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Art history ch._28 Art history ch._28 Presentation Transcript

  • Gardner‟s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 28 The Enlightenment and its Legacy: Art of the Late 18th through the Mid-19th Century 1
  • Napoleonic Europe 1800-1815 2
  • Goals• Understand the origins and spread of the luxurious and decorative style known as Rococo.• Understand the main styles of Neoclassicism and Romanticism in the early 19th century Europe and America.• Examine reasons for the broad range of subject matter, from portraits and landscape to mythology and history.• Discuss initial reaction by artists and the public to the new art medium known as photography 3
  • 28.1 Rococo: The French Taste• Examine the luxurious artistic expressions of salon culture which culminated in the style known as Rococo.• Understand the completeness of the style, in decorations, accessories, paintings and sculpture, interiors, and architecture.• Examine the extreme development of the Rococo style in Germany. 4
  • Rococo Interiors• Examine the development of the Rococo style, its materials, colors, and design elements. 5
  • Figure 28-1 GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE andsculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740. 6
  • Figure 28-2 FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich,Germany, early 18th century. 7
  • Art of the French Salons• Examine the artistic expressions of salon cultural style known as Rococo. 8
  • Figure 28-3 ANTOINE WATTEAU, L‟Indifférent, ca.1716. Oil on canvas, approx. 10” x 7”. Louvre, Paris. 9
  • Figure 28-4 ANTOINE WATTEAU, Return from Cythera, 1717–1719. Oil on canvas, approx. 4‟ 3” x 6‟ 4”. Louvre,Paris. 10
  • Figure 28-5 FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil oncanvas, approx. 5‟ 6” x 2‟ 10”. The Wallace Collection, London. 11
  • Figure 28-6 JEAN-HONORÉFRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil oncanvas, approx. 2‟ 11” x 2‟ 8”. The WallaceCollection, London. 12
  • Figure 28-7 CLODION, Nymph and Satyr, ca.1775. Terracotta, approx. 1‟ 11” high.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York(bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913). 13
  • Figure 28-8 WILLIAMHUNTER, Child in Womb,drawing from dissection of awoman who died in the ninthmonth of pregnancy, fromAnatomy of the HumanGravid Uterus, 1774. 14
  • 28.2 Scientific Art of the Enlightenment • Understand the motivation of the Enlightenment and the interest in science and the natural world and its effect on artistic expression. • Understand the philosophical concepts of Voltaire as they relate to artistic expression. • Examine the early applications of technology and scientific advancements to art. 15
  • Science and Art• Understand the expression of scientific ideas in art and art as recording observations in the natural world. 16
  • Figure 28-9 JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put inplace of the sun), ca. 1763–1765. Oil on canvas, 4‟ 10” x 6‟ 8”. Derby Museums and Art Gallery, Derby, Derbyshire. 17
  • Figure 28-10 ABRAHAM DARBY III and THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, iron bridge at Coalbrookdale, England (firstcast-iron bridge over the Severn River), 1776–1779. 100‟ span. 18
  • Figure 28-11 JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, The Village Bride, 1761. Oil on canvas, 3‟ x 3‟ 10 1/2”. Louvre, Paris. 19
  • 28.3 The Taste for the Natural• Examine the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in contrast to Voltaire, his interest in the „natural‟ as opposed to the „artificial,‟ and artistic expression of these ideas.• Understand the different styles of the “natural” in France, England, the United States, and in Italy.• Examine choices of „ordinary‟ life, the natural world, and sentimentality as subjects in art. 20
  • The Natural Taste in France• Examine the subject matter and formal elements in the “natural taste” in France. 21
  • Figure 28-12 JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉONCHARDIN, Grace at Table, 1740. Oil oncanvas, 1‟ 7” x 1‟ 3”. Louvre, Paris. 22
  • Figure 28-13 ÉLISABETH LOUISEVIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait, 1790. Oilon canvas, 8‟ 4” x 6‟ 9”. Galleria degli Uffizi,Florence. 23
