About 5% of women will loose more than 1000 mls of blood during normal vaginal delivery. ICD-10 Describes PPH as blood loss of more than 500ml for vaginal delivery and 750 mls for Cesarean section. Old methods for estimating blood loss include visual, gravimetric, collection into pans etc. Acid haematin techniques, spectrophometric, plasma volume changes.
Postpartum hemorrhage for undergraduate
DefinitionBlood loss > 500 ml at vaginal delivery > 1000 ml at CesareanACOG 10% drop in hematocrit Need for blood transfusionSevere PPH > 1000 ml loss at vaginal deliveryAny amount of blood loss causesS/O Hypovolemic Hemorrhagic Shock- Tachycardia - Hypotension - Reduced urine out put
Why it is important? PPH remained one of the top 3 causes of direct maternal deaths. Incidence 4% after vaginal delivery 6,5% after CS delivery
We have 4 problems Problem 1: almost 50% of deliveries lose >500 ml of blood. Problem 2: estimated blood loss is often less than half the actual blood loss. Problem 3: Most of the serious causes of “PPH” have origins prior to the end of the 3rd Stage of labor. Problem 4: PPH, as defined, is technically misdiagnosed and clinically irrelevant.
Measuring Blood Loss A key step to EFFECTIVE TREATMENT….. Underestimation leads to delayed intervention. Visual estimated amounts of blood loss are far from accurate by as much as 30-50%: especially for very large amounts. Old methods for estimating blood loss tend to be complex. (include weighing soaked clothes and pads, collection into pans etc., Acid haematin techniques, Spectrophometric technics and measuring plasma volume changes)
Prevention of PostpartumHemorrhage Oxytocin With or soon after delivery Cord traction Continues tension Gentle pull with contraction Uterine massage after placental delivery
Goals of Therapy•Maintain the following: Systolic pressure >90mm Hg Urine output >0.5 mL/kg/hr Normal mental status•Eliminate the source of hemorrhage•Avoid overzealous volume replacementthat may contribute to pulmonary edema
Management Protocol • Examine the uterus to rule out atony • Examine the vagina and cervix to rule out lacerations; repair if present • Explore the uterus and perform curettage to rule out retained placenta
On recognition ofHemorrhage1. Initiate volume replacement with lactated ringers or normal saline.2. Alert blood bank and surgical team.3. Control the blood loss.4. Initiate decisive therapy.5. Monitor for complications.
MANAGEMENT of Uterine atony uterus for retained placental1. Explore tissue.2. Uterine massage3Firm bimanual compression
management of uterineatony Cont’4-Ecobolics “uterotonic agents” • Oxytocin infusion, 40 units in 1 liter of D5RL • Methergine 0.2 mg IM • 15-methyl prostglandin F2a, 0.25 to 0.50 mg intramuscularly; may be repeated • , PGE1 200 mg, or PGE2 20 mg are second line drugs in appropriate patients
Vaginal exploration General anesthesia usually best Uterine cavity manual exploration for retained placenta / uterine rupture
Bakri Balloon is a tamponadetechnique that can be used forPPH. 24
When medical managament fails SURGICAL MANAGEMENT Uterus conserving : NEED OF TIME Definitive - Hysterectomy
MANAGEMENT”cont’” If Hemorrhage is not controlled by medications, massage, manual uterine exploration, or suturing lacerations in the birth canal, then surgical or radiological options must be considered. At this time, start: 1. Packed red blood cell transfusion 2. Foley catheter and monitor urine output
Selective Artertial Embolization If the patient is stable and bleeding is not “torrential”, and if interventional radiology is available, then pelvic arteriography may show the site of blood loss and therapeutic arterial embolization may suffice to stop the bleeding.
