powerpoint presentation about GMO by maureen villamora BSED I-C


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  • My name is Nouman Hassan Shah.I am doing BSBI(BIOINFORMATICS) from 'MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH UNIVERSITY'.These slides are very helpful for students.I really liked these slides.
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powerpoint presentation about GMO by maureen villamora BSED I-C

  1. 1. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM<br />Maureen D. Villamora<br />BSED I-C<br />Nat Sci<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques, generally known as recombinant DNA technology, use DNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. Transgenic organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which have inserted DNA that originated in a different species.<br />
  3. 3. History<br />The general principle of producing a GMO is to add new genetic material into an organism's genome. This is called genetic engineering and was made possible through the discovery of DNA and the creation of the first recombinant bacteria in 1973; an existing bacterium E. coli expressing an exogenic Salmonella gene.This led to concerns in the scientific community about potential risks from genetic engineering, which were thoroughly discussed at the Asilomar Conference. One of the main recommendations from this meeting was that government oversight of recombinant DNA research should be established until the technology was deemed safe.Herbert Boyer then founded the first company to use recombinant DNA technology, Genentech, and in 1978 the company announced creation of an E. coli strain producing the human protein insulin.<br />
  4. 4. Production<br />Genetic modification involves the insertion or deletion of genes. When genes are inserted, they usually come from a different species, which is a form of horizontal gene transfer. In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. To do this artificially may require attaching the genes to a virus or just physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe, or with very small particles fired from a gene gun. However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells.<br />
  5. 5. Biological Process<br />The use of genetically modified organisms has sparked significant controversy in many areas. Some groups or individuals see the generation and use of GMO as intolerable meddling with biological states or processes that have naturally evolved over long periods of time, while others are concerned about the limitations of modern science to fully comprehend all of the potential negative ramifications of genetic manipulation.<br />
  6. 6. Food Chain<br />The safety of GMOs in the food chain has been questioned by some environmental groups, with concerns such as the possibilities that GMOs could introduce new allergens into foods, or contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. Although all studies published to date have shown no adverse health effects resulting from humans eating genetically modified foods, environmental groups still discourage consumption in many countries, claiming that GM foods are unnatural and therefore unsafe. Such concerns have led to the adoption of laws and regulations that require safety testing of any new organism produced for human consumption.<br />
  7. 7. Advantages of GMO<br />Less pesticide is needed to be used due to insect pest resistant plants.<br />More economically friendly as pesticides do not go into the air, soil, and water (especially freshwater supplies). Their production hazards to the environment also decreases.<br />Decrease in costs of growing and farming, due to the reduced use of pesticides.<br />
  8. 8. Cont.<br />Higher crop yields.<br />Farmers have more income, which they could spend on such things as, for example, the education of their children.<br />Less deforestation needed to feed the worlds growing population (UN projections say that the world population will reach 8.15 billion compared to 6.18 billion in year 2000). This decreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which in turn slows global warming.<br />
  9. 9. Cont.<br />Decrease in food prices due to lower costs and higher yield. As people in poor countries spend over half of their income on food alone, lower food prices mean an automatic reduction of poverty.<br />Less starvation in the world due to decreased food prices.<br />More nutritious. This has been proven and tested many times.<br />Rigorous testing of ALL GMO crops and products. This makes GMOs much safer than organic (the traditional) crops.<br />
  10. 10. Cont.<br />ALL GMOs that are sold in the market, due to the strict tests. If the slightest chance of health hazard, a GMO is NOT allowed to enter the markets.<br />Scientific development of agriculture, health and related sciences due to the better understanding of the products. For example, the development of new medicines.<br />Creation of “super foods” due to better knowledge. Super foods are types of food that are cheap to produce, grow fast in large quantities, highly nutritious.<br />New products. For examples, scientist identified the gene responsible for caffeine in coffee beans; by excluding this gene, decaffeinated coffee beans can be grown naturally.<br />
  11. 11. Cont.<br />Reduction of sicknesses and illnesses, as GMO crops are more nutritious. Vitamins and minerals can be provided to children and to people, where they were inaccessible before (i.e.: the world’s poorest and/or most secluded areas).<br />Developments of new kinds of crops that can be grown at extreme climates, for example, dry or freezing environments (like deserts). For example, scientist developed a type of tomato that grows in salty soil.<br />Reduction of world starvation due to increased production.<br />
  12. 12. Disadvantages of GMO<br />Cross-pollination with traditional, organic plants. Cross pollination can occur at quite large distances. New genes may also be included in the offspring of the traditional, organic crops miles away. This makes it difficult to distinguish which crop field is organic, and which is not, posing a problem to the proper labeling of non-GMO food products.<br />Spread of new, more resistant "super weeds<br />Spread of new, more resistant "super pests".<br />
  13. 13. Cont.<br />Major trading countries that obtain most of the benefit from the production and trade of genetically modified crops. This might cause more geopolitical conflicts.<br />New trade, tariff and quota issues may arise between countries, regions.<br />Critics say GMOs may cause health problems.<br />As the USA is the biggest producer of GMO crops, their exports may rouse more anti-American feeling, due to “Americanization” worldwide.<br />Possible damages to the environment.<br />
  14. 14. Cont.<br />Possible greed of GMO manufacturing firms.<br />Unharmonized test-and safety standards around the world.<br />GMOs are made because it is possible to make them, not because consumers feel their need. <br />Possible creation of new kinds of weapons; genetic food and beverage weapons.<br />Additional costs of labeling whether products are GMOs or not. This might increase costs of foods.<br />Widening corporate size gaps between food producing giants and smaller ones. This might cause a consolidation in the market: fewer competitors increase the risk of oligopolies, which might increase food prices. <br />
  15. 15. Cont.<br />Larger companies might have more political power. They might be able to influence safety and health standards (example: less stringent regulations, standards and requirements).<br />Activists’ increased ability to boycott and influence food market, food retailing, and food prices. <br />Unforeseen risks and dangers due to the complexity of nature.<br />Allergies may become more intense, and also, new allergy types may develop.<br />Discrepancies in information flow. GMO producers stress the benefits, but are reluctant to talk about risks and dangers. <br />
  16. 16. Conclusion<br />We all know that Genetically Modified Organism or GMO helps us to improve our country and make our economic good BUT…….. We don’t know the risks and disadvantages of this Genetically Modified Organism. Although we can say that it is helpful to us but it can harm the people, not only human but all living things and non living things on earth.<br />