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Mdr short creativity-techniques
 

Mdr short creativity-techniques

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Creativity Techniques

Creativity Techniques

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    Mdr short creativity-techniques Mdr short creativity-techniques Presentation Transcript

    • Techniques of Developing Creativity Presented By: Dr. Mridula Ranade SNDT Women’s University Creativity Creativity
    • Let us revise
      • Prepare a mind-map of concepts of Creativity that you have studied so far, as shown in the figure. You can make it more elaborate.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • WHAT IS CREATIVITY?
      • Creativity is the bringing into existence of a product, a process or a thought that did not exist before.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • Creativity is a vital resource for the betterment of society.
      • It should never be wasted for want of proper direction to the students.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Do you believe that teachers can enhance students’ creativity?
      • Indeed they can!
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • They can develop creativity in 2 ways
      • By encouraging students to take up inherently creative activities such as journalism, creative writing, poetry writing, acting, art, photography, research, etc. ( Special opportunities can be provided to gifted students)
      • By providing direct instruction in creative thinking techniques
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • The creative thought process can be accidental or deliberate.
      • It takes a long time to develop new ideas through the accidental thought process.
      • Deliberate use of special techniques can lead to the development of many new ideas, and faster too!
      Why teach special techniques of developing creativity? Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • How do the special techniques work?
      • Creative thinking involves coming up with new ideas.
      • New ideas come up when two or more previously-uncombined thoughts or ideas are merged
      • Creative thinking techniques provide ways of deliberately coming up with ideas and combining them in unusual ways.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Idea 1 Idea 2 New Idea
    • Can you think of ways to enhance your students’ creativity?
      • Discuss with your partner and prepare a concept map like the one shown below:
      Creativity techniques In language teaching In Science teaching In History teaching General techniques Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Let us study 5 techniques of creative thinking.
      • Brainstorming
      • Idea checklists
      • Attribute Listing
      • Morphological Synthesis
      • Synectics
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Brainstorming
      • Don’t worry. We will not ‘storm’ the students’ brains in this technique!
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • A problem which can have many solutions is ideal for brainstorming Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Some ideas for brainstorming
      • How to decorate the classroom based on some theme
      • How to reduce absenteeism in school
      • How to improve teaching
      • How to create environmental awareness in schools
      • How to reduce gender-bias
      Can you think of more such ideas? Brainstorm with your partner and list all ideas Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • A lateral thinking process. Groups of people are asked to come up with ideas and thoughts that may initially seem shocking or crazy, but which are later changed or improved into useful and often highly original ideas. Brainstorming Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Ideal method with groups of 8-12 students. Should be performed in a relaxed environment where students feel relaxed and can joke around. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • When to use Brainstorming?
      • To develop new opportunities
      • To improve an existing service
      • When existing approaches aren’t very fruitful
      • To take decisions about controversial issues
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • 1. Welcome all ideas from all participants, making no criticisms or judgments while the ideas are being generated. Absolutely no discussion should take place during the idea-generation activity. Rules of Brainstorming Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • 2. Encourage participants to combine and build on others' ideas. 3. Write all ideas on a flipchart or board so the whole group can easily see them. 4. Set a time limit (i.e., 30 minutes) for the brainstorming. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • 5. Finally, examine and evaluate ideas to select the best ones. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • List topics for brainstorming from various units in any subject you would teach (school subjects such as Science, Geography, History, Languages…, Subjects in Education such as Psychology, Philosophy, Research Methodology, etc.) (Come up with at least 5 ideas) One group will later compile a master list. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • An interesting variation of Brainstorming is called Reverse Brainstorming Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse Brainstorming
      • Involves Brainstorming ways of making the problem worse.
      Now why would anyone want to do that? Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse Brainstorming
      • Consider this problem
      • How to teach in the worst possible way?
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse Brainstorming
      • If you identified all the ways in which you could teach badly, you would know what to avoid.
