangelo) because of association with pagan buildings like the Pantheon
  • 6. Figure 24-4 Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666. Figure 24-3 CARLO MADERNO, plan of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, with adjoining piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI. ITALY – St. Peter’s – Maderno and Bernini
    • Pope Paul V commissioned Maderno to add 3 nave bays – symbolic distinction between clergy, laity and provided space for processions
    • Lengthening nave pushed the dome back – this changed Michelangelo’s plan to have structure pulled together and dominated by the dome
    • Design of St. Peter’s finally completed by BERNINI (one of most important artists of the Italian Baroque era)
    • BERNINI designed the monumental piazza (plaza) in front of St. Peter’s
    • Like welcoming arms of the church
    • Oval shaped/ four rows of Tuscan columns make up two colonnades/ end with Classical temple fronts
  • 7. Figure 24-5 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633. Gilded bronze, approx. 100’ high. Figure 24-6 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666 . ITALY - BERNINI
    • Bernini decorates interior of St. Peter’s – Bronze Baldacchino (canopy-like structure that marks the high altar and tomb of St. Peter)/ almost 100 ft. high/ provides dramatic, compelling presence at the crossing
    • Left: Spiral columns recall those of an ancient baldacchino over same spot in Old St. Peter’s/ bronze columns cast in five sections from wooden models/ bronze was attained from dismantled portico of the Pantheon
    • Guardian angels in upper four corners
    • Orb and Cross elevated by brackets to form canopy’s apex = symbols of Church’s triumph
    • Bees are featured = symbol of Barberini family (patron of work)
    • Below: Royal stairway in Vatican City connects papal apartments to the portico and narthex of St. Peter’s/ arch displays sculptural group of trumpeting angels and papal arms/ Bernini reduced distance between columns and walls as stairway ascends, eliminated aisles on upper level – creates illusion that whole stairway is uniform in width and that the aisles continue for its entire length/ space between colonnades narrows with ascent- making stairs appear longer than they are/ bright light source at end and at midway resting point
  • 8. Figure 24-7 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, approx. 5’ 7” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Bernini – Expresses the Italian Baroque Spirit in Sculpture
    • Bernini’s sculpture is expansive and theatrical/ element of time usually plays an important role in it
    • David: commissioned by Cardinal Borghese
    • It shows the beginning of the violent, pivoting motion that will launch the stone from his sling/ catches the split-second action/ dramatic, dynamic pose- seems to be moving through time and space
    • It demands space around it/ the figure moves out into and partakes of the physical space that surrounds it and the observer
    • Intense concentration on David’s face adds to dramatic impact of this sculpture
  • 9. Figure 24-9 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”. Bernini – Interior Niche of Cornaro Chapel
    • Ecstasy of St. Teresa – 1645-52
    • Bernini utilizes architecture, sculpture and painting in this piece/ he drew on his knowledge of the theater, from writing plays and producing stage designs
    • The whole chapel became a theater for the production of this mystical drama
    • Subject: St. Teresa (Carmelite nun and mystical saint of Counter-Reformation) was converted after her father’s death, fell into a series of trances, saw visions and heard voices, felt a persistent pain (fire-tipped arrow of Divine love thrust into her heart) – she wrote that this experience made her swoon in delightful anguish
    • Bernini depicts spiritual and physical passion/ he was master at carving marble and showing variety of TEXTURES (clouds, cloth, flesh, feathery wings)
    • Bronze rays suggest radiance of Heaven
    • Theatricality and sensory impact were useful vehicles for achieving Counter-Reformation goals
  • 10. Figure 24-10 FRANCESCO BORROMINI, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1665–1676. Figure 24-11 FRANCESCO BORROMINI, plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1638–1641. Borromini – Italian Baroque Architecture Church of St. Charles of the Four Fountains
    • Borromini set the façade in motion, making a counterpoint of concave and convex elements on two levels (sway of cornices)/ emphasized 3-D effect with deeply recessed niches/ designed to create fluid transition between interior and exterior space- interrelationship between building and its environment (has not one but two facades- one follows the curve of the street and faces an intersection)
    • The interior is a variation on the centrally planned church
    • Plan is hybrid of Greek cross and oval with long axis between entrance and apse
    • Side walls move in flow that reverses the façade’s motion/ protruding columns/ coffered oval dome
    • USES THE DYNAMIC OVAL!
  • 11. Figure 24-12 FRANCESCO BORROMINI, Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642. Figure 24-13 FRANCESCO BORROMINI, plan of the Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642. Borromini – Chapel of St. Ivo
    • Exterior: Borromini played concave against convex forms on upper level of chapel/ lower level already there when he began work on upper level/ pilasters seem to push the bulging forms outward/ buttresses above pilasters curve upward to brace the tall ornate lantern topped by a spiral
    • Centralized star plan/ apses on all sides
    • Indentions and projections along the angled curving walls create a highly complex plan
  • 12. Figure 24-14 Chapel of Saint Ivo (view into dome), College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642. Borromini – Dome of Chapel of St. Ivo
    • The dome is not, as in the Renaissance, a separate unit placed on the supporting block of a building. It is an organic part that evolves out of and shares the qualities of the supporting walls, and it cannot be separated from them. This carefully designed progression up through the lantern creates a dynamic and cohesive shell that encloses and energetically molds a scalloped fragment of universal space.
  • 13. Figure 24-15 GUARINO GUARINI, Palazzo Carignano, Turin, Italy, 1679–1692. Guarini – Palazzo Carignano
    • Guarini was a priest, mathematician and architect/ heir to Borromini’s sculptured architectural style
    • He applied Borromini’s principle of undulating facades
    • He divided his facades into 3 parts with a central curving section flanked by two block-like wings
    • Tripartite organization = average person can recognize up to three objects as a unit/ this 3 part organization allows artists to introduce variety into their designs without destroying structural unity/ also permitted adding emphasis to the central axis with deep cavities in middle of convex central block/ enhanced variety with textured surfaces, high and lower reliefs create shadows, etc.
