Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Fluid Mechanics and
Thermodynamics
Weekly Assessed Tutorial Sheets

Tutor Sheets: WATS 8
The WATS form a collection of wee...
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
Weekly Assessed Tutorial Sheet 8 (WATS 8)

TUTOR SHEET – Data used in the Worked Soluti...
WATS 8
Worked solution
This sheet is solved using the TUTOR data set.

Q1 i) X Force only

The starting point for this pro...
The remaining parts of the Q1 are similar except for the fact that they have both X and Y
velocity components. These have ...
The force on the surface is 2.47 N and the direction is -79.5°


This is shown graphically below.




                    ...
ρ C12                ρ C2 2
P+
1          + ρ gh1 = P2 +        + ρ gh2
       2                    2

For this case, the ...
Inserting this and the fact that the static pressure, for this student data at the inlet is
4.2 Bar into the modified Bern...
The NET FORCE in the Y direction, due to pressure, is Fy _ pressure _ out − Fy _ pressure _ in
which is Fy _ pressure _ NE...
Fy                        550
The direction of this force on the fluid is Direction = ATAN (          ) which is ATAN (   ...
Credits
This resource was created by the University of Hertfordshire and released as an open educational resource
through ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

WATS 8 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics- Master And Solution

423

Published on

The WATS form a collection of weekly homework type problems in the form of out-of-class tutorial sheets.

Each WATS typically comprises of a couple of main questions of which each has around four/five linked supplementary questions. They were developed as part of an LTSN Engineering Mini-Project, funded at the University of Hertfordshire which aimed to develop a set of 'student unique' tutorial sheets to actively encourage and improve student participation within a first year first ‘fluid mechanics and thermodynamics’ module. Please see the accompanying Mini-Project Report “Improving student success and retention through greater participation and tackling student-unique tutorial sheets” for more information.

The WATS cover core Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics topics at first year undergraduate level. 11 tutorial sheets and their worked solutions are provided here for you to utilise in your teaching. The variables within each question can be altered so that each student answers the same question but will need to produce a unique solution.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
423
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "WATS 8 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics- Master And Solution"