      X Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse Brainstorming
      • Here are some more examples:
      • How to increase pollution in the city
      • How to waste electricity/water
      • How to make the city dirty
      Can you think of more such examples? You can brainstorm for more ideas. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Idea checklists Second technique of enhancing Creativity: Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Alex Osborn’s Idea checklist
      • A tool for generating innovative ideas
      • It is a comprehensive list of questions about ideas and problems which can be used to encourage creativity in generating new concepts.
      • It can be used individually or in groups
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • The directions in the checklist can be applied one by one to problems, ideas or products to come up with innovative changes or improvements.
      Checklist Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Substitute Magnify Minimize Combine Adapt Modify Put to other use Eliminate Rearrange Reverse
    • SCAMMMPERR So what does SCAMMMPER stand for ? There are 10 categories of ideas in the checklist which can be remembered as a single word: Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • S: Substitute
      • C: Combine
      • A: Adapt
      • M: Magnify
      • M: Minify
      • M: Modify
      • P: Put to other uses
      • E: Eliminate
      • R: Rearrange
      • R: Reverse
      SCAMMMPERR Let us look at some examples of each of the above. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Substitute
      • Who else instead?
      • What else instead?
      • Other ingredient?
      • Other material?
      • Other process?
      • Other power?
      • Other place?
      • Other approach?
      • Other tone of voice?
      • Other time?
      Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Substitute E.g. The problem :Plastic disposable cups used by railways were creating environmental problems. The solution: Substitute plastic cups with earthenware pots (Kulhad). Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Combine
      • How about a blend?
      • An assortment?
      • An ensemble ?
      • Combine units?
      • Combine purposes?
      • Combine ideas?
      Examine different problems and try to find an application for each of the questions in the checklist. An assemblage of parts or details. Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Combine E.g. Problem : 1.How to increase the usefulness of a cell-phone? Solution: Combine the functions of a telephone, a camera, an audio recorder, a calculator, an Internet browser etc., in the cell-phone. Problem2 : How to create a more interesting drink? Solution: Make a milkshake combining Peach and Banana. Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Adapt
      • What else is like this?
      • What other idea does this suggest?
      • Does the past offer any parallels?
      • What could I copy?
      • Whom could I emulate?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Adapt
      • Problem: To create a new type of back pack.
      • Solution: Adapt by making an animal-shaped back pack
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Magnify
      • What to add?
      • More time?
      • Greater frequency?
      • Stronger?
      • Higher?
      • Larger?
      • Longer?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner
      • Heavier?
      • Thicker?
      • Extra value?
      • Plus ingredient?
      • Duplicate?
      • Multiply?
      • Exaggerate?
      Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Magnify
      • Problem: To build an interesting-shaped building
      • Solution: Use the shape of a boot in highly magnified form.
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Minify
      • What to subtract?
      • Smaller?
      • Condensed?
      • Miniature?
      • Lower?
      • Shorter?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner
      • Narrower?
      • Lighter?
      • Omit?
      • Streamline?
      • Split up?
      • Understate?
      • Less frequent?
      Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Minify
      • Problem 1: To create a novel notebook
      • Solution: Miniaturize it.
      • Problem 2: Create interesting greenery in the house
      • Solution: Grow a bonsai tree.
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Modify
      • New twist? Change meaning, colour, motion, odour, taste, form, shape? Other changes?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Modified Shape Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Modify
      • Problem: To make the car more attractive
      • Solution: Modify shape.
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Modified Shape Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Put to other uses
      • New ways to use as is?
      • Other uses if modified?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner A pot that can also be used as a paper weight, a pen-holder, as a vase, etc. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Eliminate
      • Completely do away with a thing, a process, a part, etc.
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Eliminate
      • Problem 1: Tying shoe-laces is time-consuming.
      • Solution: Eliminate shoe-laces from shoes by making them slip-on casual shoes.
      • Problem 2: Computer mouse-cord always gets entangled.
      • Solution: Eliminate the cord using wireless technology.