  • 14. Figure 24-18 CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy, ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. CARAVAGGIO – One of the Most Noted Baroque Painters
    • He disliked the classical masters and refused to emulate their work/style- was criticized for this
    • He had a troubled personal life (info. from police records)
    • Caravaggio injected a naturalism into both religion and the classics, reducing them to human dramas played out in the harsh and dingy settings of his time and place/ he used unidealized figures from the fields and streets and the Italian public could relate because of the familiarity of such figures
    • Conversion of St. Paul – 1601
    • Spiritual event takes place – Paul (being converted) is on his back with arms in air/ old man caring for horse looks on
    • Devices Caravaggio uses to compel the viewer’s interest and involvement in the event:
    • -perspective and chiaroscuro = low horizon line, dramatic lighting, tenebrism (shadowy manner)
  • 15. Figure 24-19 CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. CARAVAGGIO – Calling of St. Matthew – Theatrical Lighting
    • Painted for side wall of Contarelli Chapel
    • Commonplace setting (bland street scene with plain building as backdrop)
    • Cloaked in mysterious shadow and almost unseen, Christ enters from right and with hand gesture (like Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam on the Sistine Chapel ceiling) summons the Roman tax collector (became Matthew) to a higher calling/ tax collector whose face is highlighted with beam of light coming from above Christ’s head points to himself in disbelief
  • 16. Figure 24-20 CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Pinacoteca, Rome. Entombment – Sums up CARAVAGGIO’S Distinctive Style
    • 1603 – large-scale painting for Chapel of Pietro Vittrice in Rome
    • Hallmarks of Caravaggio’s style:
    • -plebian figure types, stark use of darks and lights (chiaroscuro) and invitation for the viewer to participate in the scene (low horizon line and action takes place in FOREGROUND)
    • By depicting Christ’s body as though it were physically present during the Mass (painting was placed in front of altar), Caravaggio visually articulated an abstract theological precept (transubstantiation = the transformation of the Eucharistic bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ)
  • 17. Figure 24-21 ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. GENTILESCHI (Female) – “Caravaggista”
    • Caravaggio’s style (combo. of naturalism and drama) became popular and appealed to patrons and artists
    • Gentileschi was trained by her father (who was influenced by Caravaggio)
    • Heroic Female (favorite theme of Gentileschi)
    • Judith Slaying Holofernes – 1614
    • Subject: Old Testament/ Assyrian general Holofernes (the enemy) invited Judith (Israelite) to his tent for the night- when he fell asleep, Judith cut off his head
    • -Tension and strain
    • -Controlled highlights and tenebrism
    • -Action in the forground
    • -All of above heighten the drama and recall Caravaggio’s work
  • 18. Figure 24-22 ANNIBALE CARRACCI, Flight into Egypt, 1603–1604. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ x 7’ 6”. Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome. CARRACCI – Drawn to the Classics (contrast to Caravaggio)
    • Carracci studied and emulated the Renaissance masters/ he was trained at the Bolognese (in Bologna) academy which was the first significant institution of its kind in the history of Western art – the academy was founded on the premise that art can be taught and its instruction must include the classical and Renaissance traditions in addition to the study of anatomy and life drawing
    • Flight into Egypt- 1603- Carracci created the “ideal” or “classical” landscape (from Venetian Renaissance works) showing all the props of a pastoral scene and tranquil mood/ the architectural structures capture idealized antiquity and the idyllic life/ figures are diminished in size to become part of the landscape
  • 19. Figure 24-23 ANNIBALE CARRACCI, Loves of the Gods, ceiling frescoes in the gallery, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy, 1597–1601. CARRACCI – Ceiling Fresco in the Palazzo Farnese Gallery
    • Commissioned by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in 1597 to celebrate the wedding of the cardinal’s brother =
    • Subject: Loves of the Gods – interpretations of the varieties of earthly and divine love in classical mythology
    • Format resembles framed easel paintings on a wall, but they are painted on the surface of a shallow curved vault/ this type of simulation of easel painting for ceiling design is called QUADRO RIPORTATO (transferred framed painting)
    • Standing Atlas figures painted to resemble marble and the light source seems to be from beneath, as if real 3-D statues
    • Carracci derived motifs used here from Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling
  • 20. Figure 24-25 PIETRO DA CORTONA, Triumph of the Barberini, ceiling fresco in the Gran Salone, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, 1633–1639. DA CORTONA – Triumph of the Barberini
    • Patrons who wanted to burnish their public image or control their legacy used the monumental ceiling fresco to do so
    • Pope Urban VIII in 1633 commissioned this ceiling fresco for the Palazzo Barberini in Rome/ subject matter centers on the accomplishments of the Barberini family – Divine Providence appears in halo of light directing Immortality holding a crown of stars to bestow eternal life on the Barberini family/ Laurel wreath (symbol of immortality) reinforces family legacy and floats around the bees (symbol of the family) and is supported by virtues Faith, Hope and Charity/ the papal tiara and keys announce personal triumph of Urban VIII
  • 21. Figure 24-26 GIOVANNI BATTISTA GAULLI, Triumph of the Name of Jesus, ceiling fresco with stucco figures in the vault of the Church of Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, 1676–1679. GAULLI – Triumph in the Name of Jesus - 1676
    • Frescoes spanning church ceilings contributed to creating transcendent spiritual environments well suited to the needs of the Church in Counter-Reformation Italy
    • Triumph of the Name of Jesus: located over the nave of the mother church of the Jesuit order (Il Gesu)/ gilded architecture opens up in the center of the ceiling to offer viewers a glimpse of Heaven/ Jesus is represented by a monogram (IHS) in the blinding radiant light/ sinners are thrown back to Earth/ to heighten illusionism, Gaulli painted many of the sinners on 3-D stucco extensions that project outside the painting’s frame