  1. 1. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics Weekly Assessed Tutorial Sheets Tutor Sheets: WATS 8 The WATS form a collection of weekly homework type problems in the form of out-of- class tutorial sheets. Each WATS typically comprises of a couple of main questions of which each has around four/five linked supplementary questions. They were developed as part of an LTSN Engineering Mini-Project, funded at the University of Hertfordshire which aimed to develop a set of 'student unique' tutorial sheets to actively encourage and improve student participation within a first year first ‘fluid mechanics and thermodynamics’ module. Please see the accompanying Mini-Project Report “Improving student success and retention through greater participation and tackling student-unique tutorial sheets” for more information. The WATS cover core Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics topics at first year undergraduate level. 11 tutorial sheets and their worked solutions are provided here for you to utilise in your teaching. The variables within each question can be altered so that each student answers the same question but will need to produce a unique solution. FURTHER INFORMATION Please see http://tinyurl.com/2wf2lfh to access the WATS Random Factor Generating Wizard. There are also explanatory videos on how to use the Wizard and how to implement WATS available at http://www.youtube.com/user/MBRBLU#p/u/7/0wgC4wy1cV0 and http://www.youtube.com/user/MBRBLU#p/u/6/MGpueiPHpqk. For more information on WATS, its use and impact on students please contact Mark Russell, School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering at University of Hertfordshire. © University of Hertfordshire 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.
  2. 2. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics Weekly Assessed Tutorial Sheet 8 (WATS 8) TUTOR SHEET – Data used in the Worked Solution Q1a). A fluid of relative density 0.98 flows through a pipe of diameter 149 mm at 0.44 m/s. After passing through a gradual reducer the fluid leaves a 72mm diameter pipe and discharges onto a stationary surface. Assuming that the surface slopes at an angle of ‘A’ degrees from the horizontal plane, as shown below, and that the surface somehow acts as a vane in that the fluid is deflected along its surface - calculate the forces acting on the surface for the angles shown in the answer boxes. You may assume that friction effects are negligible. Figure Q1a. Definition of angle ‘A’ for the inclined surface. Y Y 90.0° X A X A 45.5° i) A = 90° (X force) ii) A = 10° (net force) iii) A = 44° (Net iv) A = 76° (Net (N) [5dp] (1 (N) [5dp] (2 force) (N) [5dp] (2 force) (N) [5dp] Mark) Mark) Mark) (2 Mark) Q2. 9 l/s flows through a contracting elbow which has an angle, ‘A’ of 29° i.e. as shown in figure Q2. Assume the inlet to the bend is 182 mm diameter and the outlet is 59 mm diameter and that the pipe lies in the horizontal plane. The static pressure at the pipe inlet is 4.20 Bar and the fluids specific gravity is 0.97. Calculate the net force and the direction of the force acting on the bend. i) Net force (N) ii) Direction of force. Y (As measured anti-clockwise from the X [5dp] top of the horizontal plane. i.e. AS A SHOWN in all above examples. [1dp] 52.2° (3 Mark) (1 Mark) Figure Q2. Sketch of bend. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  3. 3. WATS 8 Worked solution This sheet is solved using the TUTOR data set. Q1 i) X Force only The starting point for this problem is F = ma . Hence you need to find the mass (m) and the fluids’ acceleration (a). The mass flow rate of the fluid can be found via m = ρ AC where A is the cross sectional are normal to the flow direction and C is the mean flow speed. Using the student unique data the mass flow rate is π *0.1492 m = (1000*0.98) * *0.44 = 7.52 kg/s 4 The question also states that the fluid passes through a contraction before being discharged. Hence the velocity on discharge will increase. Since the density of the fluid does not change we can use the fact that the volume flow rate through the main pipe and the discharge pipe must be equal. i.e. Amain _ pipe * Cmain _ pipe = ADischarge * CDischarge Applying this to the student unique data gives π *0.1492 π *0.0722 * 0.44 = * C2 from which CDischarge can be found i.e. 4 4 CDischarge = 1.88 m/s The acceleration is the change in velocity i.e. a = C2 − C1 . Noting that the X wise velocity component at the wall must be zero, i.e. it is stationary due to the fact that the wall does not move, gives a = 0 − 1.88 Bringing these together gives the force acting on the FLUID. i.e. for the first case F = 7.52 *(−1.88) = -14.14 N. But since the question asks for the force acting on the surface you must recall that this reaction force is the equal and opposite of the force on the fluid i.e. R = -F = +14.14 N _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  4. 4. The remaining parts of the Q1 are similar except for the fact that they have both X and Y velocity components. These have to be calculated individually and then the net force can be found. The following answers part ii) of Q1 In this student unique case the angle of the incline, ‘A’ is 10° Y X A 45.5° Figure 1. Sketch showing angle of incline for WATS 11. Again note that as the fluid follows the surface it has both an X and Y velocity component. The force on the fluid in the X direction is still Fx = max and the acceleration (a) is again found from a = C2 − C1 but in the sloped wall case the C2 term needs to be corrected for the slope. i.e. C2 x = C2CosA hence this gives Fx = 7.52*(Cos10*1.88 − 1.88) = -0.22 N Similarly for the force in the Y direction we can write Fy = ma y and a = C2 − C1 but note now that at the discharge there is no Y velocity component, i.e. it is all in the X direction therefore C1 = 0 and the C2 term needs also to be corrected for the slope i.e. C2 y = C2 SinA hence Fy = 7.52*( Sin10*1.88 − 0) = 2.46 N The net force, FN is therefore FN = Fx2 + Fy2 which, on application of these numbers ,gives a net force of FN = −0.222 + 2.462 = 2.47 N. Fy Although not asked for the direction of this force on the fluid is Direction = ATAN ( ) Fx 2.46 which is ATAN ( ) = 79.5° therefore the angle from the horizontal surface is 180 – 79.5 0.22 = 100.5° Note again that this is the direction of the force on the fluid the force acting on the surface is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that calculated above. i.e. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  5. 5. The force on the surface is 2.47 N and the direction is -79.5° This is shown graphically below. Fr = Fy = 2.46 N 2.44 N 79.5° 100.5 Fx = -79.5 -0.22 N Figure 2. Schematic showing the force distribution for student data 160. Since the other parts of Q1 are carried out using a similar procedure they are not repeated here. Q2. This is similar to the above except for the fact that it is a closed pipe and hence the pressure at one point in the pipe may be different from that at another location. In the previous case the pressure at the discharge was equal to that at the wall hence it was not considered. In this example, however, it needs to be considered. Note: We need to establish the pressure because the force on the bend will be due to both the pressure and the momentum terms. First recall Bernoulli’s equation _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  6. 6. ρ C12 ρ C2 2 P+ 1 + ρ gh1 = P2 + + ρ gh2 2 2 For this case, the bend is in the horizontal plane and hence the potential energy at the inlet of the bed is equal to the potential energy at the outlet of the bend. In such instances Bernoulli’s equation reduces to ρ C12 ρ C2 2 P+ 1 = P2 + 2 2 Unknowns in the above include the pressure at the outlet and the velocity at both the inlet and the outlet. Fortunately application of the continuity equation allows the velocities to be found. As before, because the density doesn’t change we can state that the volumetric flow rate entering the elbow must equal the volumetric flow rate leaving the elbow. For the student unique data of 160 this volumetric flow rate is stated as 9 l/s i.e. 0.009 m3/ s. The inlet to the bend is 182 mm diameter i.e. 0.182m. Hence the velocity at the inlet Cinlet can now be found & π *0.1822 V = Ainlet * Cinlet for our data this gives 0.009 = * Cinlet hence 4 Cinlet = 0.346 m/s & Similar for the outlet, outlet diameter 59mm we can find the outlet velocity V = Aoutlet * Coutlet π *0.0592 for our data this gives 0.009 = * Coutlet hence 4 Coutlet = 3.29 m/s _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  7. 7. Inserting this and the fact that the static pressure, for this student data at the inlet is 4.2 Bar into the modified Bernoulli’s equation gives (0.97 *1000) *0.3462 (0.97 *1000) *3.292 4.2*105 + = P2 + i.e. 2 2 420058.1 = P2 + 5249.7 hence P2 = 414808 N/m2 = (4.148 Bar) The X component of this pressure is Poutlet _ x = Poutlet CosA = 362795 N/m2. F Since P = it is also true that F = P * A hence the force due to this pressure at the outlet A is π * D2 Fx _ pressure _ out = 362795* which, for this case, is 4 π *0.0592 Fx _ pressure _ out = 362795* 4 Fx _ pressure _ out = 992 N The Force, due to the pressure at the inlet can also be found i.e. π *0.1822 Fx _ pressure _ in = 4.2*105 * = 10928 N 4 The NET FORCE in the X direction, due to pressure, is Fx _ pressure _ out − Fx _ pressure _ in which is Fx _ pressure _ NET = 992 – 10928 = -9936 N Similarly for the Y component of pressure at the outlet this is Poutlet _ y = Poutlet SinA = 201101 N/m2. The force in the Y direction due to the outlet pressure is therefore, π *0.0592 Fy _ pressure = 201101* = 550 N. 4 Due to the bends’ geometry it can be seen that there is no force in the Y direction, due to pressure, at the inlet. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  8. 8. The NET FORCE in the Y direction, due to pressure, is Fy _ pressure _ out − Fy _ pressure _ in which is Fy _ pressure _ NET = 550 – 0 = 550 N The force also needs to be found due to the acceleration. i.e. the F = ma terms still have to be included. Again, since the procedure was outlined step by step for Q1 that detail will not be covered again. The following does however list important check points for your use. X component of exit velocity = 2.879 m/s Y component of exit velocity = 1.596 m/s X component of inlet velocity = 0.346 m/s Y component of inlet velocity = 0.0 m/s The mass flow rate is m = ρ AC which, for this data set, is 8.73 kg/s. & The Force in the X direction due to acceleration is Fx _ acceleration = m *(Coutlet _ x − Cinlet _ x ) i.e. Fx _ acceleration = 8.73* (2.879 − 0.346) = 22 N The TOTAL X wise Force is therefore the Fx _ acceleration + Fx _ pressure Fx _ Total = Fx _ acceleration + Fx _ pressure = 22 + (-9936) = - 9914 N. The Force in the Y direction due to acceleration is Fy _ acceleration = m *(Coutlet _ y − Cinlet _ y ) i.e. Fy _ acceleration = 8.73*(1.596 − 0.0) = 14 N The TOTAL Y wise Force is therefore the Fx _ acceleration + Fx _ pressure Fy _ Total = Fy _ acceleration + Fy _ pressure = 14 + 550 = 564 N. The NET FORCE is FN = Fx2 + Fy2 which, using the above calculated data is FN = −99142 + 5642 = 9951 N _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  9. 9. Fy 550 The direction of this force on the fluid is Direction = ATAN ( ) which is ATAN ( ) = Fx −9914 3.3° therefore the angle from the horizontal surface is 180 – 3.3 = 176.7° But the question asks for the force on the SURFACE i.e. in this case this is -3.3° but since the question specifically asks for this measurement to be presented anti-clockwise the answer that should be given is 360 – 3.3 = 356.7° Hence the FORCE ON THE SURFACE is 9951 N and the direction is 360°- 3.3° = 356.7° (measured anti clockwise). This is shown graphically below. 356.7 176.7 Fr = 9951 N FY = 3.3 564 N FX = -9914 N If you see any errors or can offer any suggestions for improvements then please e-mail me at m.b.russell@herts.ac.uk _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire
  10. 10. Credits This resource was created by the University of Hertfordshire and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme. © University of Hertfordshire 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. The name of the University of Hertfordshire, UH and the UH logo are the name and registered marks of the University of Hertfordshire. To the fullest extent permitted by law the University of Hertfordshire reserves all its rights in its name and marks which may not be used except with its written permission. The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence. The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ WATS 8. Mark Russell (2005) Student number 51 School of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering University of Hertfordshire

×