Uterine artery embolization Real time X-Ray (Fluoroscopy) Gelatin Sponges are injected into the bleeding vessel until stasis of flow in target vessel is achieved. Acess via RTfemorals to internal iliac and subsequently the uterine arteries
Pre embolization vs. .post embolization Pre Embolization Post Embolization
Laparotomy for ObstetricHemorrhage: - Bleeding at Cesarean section - “Torrential” Hemorrhage - Pelvic hematoma (expanding) - Bleeding uncontroled by other means
AT laparotomy Consider vertical abdominal incision General anesthesia usually best Get Help! Avoid compounding problems by making major mistakes Direct manual uterine compression / uterotonics Direct aortic compression Modified B-Lynch Suture for atony: #2 chromic Ligation of uterine and utero-ovarian vessels: #1 chromic
Sutures are placed to ligate theascending uterine artery and theanastomotic branch of the ovarianartery. 37
Internal iliac (hypogastric) arteryligation 50% success rate Desirous of children Experience of surgeon Steps: Palpate common iliac bifurcation Ligate at least 2-3 cm from bifurcation #1 silk. Do not divide vessel
Repaire of cervical laceration Palpate uterine cavity to assure its integrity Full thickness mucosal repair above the apex Contionous interlocking absorbable sutures Hematoma incised,clot removed,bleeding vessels ligated ,oblitrate defect with interlocking sutures Antibiotics& vaginal pack for 24 hours .
Uterine Rupture Prior Cesarean section = 1-2% Modern obstetrics = 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 in unscarred uterus In “Neglected labors”, this accounts for many maternal deaths where modern obstetrical care is not available.
Classic Symptoms of UterineRupture Fetal distress Vaginal bleeding Cessation of labor Shock Easily palpable fetal parts Loss of uterine catheter pressure
Management of Uterine Rupture Laparotomy Debride and repair in 2-3 layers of Maxon/PDS Subtotal Hysterectomy Total Hysterectomy
Management of Abnormal Placentation Diagnosis of exclusion after adressing tone and truma Curettage of uterine cavity Localized resection and uterine repair: (Vasopressin 1cc/10cc N.S-sub endometrial) Leave placenta in situ If not bleeding: Methotrexate Uterus will not be normal size by 8 weeks Uterine, utero-ovarian, hypogastric artery ligation Subtotal/ total abdominal hysterectomy
Post-Hysterectomy Bleeding Patient usually has DIC – Rx with whole blood, FFP, platelets, etc. Transvaginal or transabdominal (pelvic) pressure pack Bowel bag with opening pulled through vagina cuff/ abd. Wall Stuff with 4 inch gauze tied end-to-end until pelvis packed tight
Military Anti-Shock Trousers(MAST) Increases pelvic and abdominal pressure to reduce bleeding Can use at any point in the procedure Used when exploration is to be avoided
Secondary PPH Defined as excessive bleeding 24 hrs to 12 weeks postpartum. Incidence is about 1 percent of women. Theory is that thought to be atony or subinvolution of placental site from retained products or infection. 47
Management of Secondary PPH Evaluate for underlying disorders (coagulopathies). For atony give uterotonics. If large amount of bleeding, fever uterine tenderness, or foul smelling discharge treat for endometritis. Consider suction currettage. 48
Case 1 A 22y/o G1P0 was delivered by vaccum assisted vaginal delivery approximately 2 hours ago. She was induced for mild preeclampsia at 37 weeks and required pitocin augmentation for several hours prior to needing an operative vaginal delivery for fetal distress. She had a second degree laceration that was repaired, but she has soaked a whole pad in the last 15 minutes and the nurse would like you to evaluate her. 49
Case 2 A 22 yo G4P3 approximately 4 days s/p delivery presents at OB triage and mentions to you that she feels lightheaded and has been having bleeding at about a pad an hour for the last 2 days. 50
Case3 A 34yo G6P6 patient at term has just delivered a 4000gm infant after second stage of labor lasting 3 ½ hours. The placenta delivered spontaneously and the patient is bleeding briskly. What is most probable cause? What the next step?