  • The Natural Taste in England• Examine the issues of morality, satire, and narration in visual art in England. 24
  • Figure 28-14 WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 4” x3‟. National Gallery, London. 25
  • The English Grand Manner Portrait• Examine the English Grand Manner portrait as an expression of the natural taste in Rococo form. 26
  • Figure 28-15 THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, Mrs.Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1787. Oil on canvas,approx. 7‟ 2 5/8” x 5‟ 5/8”. National Gallery of Art,Washington (Andrew W. Mellon Collection). 27
  • Figure 28-16 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS,Lord Heathfield, 1787. Oil on canvas,approx. 4‟ 8” x 3‟ 9”. National Gallery,London. 28
  • Natural Taste in the United States• Examine the American taste for “downrightness” and plainness in art. 29
  • Figure 28-17 BENJAMIN WEST, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Oil on canvas, approx. 5‟ x 7‟ National Gallery ofCanada, Ottawa (gift of the Duke of Westminster, 1918). 30
  • Figure 28-18 JOHN SINGLETONCOPLEY, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca.1768–1770. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 11 1/8” x 2‟4”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (gift ofJoseph W., William B., and Edward H. R.Revere). 31
  • Italian Natural Taste and Tourism• Understand the concept of the “Grand Tour” and the expression of the “picturesque” in art. 32
  • Figure 28-19 ANTONIO CANALETTO, Basin of San Marco from San Giorgio Maggiore, ca. 1740. Oil on canvas. TheWallace Collection, London. 33
  • 28.4 Revival of Classicism• Understand how the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii create an interest in classical art.• Understand the formal elements of classical art and their revival in 19th century art and architecture.• Examine Neoclassical art and architecture in France, England, and in the United States.• Examine the adaptation of classical and mythological subject matter in Neoclassical art. 34
  • Neoclassical Art in France• Understand the formal elements of classical art and their revival in 19th century.• Examine the adaptation of classical and mythological subject matter. 35
  • Figure 28-20 ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of theGracchi, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, 3‟ 4” x 4‟ 2”. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (the Adolph D. and Wilkins C.Williams Fund). 36
  • Figure 28-21 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11‟ x 14‟. Louvre, Paris. 37
  • Figure 28-22 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID,The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas,approx. 5‟ 3” x 4‟ 1”. Musées Royaux desBeaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels. 38
  • Figure 28-23 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805–1808. Oil on canvas, 20‟ 4 1/2” x 32‟ 13/4”. Louvre, Paris. 39
  • French Neoclassical Architecture• Examine classical revival in architecture as an expression of French power and glory. 40
  • Figure 28-24 JACQUES-GERMAIN SOUFFLOT, thePanthéon (Sainte-Geneviève),Paris, France, 1755–1792. 41
  • Figure 28-25 PIERRE VIGNON, La Madeleine, Paris, France, 1807–1842. 42
  • Figure 28-26 ANTONIO CANOVA, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome. 43
  • Neoclassical Art and Architecture in England• Understand classical elements of art and architecture, Palladian influence, and their revival in 19th century England. 44
  • Figure 28-27 RICHARD BOYLE (earl of Burlington) and WILLIAM KENT, Chiswick House, near London, England,begun 1725. British Crown Copyright. 45
  • © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.Figure 28-27 Alternate ViewPrincipal Facade with entrance gate 46
  • Figure 28-28 JOHN WOOD THE YOUNGER, the Royal Crescent, Bath, England, 1769–1775. 47
  • Figure 28-29 JAMES STUART, Doricportico, Hagley Park, Worcestershire,England, 1758. 48
  • Figure 28-30 ROBERT ADAM,Etruscan Room, Osterley Park House,Middlesex, England, begun 1761.Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 49