  • 22. Figure 24-27 FRA ANDREA POZZO, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, ceiling fresco in the nave of Sant’Ignazio, Rome, Italy, 1691–1694. POZZO – Glorification of St. Ignatius - 1691
    • Fra Pozzo was lay brother of Jesuit order and master of perspective and ceiling decoration/ the church of Sant’ Ignazio was prominent in Counter-Reformation Rome because of its dedication to St. Ignatius, the founder of the Jesuit order
    • Pozzo created the illusion that Heaven is opening up above the congregation/ to achieve this, he illusionistically continued the church’s actual architecture into the vault so that the roof seems to be lifted off/ St. Ignatius is carried to the waiting Christ in the presences of figures personifying the 4 corners of the world
    • Italian Baroque religious art depended on the drama and theatricality of individual images/ also the interaction and fusion of architecture, sculpture and painting/ sound (music) enhanced this experience
  • 23. Figure 24-28 JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 17 th Century Baroque Art - SPAIN
    • By 1660 the imperial age of the Spanish Habsburgs was over/ partly due to economic problems like expensive military campaigns/ increasing tax burden placed on Spanish people led to revolts and civil war in 1640’s
    • Philip III and Philip IV were avid art patrons and realized the power of visual imagery in communicating to a wide audience
    • Spain is Catholic- confronted same Counter-Reformation issues as Italy did
    • Like Italian artists, Spanish Baroque artists sought ways to move viewers and encourage greater devotion to the Catholic church/ scenes of death, martyrdom/sainthood were popular
    • RIBERA – Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew:
    • He was influenced by Caravaggio, using naturalism and compelling drama in his work which added shock value to his often brutal themes
    • St. Bartholomew is about to suffer the torture of being skinned alive/ rough, heavy body/ plebian figures similar to Caravaggio’s figures
  • 24. Figure 24-29 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund). ZURBARAN – Martyr at Peace, St. Serapion
    • Many of his works commissioned by monastic orders – St. Serapion painted as devotional image for the funerary chapel of the Order of Mercy
    • Subject: Saint participated in the 3 rd Crusade (1196) and was martyred while preaching the Gospel to Muslims/ he was tied to a tree, tortured and decapitated
    • The figure emerges from a dark background and fills the foreground/ light on figure calls attention to the tragic death and increases dramatic impact/ small note identifies him for viewers/ coarse features of the saint label him as a commoner- evokes empathy from wide audience
  • 25. Figure 24-31 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Surrender of Breda, 1634–1635. Oil on canvas, 10’ 1” x 12’ 1/2”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. VELAZQUEZ – Influential Spanish Court Painter
    • One of greatest Spanish Baroque painters/ King Philip IV was his major patron and named Velazquez to the position of court painter and chamberlain/ Trained in Seville and lived in Madrid most of his life
    • Surrender of Breda –
    • Was painted to decorate the Hall of Realms in the Palace of Buen Retiro in Madrid which had been built for Philip IV
    • Commemorates the Spanish victory over the Dutch in 1625/ Victorious Spanish troops are organized and well armed on the right/ Defeated Dutch on left are bedraggled and disorganized/ Center, the Mayor of Breda hands city’s keys to Spanish general/ Shows Spanish military as benevolent, terms of the surrender were lenient, Dutch allowed to retain their arms
  • 26. Figure 24-32 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York. VELAZQUEZ – Portraying Royalty, King Philip IV of Spain
    • During a 3 month stay in Fraga, Philip ordered this painting
    • Philip appears as military leader, in a red and silver campaign dress (but does not have a commanding presence)
    • Philip had inherited the Hapsburg jaw (the result of dynastic inbreeding) so Velazquez focused on the king’s exquisite attire to take away attention from the large jaw
    • It is said that the silver needlework on the garment appears to shimmer
  • 27. Figure 24-33 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid. VELAZQUEZ – Art and Royal Life, Las Meninas
    • After visit to Rome from 1648 to 1651, he returned to Spain and painted his greatest masterpiece – Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) / it hung in Philip’s personal office
    • Represents himself in his studio standing before a large canvas/ the young Princess Margarita in foreground with maids-in-waiting, her favorite dwarfs and dog/ middleground, woman in widow’s attire with man/ background, chamberlain in open doorway/ reflection of King Philip IV and Queen Mariana in mirror
    • Painting is noteworthy for its visual and narrative complexity – What is taking place in Las Meninas ? – art historians have yet to agree on an answer to this question
    • Can be read as an attempt by Velazquez to elevate both himself and his profession/ the painting might have embodied the idea of the great king visiting his studio
    • He pictorially summarized the various kinds of images in their different levels and degrees of reality/ has contrasts of spaces- mirrored spaces, real spaces, picture spaces and pictures within pictures- looks as though taken from a mirror reflecting the whole scene
    • Emphasizes: pictorial depth, form and shadow, he used tonal gradations (intermediate values of gray between lights and darks)
  • 28. Figure 24-34 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium, 1610. Oil on panel, 15’ 1 7/8” x 11’ 1 1/2” (center panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (each wing). 17 th Century Baroque Art - FLANDERS (Spanish Netherlands)
    • Spanish King Philip II – repressive ruling measures against Protestants in Netherlands led the northern provinces to break away from Spain and set up the Dutch Republic/ Southern provinces remain under Spanish rule
    • Baroque art of Flanders (the Spanish Netherlands) retained close connections to Baroque art of Catholic Europe/ Dutch schools of painting developed their own subjects and styles
    • PETER PAUL RUBENS:
    • Flemish master/ he combined the styles of the Renaissance masters and the Italian Baroque masters to create his own style = the first truly pan-European manner
    • He possessed an aristocratic education, a courtier’s manner, diplomacy and tact/ He was the associate of princes and scholars/ Patrons entrusted him with diplomatic missions of highest importance/ He had scores of associates and apprentices that assisted him = turned out lots of artwork/ Very wealthy man!
