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  • 1. INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT A REPORT On PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL IN EICHER TRACTORS, MANDIDEEP Under the guidance of Prof. ……………Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 1
  • 2. A REPORT ON “STUDY OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM IN EICHER TRACTORS, MANDIDEEP” By …………. A report submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirement of MBA program of GGITMSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 2
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is a great sense of satisfaction and a matter of privilege to me towork with Eicher Tractors, Mandideep. I wish to express myheartiest thanks to Mr. ……….., Head of PPC Department, EicherTractors, Mandideep for providing me the opportunity to do thisproject in the esteemed organization.It is my pleasure to thank Mr……….., Executive PPC Departmentand Mr……….., Assistant manager, Eicher Tractors, Mandideep towhom I owe a lot for giving me time to do my project in thisorganization.The project would not be a success without the constant andvaluable guidance of Ms……….., my project guide, who isrendering all sorts of help as and when required. ………………...Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 3
  • 4. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr…………., student of MBA 2nd Semester,Institute of Management, has completed his Winter Project onProduction Planning and control of Eicher Tractors, Mandideep,under the guidance of Ms………….Date SignatureSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 4
  • 5. Project Title : Production Planning and Control in Eicher Tractors, MandideepAbstract : The project has been developed to identify theneed and importance of PPC i.e. Production Planning and Controlin manufacturing industry. Production planning is done with theobjective of coordination of materials with suppliers, efficientutilization of people and machines, efficient flow of materials, andcommunication with customers.Various activities are supported by Production Planning andControl like- Materials Planning, Purchasing, Raw Material,Inventory Control, Capacity Planning, Scheduling Machine andPeople, WIP Inventory Control, Coordinate Customer Orders,Finished Goods Inventory Control.Production planning and control facilitates in various ways like-optimum utilization of capacity, inventory control, ensures quality,and economy in production time.Production Planning is accompanied with Control Mechanism toensure desired results. Results are compared with plans, if anydeviation is found revision of plan is done. Hence, ProductionControl is an adjusting process, providing corrective measures forplanned development.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 5
  • 6. TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgement iCertificate iiAbstract iii 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Eicher Tractors 1.2 Objective of project 1.3 Production Function 1.4 Introduction to PPC 1.5 Steps in PPC 1.6 Sources and methods 2. Main Text 2.1 Company Profile 2.2 Interpretation of data 2.3 PPC at Eicher Tractors, Mandideep 2.4 Process of PPC 2.5 Findings 2.6 Conclusion 2.7Recommendations 3. References 4. GlossarySearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 6
  • 7. INTRODUCTIONSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 7
  • 8. 1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction to Eicher Tractors, MandideepEicher began its business operations in 1959 with the roll out ofIndias first tractor. Today the Eicher Group is a significant playerin the Indian automobile industry with a gross sales turnover ofover Rs. 13,700 million in the year 2002-03Eicher tractor has been awarded ISO-14001Today, Eicher Tractors is unbeatable leader in product range ofengines in the 22 HP to 32 HP and gensets in the 15 KVA to 30KVA categories.Eicher Tractors, Mandideep is wholly owned subsidiary of TafeMotors Tractors Ltd.The Eicher Group started in 1948 when the Goodearth Companywas set up to sell and service imported tractors in India. Perceivingan urgent need to mechanize Indian agriculture, the Company setup a tractor manufacturing facility i.e. Eicher Tractors Ltd. in 1959in collaboration with Gebr. Eicher, Germany in India.1.2 Objectives of the StudyObjective of the study is to prove that the production planning andcontrol practices has impact on the efficient utilization of theresources, waste reduction, reduce waiting time and processing,thus contributing to the profitability of the industry. On thesepremise the study accentuated to address questions in order toachieve the following objectives:Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 8
  • 9. (a) To know how the production planning contributes to theefficient use of facilities and equipments.(b) To know the effects of Production Planning and Control onProduction function.(c) To know whether production planning and control practiceslead to waste reduction and increased profit.(d) To prove that short term production planning and schedulingtechniques employed by industries, is necessary in minimizingprocess and customer waiting time.1.3 Production FunctionAfter taking decisions about the type of business, its location,layout etc. the entrepreneur steps into the shoe of productionmanager and attempts to apply managerial principles to theproduction function in an enterprise. Production is a processwhereby raw material is converted into semi finished products andthereby adds to the value of utility of products, which can bemeasured as the difference between the value of inputs and valueof outputs.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 9
