Art history ch._29: Rise of Modernism

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Art history ch._29: Rise of Modernism

  1. 1. Gardner‟s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 29 The Rise of Modernism: Art of the Later 19th Century 1
  2. 2. Industrialization of Europe and U.S. about 1850 2
  3. 3. Goals• Understand why the Industrial Revolution, Darwinism, Marxism and sociopolitical changes altered ideas about the nature and subject matter of art in the later 19th century.• Examine the meanings of “Modernism” and “Realism” philosophically and in the appearance of art and architecture.• Understand the formal and content issues of the Impressionists, Post-Impressionists, and Symbolists.• Examine experiments in materials and form in art and architecture at the turn of the century. 3
  4. 4. 29.1 Modernism and Realism• Examine the meanings of “Modernism” and “Realism” and the rejection of Renaissance illusionistic space.• Understand the changes in Realist art in form, style, and content.• Examine the use of art – especially photography and printmaking -- to provide social commentary. 4
  5. 5. The Art of Realism• Understand Realist art in its forms, styles, and content.• Examine the social commentary, shocking subject matter, formal elements, and public reaction to Realism. 5
  6. 6. Figure 29-1 GUSTAVE COURBET, The Stone Breakers, 1849. Oil on canvas, 5‟ 3” x 8‟ 6”. Formerly at Gemäldegalerie,Dresden (destroyed in 1945). 6
  7. 7. Figure 29-2 GUSTAVE COURBET, Burial at Ornans, 1849. Oil on canvas, approx. 10‟ x 22‟. Louvre, Paris. 7
  8. 8. Figure 29-3 JEAN-FRANÇOIS MILLET, The Gleaners, 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 9” x 3‟ 8”. Louvre, Paris. 8
  9. 9. Figure 29-4 HONORÉ DAUMIER, Rue Transnonain, 1834. Lithograph, approx. 1‟ x 1‟ 5 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum ofArt, Philadelphia (bequest of Fiske and Marie Kimball). 9
  10. 10. Figure 29-5 HONORÉ DAUMIER,Nadar Raising Photography to the Height ofArt, 1862. Lithograph, 10 3/4” x 8 3/4”.Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 10
  11. 11. Figure 29-6 HONORÉ DAUMIER, The Third-Class Carriage, ca. 1862. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 1 3/4” x 2‟ 11 1/2”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (H. O. Havemeyer Collection, bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929). 11
  12. 12. Figure 29-7 ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeuner sur l‟herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas, approx. 7‟ x8‟ 10”. Musée d‟Orsay, Paris. 12
  13. 13. 29.2 The French Academy and Other Classical Models• Examine the importance and influence of the French Royal Academy of Art, the artists it trained and the styles it promoted.• Understand the popularity of other classical models in art. 13
  14. 14. Figure 29-8 ÉDOUARD MANET, Olympia, 1863. Oil on canvas, 4‟ 3” x 6‟ 3”. Musée d‟Orsay, Paris. 14
  15. 15. Figure 29-9 ADOLPHE-WILLIAMBOUGUEREAU, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873. Oil oncanvas, approx. 8‟ 6” high. Sterling and Francine ClarkArt Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts. 15
  16. 16. Figure 29-10 MARIE-ROSALIE (ROSA) BONHEUR, The Horse Fair, 1853–1855. Oil on canvas, 8‟ 1/4” x 16‟ 7 1/2”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (gift of Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1887). 16
  17. 17. Figure 29-11 WINSLOW HOMER, The Veteran in a New Field, 1865. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 1/8” x 3‟ 2 1/8”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York (bequest of Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot, 1967). 17
  18. 18. American and German Realism• Identify the American artists and key works of Realist art.• Examine German artist‟s interests in regional and national characteristics, folk customs and culture. 18
  19. 19. Figure 29-12 THOMAS EAKINS, TheGross Clinic, 1875. Oil on canvas, 8‟ x 6‟6”. Jefferson Medical College of ThomasJefferson University, Philadelphia. 19
  20. 20. Figure 29-13 EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE, Horse Galloping, 1878. Collotype print. George Eastman House, Rochester,New York. 20