    • This triptych reveals his interest in Italian art/ heavily muscular figures, foreshortened anatomy, contortions of violent action (Michelangelo)/ he uses the diagonal (Christ’s body) for a more dynamic composition/ tension is emotional and physical/ modeling in dark and light heightens the drama
  • 29. Figure 24-35 PETER PAUL RUBENS, drawing of Laocoön, ca. 1600-1608. Black-and-white chalk drawing with bistre wash, approx. 1’ 7” x 1’ 7”. Ambrosiana, Milan. RUBENS – Drawing on the Masters
    • One theme that remained a focus in his work – the human body, draped or undraped, male or female, and freely acting or free to act in an environment of physical forces and other interacting bodies
    • This led him to copy the works of classical antiquity and of the Italian masters = this drawing of Laocoon
    • Black chalk drawing shows the artist’s careful study of classical representations of the human form
  • 30. Figure 24-36 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 1” x 3’ 9 1/2”. Louvre, Paris. RUBENS – Reveals the Pomp and Majesty of Royalty Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles
    • Rubens’ royal patron – Marie de’ Medici (member of famous Florentine family and widow of Henry IV)
    • She commissioned Rubens to paint a series memorializing and glorifying her career/ between 1622 and 1626 he produced 21 huge historical-allegorical pictures to hang in the queen’s new palace
    • Right: Subject – Marie just arrived in France after the sea voyage from Italy/ she is surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting/ she is welcomed by an allegorical personification of France/ the sea and sky rejoice at her safe arrival (Neptune and the Nereids in the water and trumpeting Fame swoops overhead)/ commander of the vessel stands to the left
    • The monumental figures enliven and unify the whole design
  • 31. Figure 24-37 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Allegory of the Outbreak of War, 1638. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Pitti Gallery, Florence. RUBENS – Protesting War, Allegory of the Outbreak of War
    • Rubens had great insight into European politics from his diplomatic missions and never ceased to promote peace
    • Commissioned to paint this piece by Ferdinando II, Grand Duke of Tuscany/ he took opportunity to allegorically express his attitude toward war/ it was finished during the 30 Years’ War
    • Mars with shield and sword threatens with diseaster, Venus tries to hold him back, monsters represent plague and famine, woman on ground with broken lute = harmony cannot exist beside war (war breaks and destroys everything)
  • 32. Figure 24-39 CLARA PEETERS, Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit, and Pretzels, 1611. Oil on panel, 1’ 7 3/4” x 2’ 1 1/4”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. CLARA PEETERS – “Breakfast Piece”
    • Peeters was a Flemish artist who was a pioneer in the field of still-life painting/ She laid the groundwork for other Dutch artists like Claesz, Kalf and Ruysch/ She was known for her depictions of food and flowers together and for still lifes that included bread and fruit (known as “breakfast pieces”)
    • Right: this still life depicts a typical early 17 th century meal
    • It show Peeters skill in painting a wide variety of objects convincingly from the smooth, reflective surfaces of glass and silver goblets to the soft petals of the blooms in the vase
    • Her backgrounds are dark negating any sense of deep space/ she does encroach into the viewer’s space with the leaves on the table
  • 33. 17 th Century Baroque Art - THE DUTCH REPUBLIC
    • PROSPERITY IN THE PROVINCES
    • Dutch Republic was economically prosperous during 17 th century – Amsterdam had highest per capita income in Europe/ Amsterdam emerged as financial center of continent (Bank of Amsterdam 1609)/ By 1650 Dutch trade routes extended beyond Europe proper and included North and South America, west coast of Africa, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and much of the Pacific
    • Due to this prosperity and in absence of an absolute ruler, political power passed into hands of an urban patrician class of merchants and manufacturers
    • PROTESTANT OBJECTION TO ART
    • Prevailing Calvinism demanded puritanical rejection of art in churches – therefore artists produced relatively little religious art in the Dutch Republic at this time (especially in comparison to the Counter-Reformation artists)
    • MERCANTILIST PATRONS
    • With new prosperity, an expanding class of merchant patrons emerged, and this shift led to an emphasis on different pictorial content (genre scenes, landscapes, portraits, still lifes – all appealed to prosperous middle class)
    • 17 th century is referred to as the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic and of Dutch art as well
  • 34. Figure 24-41 GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Supper Party, 1620. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ x 4’ 8”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. VAN HONTHORST – Depicting Daily Dutch Life
    • Typical Dutch genre scene – Supper Party (informal gathering of unidealized human figures
    • van Honthorst spent several years in Italy and studied Caravaggio’s work = mundane tavern setting, nocturnal lighting
    • van Honthorst was fascinated by nocturnal effects/ often placed a hidden light source in his compositions and the strong contrast between lights and darks (chiaroscuro) helped to create more drama
    • Often these scenes could have a moral message/
    • Warning against the sins of gluttony and lust
  • 35. Figure 24-42 FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” x 11’. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem. FRANS HALS – Leading Haarlem Painter of Portraits
    • With increasing number of Dutch middle-class patrons, the tasks for Dutch portraitists became more challenging/ Calvinists shunned ostentation, and wore uniforms, subdued and dark clothing with little variation or decoration
    • Hals produced lively, more relaxed portraits/ injected spontaneity into his compositions and conveyed the personalities of his sitters as well
    • Hals excelled in group portraits – Archers of St. Hadrian – Dutch civic militia group who claimed credit for liberating Dutch Republic from Spain/ Archers met on their saint’s feast day in dress uniform for a grand banquet – the event called for a group portrait
    • Each man is both a troop member and an individual with a distinct personality/ some engage the viewer directly, some look away, one is stern and another is animated
    • The repeated white ruffs and sashes create a lively rhythm in the composition and energizes the portrait
    • Hals’ brushwork is also light and energetic on the surface of the canvas
  • 36. Figure 24-43 FRANS HALS, The Women Regents of the Old Men’s Home at Haarlem, 1664. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 8’ 2”. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem. HALS – Captures the Character of Devout Calvinist Women
    • Dutch women populated the labor force in the cities and were often educated/ they were regents of charitable institutions (orphanages, old age homes, etc.)