  • 10. A Typical Manufacturing Systems Materials SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS Machines People Raw Materials Finished ProductsProduction function encompasses the activities of procurement,allocation and utilization of resources. The main objective ofproduction function is to produce the goods and services demandedby the customers in the most efficient and economical way.Therefore efficient management of the production function is ofutmost importance in order to achieve this objective. Productionmanagement involves the managerial decisions regarding design ofthe product and design of the production system i.e. determinationof production processes and production planning and control.1.4 Production Planning and ControlOnce the entrepreneur has taken the decisions regarding theproduct design and production processes and system, his next taskis to take steps for production planning and control, as this functionis essentially required for efficient and economical production.Planned Production is the ability to look ahead, organize andcoordinate and having plenty of driving force and capacity to leadand ability to supervise and coordinate work and simulates hisassociates by means of a programme of human relation andorganization of employees.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 10
  • 11. Production Planning and Control involve generally theorganization and planning of manufacturing process. Especially itconsists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatchinginspection, and coordination, control of materials, methodsmachines, tools and operating times. The ultimate objective is theorganization of the supply and movement of materials and labour,machines utilization and related activities, in order to bring aboutthe desired manufacturing results in terms of quality, quantity, timeand place.Production planning without production control is like a bankwithout a bank manager, planning initiates action while control isan adjusting process, providing corrective measures for planneddevelopment. Production control regulates and stimulates theorderly how of materials in the manufacturing process from thebeginning to the end.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 11
  • 12. 1.5 Steps in PPCProduction Planning and Control (PPC) is a process that comprisesthe performance of some critical; functions on either side, viz.,planning as well as control. Production Planning and control Production Planning Production Control Planning Dispatching Routing Following up Scheduling Inspection Loading CorrectiveProduction planningProduction planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeingevery step in a long series of separate operations, each step to betaken at the right time and in the right place and each operation tobe performed in maximum efficiency. It helps entrepreneur towork out the quantity of material manpower, machine and moneyrequires for producing predetermined level of output in givenperiod of time.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 12
  • 13. RoutingUnder this, the operations, their path and sequence are established.To perform these operations the proper class of machines andpersonnel required are also worked out. The main aim of routing isto determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and toensure that this sequence is strictly followed. In small enterprises,this job is usually done by entrepreneur himself in a ratheradhoc manner. Routing procedure involves following differentactivities.(1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and whatto buy.(2) To determine the quality and type of material(3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence.(4) A determination of lot sizes(5) Determination of scrap factors(6) An analysis of cost of the article(7) Organization of production control forms.SchedulingIt means working out of time that should be required to performeach operation and also the time necessary to perform the entireseries as routed, making allowances for all factors concerned. Itmainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. Thepattern of scheduling differs from one job to another which isexplained as below:Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 13
  • 14. Production schedule: The main aim is to schedule that amount ofwork which can easily be handled by plant and equipment withoutinterference. Its not independent decision as it takes into accountfollowing factors.(1) Physical plant facilities of the type required to process thematerial being scheduled.(2) Personnel who possess the desired skills and experience tooperate the equipment and perform the type of work involved.