Who And Sfe

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  • Smoking is responsible for the death of one in ten adults worldwide (about 5 million deaths per year) and, if current smoking patterns continue, by 2030 the proportion will be one in six (about 10 million deaths per year). 1 This means that about 500 million people alive today will eventually be killed by tobacco. 2 Since the 1950s, more than 70,000 scientific articles have left no doubt that smoking is an extraordinarily important cause of premature mortality and disability around the world. In populations where cigarette smoking has been common for several decades, about 90% of cases of lung cancer, 15–20% of cases of other cancers, 75% of cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and 25% of deaths from cardiovascular diseases in those 35–69 years of age are attributable to tobacco. Studies have shown that half of all long-term smokers will die of a tobacco-related disease and, of these, half will die before the age of 65. 1 In 1994, the World Bank estimated that the use of tobacco results in a global net loss of US$200 billion per year, half of this loss being in developing countries. Costs were calculated to include direct medical care for tobacco-related diseases, fire losses, absenteeism from work, reduced productivity and lost income due to early mortality. 3 References: 1. The World Bank. Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control. Washington, DC, 1999. 2. Peto R, et al . Mortality from smoking in developing countries 1950–2000 . 1994. New York, Oxford University Press. 3. World Health Organization. Guidelines for controlling and monitoring the tobacco epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.
  • Smoking is responsible for the death of one in ten adults worldwide (about 5 million deaths per year) and, if current smoking patterns continue, by 2030 the proportion will be one in six (about 10 million deaths per year). 1 This means that about 500 million people alive today will eventually be killed by tobacco. 2 Since the 1950s, more than 70,000 scientific articles have left no doubt that smoking is an extraordinarily important cause of premature mortality and disability around the world. In populations where cigarette smoking has been common for several decades, about 90% of cases of lung cancer, 15–20% of cases of other cancers, 75% of cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and 25% of deaths from cardiovascular diseases in those 35–69 years of age are attributable to tobacco. Studies have shown that half of all long-term smokers will die of a tobacco-related disease and, of these, half will die before the age of 65. 1 In 1994, the World Bank estimated that the use of tobacco results in a global net loss of US$200 billion per year, half of this loss being in developing countries. Costs were calculated to include direct medical care for tobacco-related diseases, fire losses, absenteeism from work, reduced productivity and lost income due to early mortality. 3 References: 1. The World Bank. Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control. Washington, DC, 1999. 2. Peto R, et al . Mortality from smoking in developing countries 1950–2000 . 1994. New York, Oxford University Press. 3. World Health Organization. Guidelines for controlling and monitoring the tobacco epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.
  • The WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic provides the roadmap to reverse the global tobacco epidemic The solution to the epidemic is MPOWER, and the implementation and enforcement of its six proven effective policies in every country This report – and future editions – will show countries how to reverse the tobacco epidemic The reports also will keep track of global, regional and country progress of the fight against the epidemic
  • Who And Sfe