    • Women Regents – Clearly take their responsibilities seriously (stern, composed, puritanical)/ the monochromatic palette with only white accents of the clothing adds to the painting’s restraint
  • 37. Figure 24-44 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”. Mauritshuis, The Hague . REMBRANDT – Leading Dutch Painter of His Time
    • Hals’ younger contemporary/ He moved to Amsterdam around 1631
    • Rembrandt delved deeply into the psyche and personality of his sitters in the portraits he painted
    • Rembrandt produced this painting at age 26 (the beginning of his career)
    • Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp:
    • Hals sought to enliven his group portraits, but evenly placed his subjects across the canvas/picture plane/
    • Rembrandt offset the group of subjects (members of the surgeon’s guild) to the paintings left side
    • Rembrandt diagonally placed and foreshortened the corpse
    • The varied poses and facial expressions on each student suggest uniqueness/ individuality
  • 38. Figure 24-45 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Oil on canvas (cropped from original size), 11’ 11” x 14’ 4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam . REMBRANDT – The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch)
    • The painting is not a nocturnal scene/ painting’s nickname is due more to the varnish the artist used, which has darkened over time
    • Civic-guard group portrait (each member in the painting contributed to Rembrandt’s fee)/ It was commissioned to hang in the assembly and banquet hall of the new Musketeer’s Hall in Amsterdam
    • Rembrandt captured the excitement and frenetic activity of the men preparing for a parade/ rather than organizing the men for the portrait, he chose to depict them scurrying about in the act of organizing themselves = animated
    • Girl on left may be Rembrandt’s wife/ he may be represented in back, right corner
    • Painting was cropped in 1715 when moved to Amsterdam town hall
  • 39. Figure 24-46 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son, ca. 1665. Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 8” x 6’ 9”. Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. REMBRANDT – States of the Human Soul Return of the Prodigal Son
    • Calvinist injunctions against religious art did not prevent Rembrandt from making a series of religious paintings and prints
    • His religious art is that of a committed Christian who desired to interpret biblical narratives in human terms (as opposed to lofty theological/ opulent, overwhelming art of Baroque Italy)
    • In Return of the Prodigal Son , Rembrandt gives the viewer the humanity and humility of Jesus/ shows his psychological insight and sympathy for human affliction
    • Lesson of Mercy – weeping son crouches before his forgiving father, who embraces him (spiritual face of old man in contrast with stern face of image to right)
    • Light mingles with shadow/ father and son are illuminated
    • Rembrandt completed at end of his life/ his personal style in tune with simple eloquence of the biblical passage
  • 40. Figure 24-47 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Self-Portrait, ca. 1659–1660. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 8 3/4” x 3’ 1”. The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood House, London. LIGHT – Hallmark of Rembrandt’s Style
    • Rembrandt refined light and shade into finer and finer nuances until they blended with one another = GRADATIONS (not chiaroscuro)/ this technique is closer to reality because the eyes perceive light and dark not as static but as always subtly changing
    • Renaissance artists represented the “idea” of light rather than the actual look of it – Rembrandt discovered degrees of light and dark, degrees of differences in pose, in the movement of facial features and in psychic states – these differences were arrived at “optically”
    • Rembrandt discovered for the modern world that variation of light and shade, subtly modulated, could be read as emotional differences = “psychology of light”
    • Self-Portrait – produced late in his life/ strong light source left/ depicted with dignity and strength/ assertive, confident (rough) brushwork/ expresses the artist’s soul
  • 41. Figure 24-48 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print), ca. 1649. Etching, approx. 11” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. REMBRANDT – Hundred Guilder Print – Graphic Media
    • Etching – copper plate is covered with a layer of wax or varnish/ artist incises the design into this surface with an etching needle exposing metal below but not cutting into the surface/ plate is immersed into acid, which eats away the exposed parts of the metal/ plate is then inked and print is made/ offers greatest subtlety of line and tone
    • Rembrandt well known for his prints – major source of income for him
    • Hundred Guilder Print – his best known print/ nickname refers to the high price this work brought during his lifetime
    • Print is suffused with a deep and abiding piety/ Christ in center preaches compassionately to the blind, lame and young – central theme is Christian humility and mercy
  • 42. Figure 24-49 JUDITH LEYSTER, Self-Portrait, ca. 1630. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/8” x 2’ 1 5/8”. National Gallery of Art, Washington (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss). JUDITH LEYSTER – Portraitist (studied with Hals)
    • Produced wide range of paintings, including still lifes and floral pieces, her specialty was genre scenes such as the comic image seen on the easel in this self-portrait painting
    • Strong training as seen in the detail and precision of her work/ shows the spontaneity of Hals (her teacher)/ she succeeded at communicating a great deal about herself
    • Self-Portrait – she allows the viewer to evaluate her skill/ self-assured with quick smile and relaxed pose/ her elegant attire distinguishes her socially as a member of a well-to-do family = her identity
  • 43. Figure 24-50 AELBERT CUYP, A Distant View of Dordrecht, with a Milkmaid and Four Cows, and Other Figures (The “Large Dort”), late 1640s. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 1” ´ 6’ 4 7/8”. National Gallery, London. Figure 24-51 JACOB VAN RUISDAEL, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas, approx. 1’ 10” x 2’ 1”. Mauritshuis, The Hague. Dutch Avidly Collected Landscape Paintings (Cuyp & van Ruisdael)
    • Dutch had unique relationship to the terrain/ after gaining independence from Spain, the Dutch undertook extensive land reclamation project that lasted almost a century/ Dikes and drainage systems built/ Most Dutch families owned and worked their own farms = feeling of closeness to the terrain