(3) Necessary materials and purchased parts.Master Schedule: Scheduling usually starts with preparation ofmaster schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of theproduction requirement for each product for a definite time period,by having this as a running record of total production requirementsthe entrepreneur is in better position to shift the production fromone product to another as per the changed production requirements.This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling acclivities. Amaster schedule is followed by operator schedule which fixes totaltime required to do a piece of work with a given machine or whichshows the time required to do each detailed operation of a givenjob with a given machine or process.Manufacturing schedule: It is prepared on the basis of type ofmanufacturing process involved. It is very useful where single orfew products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals.Thus it would show the required quality of each product andsequence in which the same to be operatedScheduling of Job order manufacturing: Scheduling acquiresgreater importance in job order manufacturing. This will enable thespeedy execution of job at each center point.As far as small scale industry is concerned scheduling is of utmostimportance as it brings out efficiency in the operations and sreduces cost price. The small entrepreneur should maintain fourtypes of schedules to have a close scrutiny of all stages namely anSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 14
  • 15. enquiry schedule, a production schedule, a shop schedule and anarrears schedule out of above four, a shop schedule is the mostimportant most suited to the needs of small scale industry as itenables a foreman to see at a glance.1. The total load on any section2. The operational sequence3. The stage, which any job has reached.LoadingThe next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the routechalked out it includes the assignment of the work to the operatorsat their machines or work places. So loading determines who willdo the work as routing determines where and schedulingdetermines when it shall be done. Gantt Charts are most commonlyused in small industries in order to determine the existing load andalso to foresee how fast a job can be done. The usefulness of theirtechnique lies in the fact that they compare what has been done andwhat ought to have been done.Most of a small scale enterprise fails due to non-adherence todelivery schedules therefore they can be successful if they haveability to meet delivery order in time which no doubt depends uponproduction of quality goods in right time. It makes all the moreimportant for entrepreneur to judge ahead of time what should bedone, where and when thus to leave nothing to chance once thework has begun.Production controlProduction control is the process of planning production inadvance of operations, establishing the extract route of eachSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 15
  • 16. individual item part or assembly, setting, starting and finishing foreach important item, assembly or the finishing production andreleasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessaryfollow-up to have the smooth function of the enterprise. Theproduction control is of complicated nature in small industries. Theproduction planning and control department can function at its bestin small scale unit only when the work manager, the purchasemanager, the personnel manager and the financial controller assistin planning production activities. The production controllerdirectly reports to the works manager but in small scale unit, all thethree functions namely material control, planning and control areoften performed by the entrepreneur himself production controlstarts with dispatching and ends up with corrective actions.DispatchingDispatching involves issue of production orders for starting theoperations. Necessary authority and conformation is given for:1. Movement of materials to different workstations.2. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation.3. Beginning of work on each operation.4. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation.5. Movement of work from one operation to another in accordancewith the route sheet.6. Inspecting or supervision of workDispatching is an important step as it translates production plansinto production.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 16
  • 17. Follow upEvery production programme involves determination of theprogress of work, removing bottlenecks in the flow of work andensuring that the productive operations are taking place inaccordance with the plans. It spots delays or deviations from theproduction plans. It helps to reveal detects in routing andscheduling, misunderstanding of orders and instruction, underloading or overloading of work etc. All problems or deviations areinvestigated and remedial measurer are undertaken to ensure thecompletion of work by the planned date.Inspection: This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can berequired as effective agency of production control.Corrective measures: Corrective action may involve any of thoseactivities of adjusting the route, rescheduling of work changing theworkloads, repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment,control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poorperformance of the employees. Certain personnel decisions liketraining, transfer, demotion etc. may have to be taken. Alternatemethods may be suggested to handle peak loads.InspectionThis is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required aseffective agency of production control.Corrective measuresCorrective action may involve any of those activities of adjustingthe route, rescheduling of work changing the workloads, repairsand maintenance of machinery or equipment, control overinventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of theSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 17