  • The Neoclassical in the United States• Examine Neoclassical as the national style in art and architecture in the United States in the early 19th century. 50
  • Figure 28-31 THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, Charlottesville, United States, 1770–1806. 51
  • Figure 28-32 Drawing of view of Washington, 1852, showing BENJAMIN LATROBE‟S Capitol (1803–1807) andMAJOR L‟ENFANT‟S plan (created in 1791) of the city. 52
  • Figure 28-33 EDMONIA LEWIS, Forever Free, 1867.Marble, 3‟ 5 1/4” x 11” x 7”. James A. Porter Gallery ofAfro-American Art, Howard University, Washington,D.C. 53
  • Figure 28-34 ANTOINE-JEAN GROS, Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804. Oil on canvas, approx. 17‟ 5” x 23‟ 7”.Louvre, Paris. 54
  • Figure 28-35 ANNE-LOUIS GIRODET-TRIOSON, The Burial of Atala, 1808. Oil on canvas, approx. 6‟ 11” x 8‟ 9”.Louvre, Paris. 55
  • Figure 28-36 JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. Oil on canvas, approx. 12‟ 8” x16‟ 10 3/4”. Louvre, Paris. 56
  • 28.5 From Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Understand the philosophical and stylistic differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism. • Examine the growing interest in the exotic, the erotic, the landscape, and fictional narrative as subject matter. • Understand the mixture of classical form and Romantic themes, and the debates about the nature of art in the 19th century. • Identify artists and architects of the period and their works. 57
  • The Move toward Romanticism• Examine how the artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres combined classical form with Romantic themes. 58
  • Figure 28-37 JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 11” x 5‟4”. Louvre, Paris. 59
  • Figure 28-38 GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI, Carceri 14, ca. 1750. Etching, second state, approx. 1‟ 4” x 1‟ 9”.Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 60
  • 28.6 The Rise of Romanticism• Examine the exotic, erotic, the landscape, and fictional narrative as subject matter.• Understand the mixture of classical form and Romantic themes 61
  • Figure 28-39 HENRY FUSELI, The Nightmare, 1781. Oil on canvas, 3‟ 4” x 4‟ 2”. The Detroit Institute of the Arts(Founders Society Purchase with funds from Mr. and Mrs. Bert L. Smokler and Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Fleishman). 62
  • Figure 28-40 WILLIAM BLAKE, Ancient ofDays, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794.Metal relief etching, hand colored, approx. 9 1/2”x 6 3/4”. The Whitworth Art Gallery, TheUniversity of Manchester. 63
  • Drama, Action, and Color in Spanish Romanticism• Examine the issues of drama, action, and color in the art of Francisco Goya. 64
  • Figure 28-41 FRANCISCO GOYA, The Sleep ofReason Produces Monsters, from Los Caprichos, ca.1798. Etching and aquatint, 8 1/2” x 6”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York (gift of M. Knoedler & Co.,1918). 65
  • Figure 28-42 FRANCISCO GOYA, The Family of Charles IV, 1800. Oil on canvas, approx. 9‟ 2” x 11‟. Museo delPrado, Madrid. 66
  • Figure 28-43 FRANCISCO GOYA, The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 8‟ 8” x 11‟ 3”. Museo delPrado, Madrid. 67
  • Figure 28-44 FRANCISCO GOYA, Saturn Devouring One ofHis Children, 1819–1823. Detail of a detached fresco on canvas,full size approx. 4‟ 9” x 2‟ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 68
  • The French Debate: Color vs. Line• Understand the French debate over theories related to color (expression) vs. line (drawing or form) as appropriate to artistic expression. 69
  • Figure 28-45 THÉODORE GÉRICAULT, Raft of the Medusa, 1818–1819. Oil on canvas, approx. 16‟ x 23‟. Louvre,Paris. 70
  • Figure 28-46 THÉODOREGÉRICAULT, Insane Woman (Envy),1822–1823. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 4” x1‟ 9”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. 71
  • Figure 28-47 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826. Oil on canvas, approx. 12‟ 1” x 16‟ 3”. Louvre,Paris. 72
  • Figure 28-48 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, approx. 8‟ 6” x 10‟ 8”.Louvre, Paris. 73
  • Figure 28-49 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Tiger Hunt, 1854. Oil on canvas, approx. 2‟ 5” x 3‟. Louvre, Paris. 74