    • CUYP – The Large Dort – title indicates important location for artist = specific or particularized not idealized/ church can be identified/ dairy cows, shepherds and milkmaid = cornerstone of Dutch agriculture (butter and cheese)/ shows detail = great skill
    • VAN RUISDAEL – View of Haarlem from Dunes at Overveen – depicted with precision and sensitivity/ gives overview of major Dutch city (site specific)/ St. Bravo church/ windmills (land reclamation efforts)/ figures in foreground stretch linen to be bleached (major Haarlem industry)/ horizon line is low and sky fills 3/4 ‘s of canvas/ captures serenity, almost spiritual feel
  • 44. Figure 24-52 JAN VERMEER, The Letter, 1666. Oil on canvas, 1’ 5 1/4” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. JAN VERMEER – Best-Known Dutch Interior Scene Painter
    • Vermeer derived most of his income from work as an innkeeper and art dealer/ He painted no more than 35 paintings that can be definitively attributed to him
    • Vermeer and his contemporaries (unlike 15 th century Flemish artists, Merode Altarpiece ) composed neat, quietly opulent interiors of Dutch middle-class dwellings with men, women and children engaging in household tasks or some little recreation = reflect values
    • The Letter – drawn curtain and open doorway through which the viewer peers indicates that viewer is outsider and affirms the scene’s unplanned “normal” reality/ woman of the house (in elegant attire) is playing a lute and is interrupted by a maid who has delivered a letter/ the letter is a love letter = lute is symbol of music and love, calm seascape on back wall is symbol of love requited
    • His paintings reveal much about Dutch life and culture
    Glimpses into the lives of prosperous, responsible and cultured citizens
  • 45. Figure 24-53 JAN VERMEER, Allegory of the Art of Painting, 1670–1675. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4” x 3’ 8”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. VERMEER – The Science and Poetry of Light Master of Pictorial Light
    • Historians believe that Vermeer used both mirrors and the camera obscura (ancestor of the modern camera based on passing light through a tiny pinhole or lens to project an image on a screen or the wall of a room) as tools
    • Vermeer was ahead of his time in color science/ he realized that shadows are not colorless and dark, that adjoining colors affect each other and that light is composed of colors/ he painted reflections off of surfaces in colors modified by others nearby
    • Vermeer also perceived the phenomenon of “circles of confusion” = he used light dabs of color that, in close view, give the impression of an image slightly “out of focus” – when the observer draws back a step, as if adjusting the lens of a camera, the color spots or dabs cohere, giving an accurate illusion of a third dimension
    • Allegory of the Art of Painting - the artist appears with back to us and is dressed in historical clothing/ the model he is painting is wearing a laurel wreath, holding a trumpet and book, traditional attributes of Clio the muse of history/ map on back wall is another reference to history
    • Viewer is outside of space of action (doorway, drawn curtain), light source coming in from left (as if through window)
  • 46. Figure 24-55 PIETER CLAESZ, Vanitas Still Life, 1630s. Oil on panel, 1’ 2” x 1’ 11 1/2”. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. CLAESZ – Vanitas Paintings – References to Death
    • Prosperous Dutch proud of their accomplishments and of accumulated material goods = still lifes became popular
    • Dutch pride is tempered by the ever-present morality and humility central to the Calvinist faith/ this vanitas painting (references to death/mortality) includes the skull, timepiece, tipped glass and cracked walnut, all suggest passage of time or a presence that has disappeared
    • Claesz emphasized the element of time by including a self-portrait (in glass ball)/ this portrait serves to immortalize the subject- the artist himself
  • 47. Figure 24-57 RACHEL RUYSCH, Flower Still Life, after 1700. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 2’. The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo (purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, gift of Edward Drummond Libbey). Figure 24-56 WILLEM KALF, Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar, 1669. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 2’ 1 3/4”. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis. KALF -
    • Reveals wealth of Dutch citizens/ shows exquisite skills, technical and aesthetic of the artist/ Kalf was enamored with rendering texture (fabric, reflective surfaces, etc.)/ maritime trade = Indian floral carpet & Chinese jar/ served as vanitas painting (watch, peach, peeled lemon)
    RUYSCH -
    • Famous for her floral paintings and still lifes/ her father was a professor of botany and anatomy (influenced her knowledge of plants)/ acquired international reputation for lush paintings (court painter in Germany)/ she carefully constructed her paintings (use of diagonals)
  • 48. Figure 24-58 NICOLAS POUSSIN, Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 4’. Louvre, Paris. 17 th Century Baroque Art - FRANCE
    • King Louis XIV’s obsessive control determined the direction of French Baroque society and culture
    • France became the largest and most powerful European country of the 17 th century
    • Appeal of Rome (ancient Rome and Italian Renaissance) enticed many French artists to study there
    Nicolas Poussin
    • Born in Normandy, spent most of life in Rome
    • His work modeled after Titian and Raphael
    • He praised the ancient Greeks
    • I, Too, in Arcadia:
    • His later classical phase/ rational order and stability/ influenced by antique statuary/ female figure may be the spirit of death- reminding the mortals that death is found even in Arcadia
    • In a treatise, Poussin outlined the “grand manner” of classicism: artists must choose great subjects, minute details avoided, no “low” subjects/genre
    Evenness and moderation in all things = essence of French classical doctrine
  • 49. Figure 24-59 NICOLAS POUSSIN, Burial of Phocion, 1648. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 11” x 5’ 10”. Louvre, Paris. POUSSIN’S Finest Work – Burial of Phocion
    • Subject from the literature of antiquity (Plutarch’s Life of Phocion – Athenian general whom his compatriots unjustly put to death for treason, eventually state gave him a public funeral and memorialized him)
    • This scene was not intended to represent a particular place and time/ Poussin constructed an idea of a noble landscape to frame a noble theme (like Carracci’s classical landscapes)