  • 18. employees. Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer,demotion etc. may have to be taken. Alternate methods may besuggested to handle peak loads.1.6 MethodologyThe study is carried out at Eicher Tractors, Mandideep.Productions officers are likewise selected who serve as therespondents of the study. The study extensively explores both theprimary and secondary sources of information.Pertinent information is gathered from the respondents using astructured questionnaire. The structured questionnaire is consists ofdescriptive questions to get the description of various aspects ofProduction Planning and Control. The initial questions are to coverthe variables characterizing the various production planning andcontrol practices such as demand forecasting, inventory, capacityutilization, and scheduling techniques while the last segment willpurely on Control practices.Unstructured personal interview is also conducted in order toaugment the responses that may not be explicitly cleared in thequestionnaire. Like this the data is properly collected, organized,and presented.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 18
  • 19. MAIN TEXTSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 19
  • 20. 2. MAIN TEXT2.1 Company ProfileEicher Tractors, MandideepThe Eicher Group started in 1948 when the Goodearth Companywas set up to sell and service imported tractors in India. Perceivingan urgent need to mechanize Indian agriculture, the Company setup a tractor manufacturing facility i.e. Eicher Tractors Limited in1959 in collaboration with Gebr. Eicher, Germany in India. Thefirst Indian tractor rolled out of Eichers factory at Faridabad inIndia, in 1960.Today, there are over 4,00,000 Eicher tractors that contribute to thenations agricultural development. Eichers manufacturing andmarketing facilities located at Faridabad have been awarded ISO9001 certification.Eicher Tractors has a technology transfer tie-up with Valtra, Inc ofFinland. It has an extensive network of over 400 tractor dealers andaround 56 engine dealers across India with 15 regional offices and12 depots.Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 20
  • 21. Committed to providing high quality products, Eicher investssignificantly in technology resources and infrastructure. Ourmanufacturing facilities are spread across three states:Highlights • Wide range of tractors, from 61 HP to 24 HP offering the best value for money. • Product range includes air-cooled and water-cooled engines. • Highly fuel efficient machines, with low maintenance costs. • Conforming to international emission norms.Product range also includes engines in the 22 HP to 32 HP andgensets in the 15 KVA to 30 KVA categoriesSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 21
  • 22. 2.2 Interpretation of DataQ1. Do you think production planning and control is central tothe success of any manufacturing unit?If Yes, then how?Options Yes NoResponse 10 0 No 0% Yes 100%InterpretationAll the 100% respondents believe that production planning andcontrol is central to the success of any manufacturing unit.Production planning and control gives direction to the best use ofcapacity with optimum utilization of production line, resources,and other equipments. It helps in waste reduction and leads toincreased profitability.Q2 Capacity planning contributes to the efficient use offacilities and equipments?Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 22
  • 23. If Yes then how?Options Yes NoResponse 8 2 Yes 80% No 20%InterpretationMost of the respondents i.e. 80% are in favor of the statement that“capacity Planning contributes to the efficient use of facility andequipments.”Proper Capacity planning leads to optimum utilization of capacityreduces idle time, under or over utilization of capacity.Q3. What are the main objectives of Production Planning? a) Optimum Utilization of CapacitySearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 23
  • 24. b) Inventory control c) Economy in Production Time d) Ensure Quality e) Waste reduction and increased profitOptions A b c d EResponse 8 6 4 2 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 a b c d eInterpretationAll the respondents believe that waste reduction and increasedprofit is the main objective of production planning, some of themalso believe that optimum utilization of capacity is anotherobjective of production planning.The other objective of production planning is inventory control,economy in production time, and quality insurance.Q4. Production Planning and Capacity Planning areinterrelated?Search more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 24
  • 25. If yes then how?Options Yes NoResponse 7 3 Yes 70% No 30%InterpretationMajority of the respondents i.e. 70% believe that productionplanning and capacity planning are interrelated. Long termProduction planning becomes the basis of capacity planning. Sizeof production and type of production depends on capacity, henceboth are interrelated.Q5. Since, capacity can’t always be added or subtractedinstantaneously; there will be mismatch of load and capacity.What are its effects? a) Lead time get affected b) Increase in costSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 25