  21. 21. Figure 29-14 JOHN SINGER SARGENT, The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882. Oil on canvas, 7‟ 3 3/8” x 35/8”. Courtesy of Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (gift of Mary Louisa Boit, Florence D. Boit, Jane Hubbard Boit, and JuliaOvering Boit, in memory of their father, Edward Darley Boit, 19.124). 21
  22. 22. Figure 29-15 HENRY OSSAWA TANNER, The Thankful Poor, 1894. Oil on canvas, 3‟ 8 1/4” x 2‟ 11 1/2”. Collectionof William H. and Camille Cosby. 22
  23. 23. 29.3 Pre-Raphaelites• Examine the Pre-Raphaelites‟ choice of subject matter in contrast to the Realists.• Understand the influences of the literary world and of the critic John Ruskin in the art of the Pre-Raphaelites.• Identify artists and styles of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. 23
  24. 24. Imagery of the Pre-Raphaelites• Examine the choice of subject matter and the influences of the literary world the works of the Pre-Raphaelites. 24
  25. 25. Figure 29-16 WILLIAM LEIBL, Three Women in aVillage Church, 1878-1881. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟5” x 2‟ 1”. Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 25
  26. 26. Figure 29-17 JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, Ophelia, 1852. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 6” x 3‟ 8”. Tate Gallery, London. 26
  27. 27. Figure 29-18 DANTE GABRIELROSSETTI, Beata Beatrix, ca. 1863. Oil oncanvas, 2‟ 10” x 2‟ 2”. Tate Gallery, London. 27
  28. 28. Figure 29-19 GERTRUDE KÄSEBIER, Blessed Art thouAmong Women, 1899. Platinum print on Japanese tissue, 93/8” x 5 1/2”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Mrs.Hermine M. Turner). 28
  29. 29. 29.4 Impressionism• Understand the formal elements and subject choices of the Impressionist artists.• Examine the Impressionists‟ interest in sensation, impermanence, and the “fleeting moment” as it was expressed in their art.• Understand the importance of light and color theory in the work of the Impressionists.• Recognize representative Impressionist artists and works. 29
  30. 30. Figure 29-20 CLAUDE MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872. Oil on canvas, 1‟ 7 1/2” x 2‟ 1 1/2”. Musée Marmottan,Paris. 30
  31. 31. Figure 29-21 CLAUDE MONET, Saint-Lazare Train Station, 1877. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 5 3/4” x 3‟ 5”. Musée d‟Orsay,Paris. 31
  32. 32. Figure 29-22 GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE, Paris: A Rainy Day, 1877. Oil on canvas, approx. 6‟ 9” x 9‟ 9”. The ArtInstitute of Chicago, Chicago, Worcester Fund. 32
  33. 33. Figure 29-23 CAMILLE PISSARRO, La Place du Théâtre Français, 1898. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 4 1/2” x 3‟ 1/2”. LosAngeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (the Mr. and Mrs. George Gard De Sylva Collection). 33
  34. 34. Figure 29-24 HIPPOLYTE JOUVIN, The Pont Neuf, Paris, ca. 1860–1865. Albumen stereograph. 34
  35. 35. Figure 29-25 PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876. Oil on canvas, approx. 4‟ 3” x 5‟ 8”.Louvre, Paris. 35
  36. 36. Figure 29-26 ÉDOUARD MANET, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1882. Oil on canvas, approx. 3‟ 1” x 4‟ 3”. CourtauldInstitute of Art Gallery, London. 36
  37. 37. Figure 29-27 EDGAR DEGAS, Ballet Rehearsal, 1874. Oil on canvas, 1‟ 11” x 2‟ 9”. Glasgow Museum, Glasgow (TheBurrell Collection). 37
  38. 38. Figure 29-28 BERTHE MORISOT, Villa at the Seaside, 1874. Oil on canvas, approx. 1‟ 7 3/4” x 2‟ 1/8". Norton SimonArt Foundation, Los Angeles. 38
  39. 39. Figure 29-29 CLAUDE MONET, Rouen Cathedral: ThePortal (in Sun), 1894. Oil on canvas, 3‟ 3 1/4” x 2‟ 1 7/8”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Theodore M.Davis Collection, bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915). 39
  40. 40. Figure 29-30 EDGAR DEGAS, The Tub, 1886. Pastel, 1‟ 11 1/2” x 2‟ 8 3/8”. Musée d‟Orsay, Paris. 40
  41. 41. The Beginning of Impressionism• Examine the Impressionists‟ interest in sensation, impermanence, and the “fleeting moment” as it was expressed in their art.• Understand the importance of light, color theory, and relevant scientific experiments. 41
  42. 42. Japonisme and Later Impressionism• Examine issues of other Impressionist, such as the influence of the Japanese print and concerns with formal elements. 42