    • Everything in the composition is carefully arranged (rational plan)
  • 50. Figure 24-60 CLAUDE LORRAIN, Landscape with Cattle and Peasants, 1629. Oil on canvas, 3’ 6” x 4’ 10 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (the George W. Elkins Collection). LORRAIN - Landscapes Tell No Dramatic Story
    • For Lorrain, painting involved one theme – the beauty of the broad sky suffused with the golden light of dawn or sunset glowing through a hazy atmosphere and reflecting brilliantly off rippling water
    • Subject of his work remains grounded in classical antiquity/ idealized classical world/ formalized nature
    • Organized with foreground, middle ground and background
    • Atmospheric perspective
    • Like the Dutch painters, he studied actual light and the atmospheric nuances of nature/ he placed tiny value gradations in his work which imitated the actual range of values of outdoor light and shade
    • Lorrain matched the mood of nature with those of human subjects
  • 51. Figure 24-62 LOUIS LE NAIN, Family of Country People, ca. 1640. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 8” x 5’ 2”. Louvre, Paris. LE NAIN – Frenchman Who Painted Like the Dutch
    • Family of Country People – expresses the grave dignity of a family close to the soil, one made stoic and resigned by hardship/ the peasant’s life was miserable during the time Le Nain painted/ 30 Years’ War took its toll on France
    • Le Nain worked cooperatively with family members/ they established a communal workshop and collaborated on some paintings/ the Le Nain brothers mostly focused on painting genre scenes
    • Some scholars have suggested that Le Nain intended to please wealthy urban patrons with these paintings
  • 52. Figure 24-64 GEORGES DE LA TOUR, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1645–1650. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 6” x 4’ 6”. Louvre, Paris . LA TOUR – Religious Imagery in France
    • La Tour well known for religious imagery
    • Uses light like Caravaggio/ makes use of night setting and hidden light source (like van Honthorst)
    • Genre scene (peasant-like) of biblical narrative
    • Timeless tableau of simple people
    • The painting is readable to the devout of any religious persuasion
    • Supernatural calm achieved by eliminating motion and emotive gesture (only the light is dramatic), by suppressing surface detail and by simplifying body volumes
    • Contrary elements meet in his work: classical composure, fervent spirituality and genre realism
  • 53. Figure 24-63 JACQUES CALLOT, Hanging Tree, from the Large Miseries of War series, 1633. Etching, 3 3/4” x 7 1/4”. Bibiliothèque Nationale, Paris. CALLOT – Perfected the Technique of Etching
    • Conveyed a sense of military life of the times in a series of etchings called Large Miseries of War
    • Was a master of etching/ Rembrandt influenced by his work in this medium
    • In one small print, he assembled as many as 1,200 figures/ drawings based on events he himself must have seen in the wars in Lorraine
    • Hanging Tree – mass execution by hanging (thieves)/ takes place in presence of disciplined army/ monk climbs ladder holding up a crucifix/ men roll dice on a drumhead for the belongings of the executed/ at right in foreground, hooded priest consoles a bound man
    • Among first realistic pictorial record of the human disaster of armed conflict
  • 54. Figure 24-61 FRANÇOIS MANSART, Orléans wing of the Château de Blois, Blois, France, 1635–1638. MANSART – French “Classical-Baroque” Architecture
    • Italian Renaissance Influence: strong rectilinear organization and design in repeated units
    • French Baroque architectural characteristics: emphasis on focal points through curving colonnades, changing planes of the walls and concentration of ornament around the portal
  • 55. Figure 24-65 HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas, approx. 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. King Louis XIV – Preeminent Patron of the Period The Sun King – Center of the Universe
    • Louis XIV was a master of political strategy and propaganda/ anchored his rule in divine right (king’s absolute power as God’s will)/ his desire for control extended to all realms of French life, including art- determined to organize art and architecture in the service of the state = foundation of Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648 (accelerated the establishment of the French classical style)
    • RIGAUD – Louis XIV
    • Depicts image of absolute monarch in control/ at age 63, the king looks directly at the viewer/ the pose suggests a haughtiness – hand on hip, elegant coronation robe thrown over shoulder, king is focal point in composition and looks down on the viewer
    • Louis XIV was short (5’4”) and the red-heeled shoes he wears were invented for him
    • Louis XIV kept a workshop of artists, each with a specialization- faces, fabric, armor, etc. = many of king’s portraits were a group effort
  • 56. Figure 24-67 Aerial view of palace at Versailles, France, begun 1669, and a portion of the gardens and surrounding area. The white trapezoid in the lower part of the plan (FIG. 24-68) outlines the area shown here . VERSAILLES – From Hunting Lodge to Palace
    • Army of architects, decorators, sculptors, painters and landscape architects was assembled under the general management of Charles Le Brun (converted simple lodge into the palace) = greatest architectural project of the age
    • Defining statement of French Baroque style – symbol of Louis XIV’s power and ambition
    • Plan called for palace, park and satellite city
    • The three radial avenues of the city converged on the palace intersecting in the king’s bedroom (symbolic- ruler’s absolute power over his domains)
    • King’s bedroom was an audience room, a state chamber
    • Palace- more than a quarter of a mile long
  • 57. Figure 24-69 JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), palace of Versailles, Versailles, France, ca. 1680. Hall of Mirrors, Versailles – Hardouin-Mansart and Le Brun
    • Versailles interior: careful attention to every detail from wall paintings to door knobs- reinforced splendor and exhibited very finest sense of artisanship
    • Hall of Mirrors – overlooks the park from the second floor and extends along most of the width of the central block/ hundreds of mirrors, on wall across from windows, gives illusion that space is extended
  • 58. Figure 24-70 FRANÇOIS GIRARDON and THOMAS REGNAUDIN, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs, Grotto of Thetis, Park of Versailles, Versailles, France, ca. 1666–1672. Marble, life-size. Park of Versailles.