  • 26. c) Hurts the ability to satisfy customers d) Other effectsPlease specify other effects (if any)Options a b c dResponse 0 9 10 2 10 8 6 4 2 0 a b c dInterpretationAlmost all respondents believe in the above statement. Accordingto them mismatch in load and capacity, leads to customerdissatisfaction and increase in cost. If the capacity is low anddemand is high, orders will not be completed on time. If load isless and capacity is more then requirement it will lead to inefficientuse of capacity, hence, cost of production will increase.As lead time is calculated on the basis of available capacity it hasno effect on lead time.Other effects can be increase in cost by increasing man power andplant maintenance, and delay in delivery to customers.Q6. On what basis do you plan your production? a) Customer needs (demand) b) Target of Marketing Dept. c) Resources available d) Other factorsSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 26
  • 27. Please specify other factors (if any) Options a b c d Response 8 0 10 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 a b c dInterpretationAccording to the data collected from the respondents theproduction planning of Eicher Tractors, Mandideep is based oncustomer need i.e. dealers demand for particular models, and alsoon the basis of resources available.The marketing department reports to the PPC/Store about dealers’requirements. PPC/Store communicates with the materialdepartment about availability of material. Hence, market demandand availability of resources is considered as base for productionplans.Q7. Do you feel or experienced “hung up” and “bottlenecks” inimplementing Production Plans. a) Yes b) NoSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 27
  • 28. If yes then what type of bottlenecks?Options Yes NoResponse 4 6 No 60% Yes 40%InterpretationMajority of the respondents i.e. 60% are in against of thestatement, hence, all the department works in integration. Heads ofall the department sits together and prepares plans which areproperly applicable.There are people who experienced bottlenecks like- sequencechange due to non availability of material, and transforming onemodel to other due to requirement of specific model.Q8. How do current Production Planning and CapacityPlanning methods account for bottlenecks.InterpretationSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 28
  • 29. Current production planning and capacity planning highly dependson material available and material in transit. The non availabilityof material and delay in transportation of material hindersexecution of plans properly. Due to this too many changes in dailyand weekly plans takes place.Sometimes lack of coordination between PPC/Store, productiondepartment, and Quality control department creates problem ofrework and repair.Q9. Previously what measures have been taken to avoid suchbottlenecks?InterpretationAs the main source of bottleneck is timely not availability ofmaterial. So, proper care is taken of the material providers,transportation of material, and inventory of material. Followingmeasures have been taken to avoid such bottlenecks: • Multiple vendors being developed for most of the items. • Proper inventory level is being asked to maintain. • Planning being done with the best availability of materialQ10. If results are not according to the plans, what controlmeasures are taken? a) Revision of PlanSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 29
  • 30. b) Any other measures.Please specify other measures (if any)Options Revision of Plan Other measuresResponse 10 0 Other Measures 0% Revision of Plan 100%InterpretationIf the results are OK wait until next control period. If not OK,revision of plan is required to be done. At present people of EicherTractors do not have any other solution except revision of plan tocontrol deviations in plans and results.2.3 Production Planning and Control at EicherTractors, MandideepSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 30
  • 31. Production plan is crucial to the success of any producing unit; it isan activity which is continues in nature and required to be revisedtime to time as per the requirements. It can’t be done in isolationby a particular department; rather it is an integrated activity doneby Planning and Control Department in collaboration with MaterialDepartment, Production Department, and Quality ControlDepartment. The heads of various departments of Eicher Tractorssits together and Plans there monthly, weekly, and dailyproduction.2.4 Process of Production Planning 1. Marketing Department – Monthly details of Market demandProduction planning starts from the market details provided byMarketing Department. Marketing Department provides theremonthly requirements like- number of tractors, specific models,specific color, capacity etc. 2. PPC/Store – Preliminary Production PlanPPC/Store receives message of monthly requirements frommarketing department. PPC studies the requirements and prepare aPreliminary Production Plan. This plan is sent to the MaterialsDepartment. 3. Material Department – Material requirements planningA copy of preliminary plan is sent to the material department.Material department studies the plan and prepares a report whichshows the availability of material, material in transit, plan ofreceipt of material in chronological form, expected shortage ofSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 31