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse
      • Transpose positive and negative?
      • How about opposites?
      • Turn it backward, upside down, inside out?
      • Reverse roles?
      • Change shoes?
      • Turn tables?
      • Turn other cheek?
      Generate ideas by discussing with your partner Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Reverse
      • The problem: People are reluctant to climb stairs.
      • Solution: Moving stairs (escalator) where the person remains stationery, and the stairs move
      Generate ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Rearrange
      • Interchange components?
      • Other pattern?
      • Other layout?
      • Other sequence?
      • Transpose cause and effect?
      • Change place?
      • Change schedule?
      • Earlier?
      • Later?
      Generate ideas by discussing with your partner Try to apply these ideas to the problem. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Rearrange Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Problem: A passenger carrier that can carry more people without taking up much space on the road. Solution: A double-decker bus instead of 2 coaches Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Now try to remember the 10 categories of ideas by telling them to your partner. SCAMMMPERR Test your Memory Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • 1. To innovate the design of a pencil, the manufacturers created a pencil that is two feet long and quite thick. 2. On a journey to a way-out place, the tires of a car got punctured. The driver put hay into the tires to travel to the nearest repair shop. Test your Understanding Click here for Answers What idea from the checklist has been used in each case? Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • 1. To innovate the design of a pencil, the manufacturers created a pencil that is two feet long and quite thick. 2. On a journey to a way-out place, the tires of a car got punctured. The driver put hay into the tires to travel to the nearest repair shop. Test your Understanding Ideas from the checklist used in each case are:
      • Magnify.
      • Substitute
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics
      • An approach to creative thinking given by William Gordon (1961)
      The word ‘ Synectics ’, taken from Greek word ‘ Synecticos ’ means: “ Joining together of apparently unrelated elements”. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics
      • The approach deliberately forces one to think of apparently unrelated things together and form uncommon connections.
      • It helps to break existing mind sets.
      • Its main tools are analogies or metaphors.
      • The approach is often used in group-work.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics
      • It can help students to
        • Identify similarities and differences
        • develop creative responses to problem solving,
        • to retain new information,
        • to generate creative writing
        • to move from literal to non-literal thinking,
        • and to explore social and disciplinary problems.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics
      • Gordon's four kinds of metaphor are called
        • personal analogy,
        • direct analogy,
        • fantasy analogy, and
        • symbolic analogy.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 1. Personal Analogy
      • Here, one identifies with one element in a problem. Students "become" the object they choose and then describe what it feels like to be that object. .
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 1. Personal Analogy
      • E.g.:
        • a Biology student could identify with a parasite, temporarily becoming the parasite to understand its functioning.
        • To solve the problem of students misuse of library books, they could be asked to do an exercise: “If you were a book, how would you feel about students misusing you?”
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 2. Direct Analogy
      • One thinks of ways in which similar problems are solved in nature by animals, birds, insects, plants etc.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • Understanding how a shipworm tunnels into wood can provide ideas for building tunnels.
      • Alexander Graham Bell designed the telephone receiver on the model of the human ear.
      Synectics: 2. Direct analogy Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 2. Direct Analogy
      • Can you use direct analogy to solve the following problems?
      • Conservation of energy
      • Developing Marketing strategies (think of propagation of seeds)
      • Protecting oneself from an attacker
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 3. Fantasy Analogy
      • The problem-solver imagines ideal, even far-fetched solutions, which might lead to creative practical ideas.
        • E.g. What if rooms cleaned themselves?
        • What if corrupt people developed noses like Pinocchio's?
        • What if we could grow harmless bacteria on our skins that would eat up all pollution around us?
      Generate more ideas by discussing with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Synectics: 4. Symbolic Analogy
      • It uses an imaginary analogue of the problem.
        • For example, a vision of a snake swallowing its own tail gave the physicist Kekule an insight into the carbon-ring structure of benzene molecule.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Attribute listing
      • Technique developed by Robert Crawford (1978)
      • The problem is broken down into smaller and smaller bits.