    • Versailles Park designed by Andre Le Notre (entire forest was transformed into a park) and he carefully composed all vistas for maximum effect
    A Grotto Sculpture for Versailles – by Girardon & Regnaudin
    • Apollo Attended by the Nymphs - Greco-Roman sculpture influenced design of figures/ Poussin’s figure compositions inspired their arrangement/ classical style and mythological symbolism were well suited to France’s glorification of royal majesty
  • 59. Figure 24-71 JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART, Royal Chapel, with ceiling decorations by Antoine Coypel, palace of Versailles, Versailles, France, 1698–1710 . Versailles Royal Chapel - Hardouin-Mansart
    • 1698, Hardouin-Mansart commissioned to add Royal Chapel to the complex
    • Rectangular with an apse as high as the nave, giving fluid central space a curved Baroque quality/ large clerestory windows illuminate interior/ pier-supported arcades carry a row of majestic Corinthian columns/ only ceiling decoration suggests drama and complexity of Italian Baroque art
    • The whole stupendous design of Versailles proudly proclaims the mastery of human intelligence (and mastery of Louis XIV) over the disorderliness of nature
  • 60. Figure 24-73 INIGO JONES, Banqueting House at Whitehall, London, England, 1619–1622. 17 th Century Baroque Architecture - ENGLAND
    • Common law and the Parliament kept royal power in check in England/ England experienced both limited monarchy and constitutionalism/ Religion was not an issue like on the continent/ Economically took advantage of overseas trade/ had large and powerful navy
    • INIGO JONES – architect to kings James I and Charles I
    • JONES spent lots of time in Italy, admired classical style and Palladio’s structures
    • JONES took many motifs from Palladio’s villas and palaces and he adopted Palladio’s basic design principles for his own architecture
    • Banqueting House at Whitehall –
    • Used symmetrical block for clarity and dignity/ superimposed two orders- columns in center and pilasters on ends/ balustraded roofline
    • The interior is adorned with several important Rubens paintings
  • 61. Figure 24-74 SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN, new Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London, England, 1675–1710. CHRISTOPHER WREN - St. Paul’s Cathedral, London
    • WREN – England’s most renown architect/ mathematical genius and skilled engineer whose work won Isaac Newton’s praise/ appointed professor of astronomy in London at age 25
    • Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed the old Gothic church of St. Paul – Wren built the new church as well as many others
    • Wren’s influences: he traveled to France and saw palaces and state buildings, studied prints of Baroque architecture in Italy = he harmonized Palladian, French and Italian Baroque features in the new St. Paul’s Cathedral (eclectic style)
    • Great dome and two foreground towers (St. Peter’s in Rome)/ lower levels are Palladian
    • For Wren, towers are always present in his structures
  • 62. Figure 24-76 BALTHASAR NEUMANN, interior of the pilgrimage chapel of Vierzehnheiligen, near Staffelstein, Germany, 1743–1772. Figure 24-77 Plan of Vierzehnheiligen, near Staffelstein, Germany. Late Baroque Art and Architecture in GERMANY
    • Pilgrimage church of Fourteen Saints by NEUMANN
    • NEUMANN traveled to Austria and northern Italy and studied in Paris
    • Church has large windows and interior is flooded with light/ sanctuary exhibits play of architectural fantasy – retains Italian Baroque dynamic energy
    • Plan has been called one of most ingenious pieces of architectural design every conceived/ plan is made up of tangent oval and circles/ undulating space in continuous motion/ fluidity of line/ interwoven spaces
    • The church is a brilliant ensemble of architecture, painting, sculpture, and music, dissolving the boundaries of the arts in a visionary unity
    • Work of Italians Borromini and Guarini influenced the architecture of southern Germany and Austria
  • 63. Figure 24-78 EGID QUIRIN ASAM, Assumption of the Virgin, monastery church at Rohr, Germany, 1723. Marble and stucco. German Illusionistic Spectacle by ASAM Desire to unify various artistic mediums
    • Assumption of the Virgin – by ASAM – grouping created for space above altar in monastery church in Rohr, Germany
    • Asam and his brother were influenced by Late Baroque architecture they saw on trip to Rome – brought back idea of the illusionistic spectacle (like Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Teresa)
    • Virgin is carried to the heavens by angels/ witnesses below are upset/astonished by her vacant tomb
    • Heavenly figures have gilded details – sets them apart from figures remaining on Earth
    • Scene itself is pure opera – an art perfected and popular in the 18 th century/ sculpture dissolves into painting, theater and music, its mass rendered weightless, its naturally compact composition broken up and diffused

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