  • 32. material, and any other problem related to the material. MaterialsRequirements Planning (MRP) can be used in more complexsystems. MRP determines time-phased requirements (period-by-period) for all purchased and manufactured parts such as rawmaterials, components, parts, subassemblies, etc. . This report issent to the PPC Department 4. PPC–Revision of preliminary Production plan.On the basis of the report sent by material department, thePPC/Store revises the preliminary plan. This revised plan is sent tothe marketing department. Marketing department revises theschedule of requirements according to the availability andsequence/schedule of receipt of material. 5. Production Planning and Master Production SchedulingAfter the consent of marketing department and material departmentthe monthly Production Plan and weekly master productionscheduling is done. A copy of main plan and master productionschedule is sent to each department. 6. Daily Production PlanEvery day in morning the production head, quality head, andmaterial head sits together, discuss there problems, andSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 32
  • 33. unanimously prepares a daily production plan. This dailyproduction plan is displayed on planning board of everydepartment and at every level of assembly line. This dailyproduction plan shows sequence of operations, sequence andschedule of material movement, post pending material, pre pendingmaterial, and shortage of material. This daily plan is automaticallyget updated with the completion of operations at every level. 7. ControlIn results are not according to the Daily Plans, the plan is requiredto be revised. Daily Production Plan is revised number of timesconsidering the material shortages, problems with assembly line,etc. if material is post pending i.e. on assembly line its operationcan’t be changed, but, changes can be made in the sequence andscheduling of pre pending material i.e. material in queue. Effortsare made to plan a sequence which minimizes the idle time ofassembly line, labour, and other equipments.2.5 FindingsSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 33
  • 34. The PPC department of Eicher Tractors, Mandideep believes inmaking plans and decisions unanimously, in cooperation withproduction department, marketing department, materialdepartment, and quality control department. So that a feasible plancan be made, executed properly, and optimum results can beachieved. Hence, production planning and control is an integratedactivity and can’t be done in isolation by any particulardepartment.Following are the findings of this project about productionplanning and control activities of Eicher Tractors: 1. Production Planning is an integrated activity and cannot be done in isolation by a particular department. 2. PPC helps in scheduling tasks and production runs and ensures production capacity does not remain idle and there is no undue queuing of tasks via proper allocation of tasks to the production facilities. 3. Proper PPC helps to resort to just- in- time systems and thereby reduce the overall inventory. It enables to ensure that the right supplies are available at the right time. 4. PPC helps to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnover via proper scheduling. 5. PPC provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality of output is ensured.To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to theentrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. Moreimportantly it improves his response time and quality. As sucheffective PPC contributes to time, quality and cost parameters ofentrepreneurial success.2.6 ConclusionSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 34
  • 35. After doing this project I am in position to conclude that EicherTractors, Mandideep has well defined and structured productionplanning system. PPC defines the sequences and schedules ofoperations; hence production planning contributes to the efficientuse of facilities and equipments.PPC is done to identify production process which leads to reducedlead time; hence customer waiting time is also reduced.PPC ensures optimum utilization of production capacity, material,and other equipments; hence it leads to waste reduction andincreased profits.2.7 RecommendationsThe production planning and control of Eicher Tractors,Mandideep, highly depends on the material availability. In case ofshortage of material the overall plan get disturbed. If such problemprevails the optimum results cannot be achieved. To avoid suchproblem following measures can be taken: a. Proper Materials Planning done, b. Materials must be purchased from multiple vendors, c. Sufficient safety stock must be maintained, d. Lead time and responsibility must be fixed at the part of vendors. 3. REFERENCESSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 35
  • 36. Books: 1. Harris, g, attour, s, 2003 The National advertising practices of multinational companies; a content analysis study. European journal of marketing volume 37, no ½; 154-168 2. MacKenzie, I.2004 English for business studies - A curse for business studies and economics students. Cambridge, United Kingdom; 3. Nardi, P.2003. Doing Survey Research – A Guide to Quantitative Method.Websites: 1. www.wikipedia.org 2. www.tmtl.com 3. www.eichertractors.inSearch more Project Reports at MBA eNotes Page 36

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