      • The attribute of each component is changed to see what new idea emerges.
      • A great technique for ensuring all possible aspects of a problem have been examined.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Attribute listing
      • A very useful technique for quality improvement of complicated products, procedures or services.
      • A good technique to use in conjunction with techniques like brainstorming.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Attribute listing
      • There are 2 forms
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Attribute Listing Attribute modifying Attribute transferring
    • Attribute listing: Attribute Modifying
      • The student is asked to list the main attributes of the problem (characteristics, dimensions, parts).
      • The student then tries to think of ways to improve each attribute.
      • A useful strategy with problems that have identifiable attributes.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Attribute listing: Attribute Modifying
      • E.g.: The problem: Innovative decoration of the classroom for a competition
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • Break down the room decoration problem into its attributes, which may be listed as follows:
      Attribute listing: Attribute Modifying Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Attributes Modifications Floor Grass &Trees on floor Furry surface Water and fish painted on it Ceiling Walls Windows
      • Attributes from one situation are transferred to another situation.
      • E.g. To decorate a classroom, a theme can be chosen from another setting, such as
        • Harry Potter’s school, ocean scene, zoo, forest, etc.
      Attribute listing: Attribute Transferring Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • Try to solve these problems creatively through attribute transferring :
        • Teaching
        • Theme for a college gathering
        • Organizing a career corner
      Attribute listing: Attribute Transferring Discuss with your partner Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Morphological Synthesis
      • A simple extension of Attribute Modifying procedure.
      • Attribute modifying focuses on the attributes of an object, seeing how each attribute could be improved.
      • Morphological Synthesis uses the same basic technique, but is used to create a new product by combining ideas for one attribute with ideas for another attribute.
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • Here, a matrix is used.
      • On one axis, list the specific ideas for one attribute or dimension
      • Along the other axis, list ideas for a second attribute.
      • Now combine the ideas in each cell.
      • Select the best combinations.
      Morphological Synthesis Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • To produce innovative ideas for facial soap manufacture, the attributes could be colour, shape, size, inclusions, perfume, etc. Of these, the following 2 attributes and their variations can be plotted in a matrix:
      • Shape
      • Additive
      Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Ideas for facial soap manufacture: Additive Shape Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Kasturi Rose petals Almond granules Neem Fruit shape Fruit shape with kasturi Fruit/ Rose Fruit/ Almond Fruit/ neem Animal shape Animal shape/ Kasturi Oval Oval/ kasturi Hexagonal Hexagonal/ kasturi Pyramidal Pyramid/ Kasturi Flower bud Flower/ Kasturi
    • Look at the large variety of soaps in existence. Don’t you think the manufacturers must have used various creativity techniques to come up with this large variety? Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Morphological Synthesis
      • Attributes of a pencil would be shaft material, lead material, hardness of lead, width of lead, quality, color, weight, price, etc.
      • A television plot would have attributes of characters, actions, locations, weather, etc.
      • Select any 2 attributes from both the above examples and plot a matrix for morphological synthesis. See what new ideas you come up with.
      Exercise Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Morphological Synthesis Prepare a matrix of teaching units and teaching methods/techniques as the 2 attributes. See what ideas you come up with for teaching a particular unit. Exercise See such a matrix on the next slide. Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
    • Morphological Synthesis Methods/ techiques Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ. Units Advance organizer model Concept attainment model Inquiry training Brainstorming Problem solving Attitudes Creativity
      • The idea checklist was given by _______.
      • The Synectics technique was developed by ________.
      • The technique of Attribute listing was developed by __________.
      Test your Memory Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.
      • “ How to increase the school electricity bill?” This is a problem that can be used with ___________ technique of developing creativity.
      • “ Examine how bears keep warm in winter to solve the human problem of keeping warm.” This is a problem that can be used with ___________ technique of developing creativity.
      Test your Understanding Dr. M.D.Ranade. SNDT Univ.