    1. 1. Protection from Second-hand Smoke in the Western Pacific Region Dr Susan Mercado Regional Adviser Tobacco-Free Initiative World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office
    2. 2. Research clearly shows that there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke.
    3. 3. A third of the world’s smokers are in the Region.
    4. 4. 2 people die each minute from a tobacco-related disease in the Region.
    5. 5. Most Recent Scientific Evidence: Exposure to SHS Source: adapted by CTLT from U.S. Surgeon General’s Report. (2006).
    6. 6. Second-hand smoke increases the risk of coronary heart disease by 25–30% and the risk of lung cancer in non-smokers by 20–30%. Second-hand smoke exposure has been conclusively linked to breast cancer.
    7. 7. Sub national data Sub national data
    8. 8. Sub national data Sub national data
    9. 9. 50% youth 13-15 years old are exposed to second hand smoke at home.
    10. 10. Sub national data Sub national data
    11. 11. Smoke-free environments help smokers who want to quit. Smoke-free policies in workplaces in several industrialized nations have reduced total tobacco consumption among workers by an average of 29%.
    12. 12. Smoke-free public places also encourage families to make their homes smoke-free, which protects children and other family members from the dangers of second-hand smoke.
    13. 13. Positive Health Impact of Smoke-Free Environments Source: Navas , A. (2007). DIRECT INDIRECT
    14. 14. Reject the myths!
    15. 15. MPOWER: A Policy Package for Global Tobacco Control The six demand reduction policies to support complete implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control <ul><li>Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies </li></ul><ul><li>Protect people from tobacco smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Offer help to quit tobacco use </li></ul><ul><li>Warn about the dangers of tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Raise taxes on tobacco </li></ul>
    16. 16. WHO Regional Initiatives <ul><li>Dissemination of the Guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO FCTC </li></ul><ul><li>Development of tools and training on monitoring of second-hand smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of tobacco-free sports </li></ul><ul><li>Development of guidance and awards for good practices and best proposals for MPOWER and Healthy Cities </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Orchid Awards </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy urban transport (smoke-free criteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Support for projects to use GYTS data for policies and action </li></ul>
    17. 17. RESTAURANTS PUBLIC TRANSPORT INDOOR OFFICES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ALL OTHER PUBLIC PLACES GOVERNMENT FACILITIES PUBS AND BARS HEALTH CARE FACILITIES 1 2 3 4 SHS SPIDERGRAM
    18. 18. Indoor Air Concentrations <ul><li>The concentration of secondhand smoke in the air can be determined by measuring the concentration of its components </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements of airborne nicotine, carbon dioxide, or particulate matter can indicate the extent of secondhand smoke exposure in a particular location </li></ul><ul><li>Passive air nicotine monitors are accurate, relatively inexpensive, and easy to use. </li></ul>Nicotine Particulate Matter
    19. 19. Source: Navas-Acien, et al. (2004); Image source: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Air Nicotine Concentrations ( µ g/m 3 ) in Restaurants in 10 Countries* Smoking policy N Median (IQR) † No policy 54 1.15 (0.32–2.44) Smoking section 32 1.30 (0.43–2.31) Nonsmoking 20 0.66 (0.20–1.10) Smoking ban 7 0.07 (0.003–0.10) * Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Honduras, Mexico and Panama † IQR: interquartile range
    20. 20. TRAINING ON SECOND-HAND SMOKE MONITORING
    21. 21. See next slide
    22. 25. TOBACCO FREE SPORTS <ul><li>Beijing, China </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Nam </li></ul><ul><li>Laos People’s Democratic Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Nam </li></ul><ul><li>Guangzhou, China </li></ul><ul><li>Cook Islands </li></ul>
    23. 27. Gender and tobacco (Viet Nam and Palau)
    24. 28. 2008 WHO Awards and the Alliance for Healthy Cities <ul><li>COMPREHENSIVE TOBACCO CONTROL IN CITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore Health Promotion Board </li></ul><ul><li>Taicang, China </li></ul><ul><li>Wonju, Republic of Korea </li></ul><ul><li>BEST PROPOSAL FOR COMPREHENSIVE TOBACCO CONTROL IN CITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Chanwon, Republic of Korea </li></ul>
    25. 29. HEALTHY URBAN TRANSPORT Lloyd Wright
    26. 30. Pilot on the Red Orchid Awards for Tobacco-Free Settings, Philippines, 2009
    27. 31. Second-hand Smoke Busters! Use of youth data to monitor tobacco control programme progress.
    28. 35. TOBACCO CONTROL DATA APPLICATION PROJECTS (GYTS) Smoke-free schools in Seam Riap, Cambodia
    29. 36. Regional Action Plan (2010-2014) for the Tobacco Free Initiative in the Western Pacific Moving Toward the Next Level: Complete implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
    30. 37. Regional Action Plan (2010-2014) for the Tobacco Free Initiative in the Western Pacific <ul><li>VISION: Tobacco free people, communities and environments </li></ul><ul><li>MISSION: To advocate, enable and support complete implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL: To attain the lowest possible tobacco use prevalence and the highest level of protection from second-hand smoke </li></ul>
    31. 38. Three Point Strategy 1 Promote and advocate for complete WHO FCTC Implementation 2 Mobilize for public action 3 Strengthen organizational capacity <ul><li>Legislation and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Governance and local enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance and partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Investment planning and resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership training and human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance, monitoring and knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness, education, communication and advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of tobacco dependence </li></ul>
    32. 39. Approaches <ul><li>Development and/or updating of national action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment and/or strengthening of national coordinating mechanisms for tobacco control </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of targets and prevalence indicators to monitor progress </li></ul>
    33. 40. Overall indicators <ul><li>By 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>All countries have developed national action plans or equivalents and established or strengthened national coordinating mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>All parties in the Region have ratified all WHO FCTC protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable adult and youth tobacco use data are available in all countries </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of adults (men and women) and youth (boys and girls) current tobacco use (smoking and smokeless) is reduced by 10% from the most recent baseline </li></ul>
    34. 41. Regional programme targets relevant to protection from second-hand smoke exposure <ul><li>100% of countries </li></ul><ul><li>- have adopted measures compliant with Articles 5.3 & 8 </li></ul><ul><li>- monitoring and enforcement of Article 5.3 & 8 </li></ul><ul><li>- have a list of existing and potential partners </li></ul><ul><li>- have multi-year human resource development plans </li></ul><ul><li>- have reliable and comparable population level data </li></ul><ul><li>- have implemented national communication plans </li></ul><ul><li>- have national tobacco dependence treatment guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>- have trained health workers giving brief cessation advice </li></ul><ul><li>50% of countries </li></ul><ul><li>- convene meetings with multisectoral partners </li></ul><ul><li>- publicly recognize outstanding contributions </li></ul><ul><li>- have multi-year budget estimates </li></ul>
    35. 42. The Regional Action Plan (2010-2014) Tobacco Free Initiative for the Western Pacific contains a menu of actions and indicators for countries and WHO.
    36. 43. Sub national data Sub national data
    37. 44. Yuhta Ohishi, 15 years old, Japan World No Tobacco Day Awardee, 2008 Recipient of Director General’s Special Recognition certificate

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