Oil spill program black rev3 06 29-2010 md_klein

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Update on the cause and impacts of the BP Oil release to the Gulf Coast Region

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Oil spill program black rev3 06 29-2010 md_klein

  1. 1. The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues Michael Klein, P.E., CHMM June 29, 2010
  2. 2. What Happened? <ul><li>On 20 April 2010 eleven workers died in an explosion on the BP-contracted Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig located in the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>A surge in oil and gas caused the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Blowout Preventer (BOP), a system of valves at the well head located at a depth of 5067 feet </li></ul><ul><li>The BOP is believed to have failed. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Happened? <ul><li>On 22 April 2010 the oil rig sinks and the riser pipe connected it to the well falls to the sea bed. </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil and gas continue to flow from the bent riser pipe and BOP resulting in an oil slick that is estimated at 5 miles in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>The BOP is designed to be the fail safe against pressure surges. Its valves should have closed shutting off the oil and gas from the reservoir and sealing the well. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Blowout Preventer <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Source :New York Times
  5. 5. What Should Happen in an Emergency <ul><li>In a blowout, a rig worker presses an emergency button. A signal is sent from the rig down an electrical line to one of the control pods. </li></ul><ul><li>The control pod directs hydraulic fluid from the rig and from a bank of pressurized canisters, called accumulators. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic fluid flows rapidly through a valve, called a shuttle valve, and into the blind shear ram. </li></ul><ul><li>The blind shear ram cuts through the drill pipe and seals the well, preventing oil from gushing out. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Should Happen in an Emergency <ul><li>Of all the components on the blowout preventer, only the blind shear ram was designed to shut down the well in a blowout like the one that took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig on 20 April 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the only device on the BOP that is supposed to cut through the thick drill pipe and seal off the hole. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Should Happen in an Emergency <ul><li>Pistons push the ram toward the pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Offset blades on the ram cut the pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>The pipe breaks and collapses. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Source: New York Times
  8. 8. What Should Happen in an Emergency <ul><li>Unlike other parts of the Deepwater Horizon’s BOP, the blind shear ram has no backup. </li></ul><ul><li>The breakdown of any part of the hydraulically powered ram can lead to disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most critical components of the blind shear ram is the shuttle valve, the only point for the hydraulic fluid to enter the ram. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Should Happen in an Emergency <ul><li>A risk analysis commissioned by the manufacturer of the blowout preventer identified this shuttle valve as one of the weakest links. </li></ul><ul><li>So if the shuttle valve fails, the well will not be sealed. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  10. 10. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>The failure of the BOP and the efforts made to remotely shut it down result in a constant leak of oil and gas from holes in the bent riser pipe resting on the seafloor and above the BOP. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts are made on the surface to contain the oil using techniques such as booms to contain the oil and skimming to recover it. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of the surface oil and dispersants are employed on the released crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  11. 11. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>On the 2nd and 16th of May 2010 BP starts drilling relief wells. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan is connect with the original well and pump heavy material in to stop the flow of oil and seal the well. </li></ul><ul><li>The time to complete the operation is anticipated to be 2 to 3 months to complete </li></ul><ul><li>5 May 2010 BP caps the end of the drilling pipe stopping one of the three leaks </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  12. 12. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>5 May 2010 BP attempts to stop the main leak by lowering a containment dome over the site. </li></ul><ul><li>This fails on 8 May 2010 as the dome extraction piping is blocked by frozen hydrate crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrate crystals are caused by the leaking gas in the crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>16 May 2010 a tube is inserted into the leaking pipe to funnel off leaking gas and crude oil to a surface ship </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  13. 13. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>26 May 2010 BP starts the “Top Kill”. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  14. 14. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>A “junk shot” is injected in an effort to block the flow of crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>29 May 2010 BP announces that the top kill system has failed and the oil spill continues. </li></ul><ul><li>2 June 2010 BP starts the next shut down procedure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remotely operated shears are used to cut the damaged riser pipe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wire cutter was used in an attempt to saw through the leaking pipe close to the top section of the BOP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The blade gets stuck and the pipe is then cut by remotely operated shears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  15. 15. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>View of an underwater robotic arm attempting to free the diamond saw that became stuck. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: BP Live Video Feed </li></ul>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues
  16. 16. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>4 June 2010 a “Cap” is placed over the upper portion of the leaking well funneling oil and gas to a surface ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: New York Times / BP </li></ul>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues
  17. 17. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>Crude oil continues to billow from under the lip and through four open vents on top of the device. </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol is being pumped into the cap to prevent the formation of icy hydrates that could block the mile-long pipe rising from the cap. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers hope to capture more oil by progressively closing the cap vents. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  18. 18. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>16 June 2010 using equipment originally put in place to inject heavy drilling mud during the failed “top kill” the modified system extracts oil and gas directly from the blowout preventer, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The captured crude oil passes through a manifold on the seafloor and pipes it up to the Q4000 surface vessel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Q4000 has no storage capacity and burns the oil and gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  19. 19. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>Source: New York Times / BP </li></ul>