  43. 43. Figure 29-31 MARY CASSATT, The Bath, ca. 1892. Oilon canvas, 3‟ 3” x 2‟ 2”. The Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (Robert A. Walker Fund). 43
  44. 44. Figure 29-32 HENRI DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892–1895. Oil on canvas, approx. 4‟ x 4‟ 7”.The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection). 44
  45. 45. Figure 29-33 JAMES ABBOTT MCNEILLWHISTLER, Nocturne in Black and Gold (TheFalling Rocket), ca. 1875. Oil on panel, 1‟ 115/8” x 1‟ 6 1/2”. Detroit Institute of Arts,Detroit (gift of Dexter M. Ferry Jr.). 45
  46. 46. 29.5 Post-Impressionism• Understand the differences in emotional expression and subject choices between the Impressionists and the Post- Impressionists.• Understand the Post-Impressionist experimentation with form and color.• Recognize the individuality of the Post-Impressionist artists and the styles each one developed. 46
  47. 47. Emotion and the Impressionists• Understand emotional expression and subject choices in Post-Impressionist art. 47
  48. 48. Figure 29-34 VINCENT VAN GOGH, The Night Café, 1888. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 4 1/2” x 3‟. Yale University ArtGallery, New Haven (bequest of Stephen Carlton Clark, B.A., 1903). 48
  49. 49. Figure 29-35 VINCENT VAN GOGH, Starry Night, 1889. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 5” x 3‟ 1/4”. Museum of ModernArt, New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest). 49
  50. 50. Figure 29-36 PAUL GAUGUIN, The Vision after the Sermon or Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, 1888. Oil on canvas, 2‟4 3/4” x 3‟ 1/2”. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh. 50
  51. 51. Post-Impressionist Experimentation• Understand the Post-Impressionist experimentation with form and color. 51
  52. 52. Figure 29-37 PAUL GAUGUIN, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, 1897. Oil oncanvas, 4‟ 6 13/ 16” x 12‟ 3”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Tompkins Collection). 52
  53. 53. Figure 29-38 GEORGES SEURAT, detail of A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884–1886. 53
  54. 54. Figure 29-39 GEORGES SEURAT, A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884–1886. Oil on canvas, approx. 6‟ 9” ´ 10‟. TheArt Institute of Chicago, Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926). 54
  55. 55. Post-Impressionist Form• Examine the extraordinary art of Cezanne and his interest in form, paving the way for Cubism. 55
  56. 56. Figure 29-40 PAUL CÉZANNE, Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1902–1904. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 3 1/2” x 2‟ 11 1/4”. PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art, Philadelphia (The George W. Elkins Collection). 56
  57. 57. Figure 29-41 PAUL CÉZANNE, The Basket of Apples, ca. 1895. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 3/8” x 2‟ 7”. The Art Institute ofChicago, Chicago (Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926). 57
  58. 58. Figure 29-42 PIERRE PUVIS DE CHAVANNES, The Sacred Grove, 1884. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 11 1/2” x 6‟ 10”. The ArtInstitute of Chicago, Chicago (Potter Palmer Collection). 58
  59. 59. Figure 29-43 GUSTAVE MOREAU, Jupiter and Semele, ca. 1875.Oil on canvas, approx. 7‟ x 3‟ 4”. Musée Gustave Moreau, Paris. 59
  60. 60. Figure 29-44 ODILON REDON, TheCyclops, 1898. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 1” x 1‟ 8”.Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, TheNetherlands. 60
  61. 61. 29.6 Symbolism• Examine the issues of imagination, fantasy, and formal changes in the art of the Symbolists.• Understand the expression of “modern psychic life” in the art of the Symbolists. 61
  62. 62. Figure 29-45 HENRI ROUSSEAU, The Sleeping Gypsy, 1897. Oil on canvas, 4‟ 3” x 6‟ 7”. Museum of Modern Art,New York (gift of Mrs. Simon Guggenheim). 62
  63. 63. Figure 29-46 EDVARD MUNCH, The Cry,1893. Oil, pastel, and casein on cardboard, 2‟11 3/4” x 2‟ 5”. National Gallery, Oslo. 63
  64. 64. 29.7 Sculpture in the Later 19th Century• Examine the issues of realism and expression related to sculpture in the later 19th century.• Understand the selection of contemporary subject matter by sculptors.• Recognize representative sculptors and works of the later 19th century. 64