  • Figure 28-50 FRANÇOIS RUDE, LaMarseillaise, Arc de Triomphe, Paris,France, 1833–1836. Approx. 42‟ x 26‟. 75
  • Figure 28-51 ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, 1850–1851. Bronze, approx. 1‟ 4” x 3‟ 1”. Louvre,Paris. 76
  • Figure 28-52 CASPAR DAVID FRIEDRICH, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 1810. Oil on canvas, 3 7 1/2" X 5 7 1/4".Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 77
  • Figure 28-53 JOHN CONSTABLE, The Haywain, 1821. Oil on canvas, 4‟ 3” x 6‟ 2”. National Gallery, London. 78
  • Romantic Landscape Painting• Understand the romantic interest in the landscape as an independent and respected genre in Germany, England, and the United States. 79
  • Figure 28-54 JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER, The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead andDying, Typhoon Coming On), 1840. Oil on canvas, 2‟ 11 11/16” x 4‟ 5/16”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Henry LilliePierce Fund). 80
  • Figure 28-55 THOMAS COLE, The Oxbow (View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after aThunderstorm), 1836. Oil on canvas, 4‟ 3 1/2” x 6‟ 4”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (gift of Mrs. Russell Sage,1908). 81
  • Figure 28-56 ALBERT BIERSTADT, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868. Oil on canvas, 6‟ x 10‟.National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 82
  • Figure 28-57 FREDERIC EDWIN CHURCH, Twilight In the Wilderness, 1860s. Oil on canvas, 3‟ 4” x 5‟ 4”. ClevelandMuseum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio (Mr. and Mrs. William H. Marlatt Fund, 1965.233). 83
  • Romantic Revivalist Styles in Architecture • Examine the variety of revivalist styles in architecture, the origins of the designs and their impact. 84
  • Figure 28-58 CHARLES BARRY and A. W. N. PUGIN, Houses of Parliament, London, England, designed 1835. 85
  • Figure 28-59 JOHN NASH, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815–1818. 86
  • Figure 28-60 J. L. CHARLES GARNIER, the Opéra, Paris, France, 1861–1874. 87
  • Figure 28-61 HENRI LABROUSTE, reading room of the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, France, 1843–1850. 88
  • Figure 28-62 JOSEPH PAXTON, Crystal Palace, London, England, 1850–1851. Photo from Victoria and Albert Museum,London. 89
  • 28.7 Photography• Examine the origins of photography and its impact in visual art.• Discuss initial uses of the new art medium known as photography.• Recognize the artists and the works of early photography. 90
  • The Art of Photography• Examine artist‟s use and response to the technology of photography. 91
  • Figure 28-63 EUGÈNE DURIEU and EUGÈNEDELACROIX, Draped Model (back view), ca. 1854.Albumen print, 7 5/ 16” x 5 1/8”. J. Paul GettyMuseum, Los Angeles. 92
  • Figure 28-64 LOUIS-JACQUES-MANDÉ DAGUERRE, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype. Collection SociétéFrançaise de Photographie, Paris. 93
  • Figure 28-65 JOSIAH JOHNSON HAWES and ALBERT SANDS SOUTHWORTH, Early Operation under Ether,Massachusetts General Hospital, ca. 1847. Daguerreotype. Massachusetts General Hospital Archives and SpecialCollections, Boston. 94
  • Figure 28-66 NADAR, Eugène Delacroix, ca.1855. Modern print from original negative inthe Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 95
  • Figure 28-67 JULIA MARGARETCAMERON, Ophelia, Study no. 2,1867. Albumen print, 1 11" x 10 2/3".George Eastman House, Rochester,New York. Gift of Eastman KodakCompany: ex-collection GabrielCromer. 96
  • Figure 28-68 TIMOTHY O‟SULLIVAN, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863. Negative by TimothyO‟Sullivan. Original print by ALEXANDER GARDNER, 6 3/8" x 8 3/4". The New York Public Library (Astor, Lenoxand Tilden Foundations, Rare Books and Manuscript Division), New York. 97
  • Discussion Questions Identify the formal artistic differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism. Why did Neoclassicism appeal to political leaders in the 19th century? Describe the debate over 19th century aesthetic theory, as characterized by the Poussinistes vs. the Rubenistes. What was the impact of photography in terms of the public‟s image of reality? 98