  20. 20. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>22 June 2010 BP collects a total of 27,090 barrels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BP flare 10,425 barrels of oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures 16,665 barrels of oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flared 54.4 million cubic feet of natural gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As of 22 June 2010 BP has recovered 325,700 barrels of oil since it put in place a containment cap and the flaring system. </li></ul><ul><li>At full optimization, the current operation could capture up to 28,000 barrels a day </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  21. 21. BP Oil Release Responses <ul><li>The operation involves two ships, the Discoverer Enterprise, which has the capacity to collect and store about 18,000 barrels of oil a day, and the Q4000, which can burn off about 10,000 barrels of oil a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The release rate is estimated at 35,000 to 60,000 barrels of oil a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  22. 22. Gulf of Mexico: Geography <ul><li>The Gulf of Mexico is a dynamic, almost landlocked body of water dominated by prevailing southeast winds and influenced by the Gulf Loop Current and Mississippi River flow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bordered on the east by the Florida peninsula, to the north by Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the west by Texas, Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  23. 23. Gulf of Mexico: Geography <ul><ul><li>Bordered and nearly landlocked by North America and Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to Atlantic Ocean via Florida straits north of Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects with Caribbean Sea via Yucatan Channel between Mexico and Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of 615,000 sq. miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigsbee Deep at 12480 feet, the deepest point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of 65 million year old Chicxulub crater </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Gulf of Mexico: Currents and Prevailing Winds Source: University of Texas at Austin Marine Science Institute
  25. 25. Gulf of Mexico: Currents and Prevailing Winds <ul><li>Prevailing winds blowing from the southeast move Caribbean water through the pass between Yucatan and western Cuba, forming the Gulf Loop Current. </li></ul><ul><li>This current moves north towards the Mississippi and Alabama coast lines then curves south along the west coast of Florida and exits the Gulf between the Florida Keys and the north shore of Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gulf of Mexico: Currents and Prevailing Winds <ul><li>The Gulf Loop current joins the Antilles current, forming the Gulf Stream. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gulf Stream travels north up the east coast of the United States then curves east towards Europe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It carries warm, tropical water north. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is one of the reasons that commercial fisheries off the Grand Banks in New England are so productive. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  27. 27. Gulf Currents and Oil Spill Interaction <ul><li>Current data indicates that the spreading oil slick has grown in size and is connected with the Loop Current that sweeps around the Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;entrainment” (oil is incorporating into the Gulf Current) is pulling the released crude oil quickly south along Florida's Gulf coast and out into the Florida Straits, between the United States and Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  28. 28. Gulf Currents and Oil Spill Interaction <ul><li>Should the oil slick enter the Florida Loop Current ocean circulation models show it heading out to sea, past the Dry Tortugas islands, before it is caught up in the Gulf Stream and makes its way up the U.S. East Coast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether or not the oil spill will get into shallow water on its possible ocean journey would be totally dependent on winds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  29. 29. Gulf Currents and Oil Spill Interaction <ul><li>Depending on local winds, Florida's southwest beaches and the Florida Keys, along with coral reefs and the fragile ecosystem of the Everglades, could be spared from the oil slick. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil making landfall anywhere will depend on what the winds are doing at that particular point in time. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hazmat Considerations of Crude Oil <ul><li>Crude Oil (CAS number 8002-05-9): Crude oils vary in physical characteristics such as color, viscosity and specific gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Color ranges from light yellow-brown to black. </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity varies from free-flowing to a substance that will barely pour. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity is used to classify crude oil as light, medium (intermediate), or heavy. </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil, which may consist of hundreds of individual compounds must be refined to separate the constituent into useful fractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Each crude oil is a unique mixture, not matched exactly in composition or properties by any other sample of crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hazmat Considerations of Crude Oil <ul><li>Individual compounds of crude oil can be classified into the following two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons, which include alkanes (normal and branched chains), cycloalkanes, alkenes, aromatics, naphthenoaromatics; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-hydrocarbons, which include nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen (NSO) compounds, asphaltenes and resins (including NSO heterocyclics), metallo-organics, and inorganic metal salts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  32. 32. General Hazard/Toxicity Summary <ul><li>In general, spilled oil is most harmful when shallow, productive waters; porous sediments; low energy aquatic environments or special-use habitats are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of high risk locations are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheltered tidal flats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow bays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse sand and gravel beaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites with concentrated reproductive and migratory activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  33. 33. Evidence of Underwater Oil <ul><li>University of South Florida researchers have confirmed layers of petroleum hydrocarbons stretching at least 50 miles from the leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>The plumes contain tiny droplets of oil — from the size of a thumbnail to the size of a golf ball. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater oil created in part by the effect of chemical dispersants. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  34. 34. Evidence of Underwater Oil <ul><li>Plumes would have a unique role in devastating marine life. </li></ul><ul><li>The low levels of dissolved oxygen in and around the plumes could literally choke fish and other life. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved oil could also accumulate in fish larvae and filter feeding creatures — which would then pass the toxin up the food chain to fish that include commercially important species like red snapper. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  36. 36. Petroleum Impact: Fish <ul><li>Crude oil and petroleum products vary considerably in their toxicity, and the sensitivity of fish to petroleum varies according to species. </li></ul><ul><li>The water soluble fractions of crude oil can stunt fish growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The impacts to fish are primarily to the eggs, larvae, and early juveniles, with limited effects on the adults. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  37. 37. Petroleum Impact: Fish <ul><li>The general effects of petroleum are difficult to assess and quantitatively document due to the seasonal and natural variability of the species. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish rapidly metabolize aromatic hydrocarbons due to their enzyme system. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  38. 38. Potential Effects of Petroleum: Fish <ul><li>There are several potential effects of petroleum on the fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depressed feeding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased swimming activity and increased mortality (observed effect). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mortality to eggs and larvae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mortality or other effects of fish maintained in mariculture enclosures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally, there are several sublethal effects such as fin erosion, ulceration of the integument, liver damage, lesions in the olfactory tissue, reduced hatching success, reduced growth, change in egg buoyancy, malformations that interfere with feeding, arrest of cell division, and genetic damage. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  39. 39. Potential Effects of Petroleum: Fishing Industry <ul><li>Potential effects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exclusion of fishermen from the fishing grounds and other disruption of fishing which can change the population balance to date. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tainting of fish (such as change in flavor or smell) and the public's fear of tainting, mortality or other effects of non-motile inshore species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of livelihood not only for fishermen but for other industries supported by this commodity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  40. 40. Petroleum Impact: Birds <ul><li>Oiling of feathers is considered to be the primary cause of most bird deaths following oil spills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil disrupts the fine strand structure of the feathers resulting in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of water repellency and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in decreased body insulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  41. 41. Petroleum Impact: Birds <ul><li>Natural response to oil matted plumage is preening; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oiled birds often ingest petroleum while attempting to remove the petroleum from their feathers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chicks may be exposed to petroleum by ingesting food regurgitated by impacted adults. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  42. 42. Petroleum Impact: Birds <ul><li>The effects of ingested petroleum include : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney and liver damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altered blood chemistry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased egg production and viability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This is migration, spawning and nesting time for migratory song birds and the endangered brown pelican </li></ul><ul><li>Upwards of 25 million birds a day transit the Gulf region in their northern migration. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  43. 43. Petroleum Impact: Birds <ul><li>More than 70 percent of the country’s waterfowl frequent the gulf’s waters, including the Brown Pelican, Least Tern, and the Piping Plover. </li></ul><ul><li>For the brown pelican it is nesting season and one of it principal rookeries is in the Breton National Wildlife Refuge Louisiana, which the release crude oil has impacted. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  44. 44. Toxicity of Crude Oil <ul><li>The toxicity of crude oil can be interpreted as the toxicity of a complex mixture of inorganic and organic chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty exists in the use of dose-response relationships based on crude oil as a whole mixture. </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative approach which is often used is the &quot;indicator chemical approach.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This involves selecting a subset of chemicals from the whole mixture that represents the &quot;worst-case&quot; in terms of mobility and toxicity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  45. 45. Indicator Chemical Approach <ul><li>This approach can be used with crude oil with the subsets of chemicals being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known as BTEX; if present) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BTEX are of interest because they are soluble in water, highly mobile in the environment, and represent the more volatile and soluble components of crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  46. 46. Indicator Chemical Approach <ul><li>Benzene is an EPA defined “Class A” carcinogen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Class A” carcinogens as pollutants with adequate human data indicating the chemical causes cancer in people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PAHs are not highly mobile but are of interest because they are prevalent in crude oil, represent the heavier or less volatile crude oil components, and several are known animal carcinogens. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  47. 47. Indicator Chemical Approach <ul><li>PAHs and their transformation products are among the most hazardous constituents of crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil contains, on the average, approximately 1% polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrations of total carcinogenic PAHs (like benzo(a)pyrene) reported in the literature range from 12 mg/l to less than 100 ug/l. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  48. 48. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>After oil is discharged into the environment, a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological processes begin to transform the discharged oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Collectively, these processes are referred to as weathering, and act to change the composition, behavior, routes of exposure and toxicity of the discharged oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  49. 49. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>Weathered oil is composed of relatively insoluble compounds, and often coalesces into mats or tarballs. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the potential for exposure to fish through water column toxicity is lessened, as is the potential for birds or mammals to encounter the oil. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, penetration of oil into marsh vegetation may depend on oil viscosity; weathered oils penetrate less than fresh oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  50. 50. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>Alternatively, certain species are known to ingest tarballs and the potential for exposure to those resources may increase as the oil weathers. </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of the lighter fractions through dissolution and/or evaporation during the weathering process can cause normally buoyant oil to sink. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thereby contaminating subtidal sediment and contributing to water column toxicity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  51. 51. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>After the loss of the volatile, soluble, and easily biodegraded compounds, the remaining compounds can become concentrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Weathered oil becomes less acutely toxic, but due to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of high molecular weight, it remains toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  52. 52. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>The primary weathering processes are physical phenomena; these include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  53. 53. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>Chemical weathering processes include photo degradation and oxidation. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological weathering processes include (microbial) biodegradation and ingestion and depuration by organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  54. 54. Oil Weathering Process <ul><li>These processes occur for all discharges, but the rate and relative importance of each process depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spill characteristics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental conditions, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physicochemical properties of the spilled material. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  55. 55. Hazmat Response to a Release of Crude Oil <ul><li>Most crude oil is defined as Medium Oils per the NOAA/Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division (HMRAD) Shoreline Countermeasures Manual for tropical coastal environments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1/3 will evaporate within 24 hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum water-soluble fraction is 10-100 mg/l. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil contamination of intertidal areas can be severe/long term. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact to waterfowl and fur-bearing mammals can be severe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical dispersion is an option within 1-2 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanup most effective if conducted quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  56. 56. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: Boom <ul><li>Boom technology comes in many sizes, shapes, and types and is used primarily to deflect and/or collect oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  57. 57. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: Burning <ul><li>Fresh oil contains gases which are very volatile. By igniting these gases whole oil slicks can be reduced to tarry residue. </li></ul><ul><li>Many factors effect whether or not a burn can occur and if it will be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning is highly dependent on the amount of time the oil has been on the water because when a burn is conducted fumes from the oil are ignited, not the actual oil. </li></ul><ul><li>As oil weathers on the water, these fumes dissipate and eventually are insufficient to start combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  58. 58. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: Dispersants <ul><li>Dispersants work much like the detergent soap that you use to clean grease from your dishes (but dispersants are less toxic). </li></ul><ul><li>They contain molecules with a water-compatible (&quot;hydrophilic&quot;) end and an oil-compatible (&quot;lipophilic&quot;) end. </li></ul><ul><li>These molecules attach to the oil, reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water, breaking up the oil slick, as shown on the following slide. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  59. 59. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: Dispersants <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Source: ITOPF
  60. 60. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: Skimming <ul><li>Skimming is a mechanical system for removing oil from the surface. This process was created based on the reality that oil is lighter than water. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  61. 61. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>Bioremediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes beneficial microbes, surfactants, micronutrients and bio-stimulants to stimulate the growth of &quot;oil-eating&quot; microbes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process is adopted where excavation is impractical and involves either bio-stimulation or bio-augmentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  62. 62. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>Biostimulation involves aeration and the application of selected micronutrients and bio-stimulants. </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-stimulation is only effective when indigenous microbial populations, present in the substrate, are high enough to degrade the contaminants and when these microbes can readily adapt to foreign contaminants. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaugmentation involves the application of beneficial microbes, that have an affinity towards a specific contaminant. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of indigenous organisms by the addition of nutrients is the approach that has been tested most rigorously. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  63. 63. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>Chemical Cleaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an attempt to avoid Hot Water & High Pressure treatment, chemical cleaners have been tested which removed the oil from the beach for collection. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot Water and High Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By using hot water at high pressure, cleanup crews blast oil off beaches into the water where it can be skimmed off. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  64. 64. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>This method usually does more harm than good by driving the oil deeper into the beach and by killing every living thing on the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>This was used extensively after the Exxon Valdez spill due to public and state pressure to make the beaches &quot;look clean again,&quot; despite the known risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas left alone to be weathered by winter storms were shown to be cleaner and harboring more life than those cleaned by high-pressure washing. </li></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  65. 65. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>Manual Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual treatment incorporates the use of shovels, rakes, absorbent materials and human hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>Getty Images
  66. 66. Response to an Oil Spill On Water: On the Beach <ul><li>Mechanical Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tractors, backhoes, front-end loaders, and other machines are used to move beach and scoop up asphalt collections for disposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T he BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>surftotal.com
  67. 67. <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>
  68. 68. Questions? <ul><li>The BP Oil Release in the Gulf of Mexico: Ocean Engineering, Gulf Currents & HAZMAT Issues </li></ul>

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