  65. 65. Sculpture: Realist and Expressive• Examine issues of realism, expression and subject matter in sculpture of the later 19th century. 65
  66. 66. Figure 29-47 JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX,Ugolino and His Children, 1865–1867. Marble, 6‟ 5”high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York(Josephine Bay Paul and C. Michael Paul Foundation,Inc. and the Charles Ulrich and Josephine BayFoundation, Inc., gifts, 1967). 66
  67. 67. Figure 29-48 AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS, AdamsMemorial, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, 1891. Bronze, 5‟ 10”high. 67
  68. 68. Figure 29-49 AUGUSTE RODIN, Walking Man,1905, cast 1962. Bronze, 6‟ 11 3/4” high. HirshhornMuseum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution,Washington (gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966). 68
  69. 69. Figure 29-50 AUGUSTE RODIN, Burghers of Calais, 1884–1889, cast ca. 1953–1959. Bronze, 6‟ 10 1/2” high, 7‟ 11”long, 6‟ 6” deep. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington (gift of Joseph H.Hirshhorn, 1966). 69
  70. 70. 29.8 The Arts and Crafts Movement• Examine the ideas of Ruskin and Morris in shaping the Arts and Crafts Movement.• Understand the interest in aesthetic functional objects in the Arts and Crafts Movement.• Examine the preference for high-quality artisanship and honest labor.• Examine the preferred nature forms of Art Nouveau in art and architecture. 70
  71. 71. Objects and Décor of the Arts & Crafts• Understand the interest in aesthetic functional objects and the preference for high-quality artisanship and honest labor. 71
  72. 72. Figure 29-51 WILLIAM MORRIS, Green Dining Room, 1867. Victoria & Albert Museum, London. 72
  73. 73. Figure 29-52 CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH, reconstruction (1992–1995) of Ladies‟ Luncheon Room, IngramStreet Tea Room, Glasgow, Scotland, 1900–1912. Glasgow Museum, Glasgow. 73
  74. 74. Figure 29-53 VICTOR HORTA, staircasein the Van Eetvelde House, Brussels, 1895. 74
  75. 75. Figure 29-54 AUBREY BEARDSLEY, ThePeacock Skirt, 1894. Pen-and-ink illustration forOscar Wilde‟s Salomé. 75
  76. 76. Nature in Art Nouveau Architecture• Examine the organic nature forms in Art Nouveau architecture. 76
  77. 77. Figure 29-55 ANTONIO GAUDI, Casa Milá, Barcelona, 1907. 77
  78. 78. Figure 29-56 GUSTAV KLIMT, The Kiss, 1907–1908. Oil on canvas, 5‟ 10 3/4” x 5‟ 10 3/4”. Austrian Gallery, Vienna. 78
  79. 79. 29.7 Architecture in the Later 19th Century• Understand the new technology and changing needs of urban society and their effects on architecture.• Examine new materials use in architecture and the forms made possible as a result.• Understand how architects were able to think differently about space as a result of new technology and materials.• Examine the remarkable work and theories of Louis Sullivan. 79
  80. 80. New Technology and Materials• Understand new technology, changing needs of urban society, and new materials in architecture. 80
  81. 81. Figure 29-57 ALEXANDRE-GUSTAVE EIFFEL,Eiffel Tower, Paris, 1889 (photo: 1889–1890).Wrought iron, 984‟ high. 81
  82. 82. Figure 29-58 HENRYHOBSON RICHARDSON,Marshall Field wholesale store(demolished), Chicago, 1885–1887. 82
  83. 83. The Architecture of Louis Sullivan• Understand the issues of space and decoration in the remarkable work and theories of Louis Sullivan. 83
  84. 84. Figure 29-59 LOUIS SULLIVAN, Guaranty(Prudential) Building, Buffalo, 1894–1896. 84
  85. 85. Figure 29-60 LOUIS SULLIVAN, Carson, Pirie, Scott Building, Chicago, 1899–1904. 85
  86. 86. Figure 29-61 RICHARD MORRIS HUNT, The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island, 1892. 86
  87. 87. Figure 29-62 LOUIS COMFORTTIFFANY, Lotus table lamp, ca. 1905.Leaded Favrile glass, mosaic, and bronze, 2‟10 1/2” high. Private collection. 87
  88. 88. Discussion Questions In what ways did the Modernist art of the later 19th century break from the past? How did Modernist artists call attention to the „facts‟ of art making? Why did the public find the subjects, forms, and techniques of the Impressionists shocking? What would you consider the most important breakthrough in architecture? 88

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