Rational Ethics Evaluation 971020 [Compatibility Mode]


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Rational Ethics Evaluation 971020 [Compatibility Mode]

  1. 1. NTUST MBA Lecture The Critical Milestones of Ethics and Its Managerial Effect Model 企業道德的發展關鍵及其行 效益計量 Professor Andrew B.C. Huang Taiwan University of Science and technology Management School huang.prof@gmail.com h f@ il 2008 Summer
  2. 2. 3 Elements of Capitalism and the credit is the key • Wide extension of credit;私人關係的信用借款 廣泛通行 於是 私人關係的信用借款,廣泛通行,於是 資金流通; • Impersonal management;產業所有人以聘請方式聘用經理,因 之企業組織擴大,超過本人耳目足能監視的程度; 之企業組織擴大 超過本人耳目足能監視的程度 • Pooling of service facilities.技能上的支持與交通通訊等的運 用,使企業經濟力量超過本自活動範圍。 • What’s more, the 3 elements be functioned well by the credit basing on the protection of law. 李約瑟與黃仁 宇1978年就資本主義的對談,取自《放寬歷史的視野》 • Credit is money, and Time is money : Max Weber in “The Spirits of Capitalism”. • Then, the question: “where’s the credit come from?”
  3. 3. Prisoner's Dilemma A problem in game theory • In its quot;classicalquot; form the prisoner s classical form, prisoner's dilemma (PD) is presented as follows: – Two suspects are arrested by the prosecutor. The prosecutor has insufficient evidence for a conviction, , and, having separated both prisoners, – visit each of them to offer the same deal. – If one testifies (quot;defectsquot;) for the prosecution against the other and the other remains silent, the betrayer goes free and the silent accomplice receives the full 10-year sentence. – If both remain silent, both prisoners are None- Cooperate Defect sentenced t only 5 years i j il f a t d to l in jail for Zero-Sum minor charge. Prisoner A Prisoner A – If each betrays the other, each receives Game (Deny) (Commit) a five-year sentence. – Each prisoner must choose to betray Cooperate Sentence Sentence the other or to remain silent. Prisoner B 5.5. years 0.10 – Each one is assured that the other (Deny) would not know about the betrayal before the end of the investigation. Defect Sentence Sentence How should the prisoners act? Prisoner B Pi 10.0 10.10 (Commit)
  4. 4. Trust & Information is the Key Why individual Rationality Fail to be Collective • 理性的個人,盲目的群眾 理性的個人 盲目的群眾 • If we assume that each player prefers shorter sentences to longer ones, and that each gets no utility out of lowering the other player's sentence, and that there are no reputation effects from a player s decision then the player's decision, prisoner's dilemma forms a non-zero-sum game in which two players may each quot;cooperatequot; with or quot;defectquot; from (i.e., betray) the other player. • In this game, as in all game theory, the only concern of each individual player (quot;prisonerquot;) is maximizing his/her own payoff, without any concern for the other player's payoff. • The unique equilibrium for this game is a Pareto-suboptimal (not the best) solution—that is, rational choice leads the two players to both play defect even though each player's individual reward would be greater if they both played corporately. ( Individual Rationality VS Collective Irrationality) • One O experiment based on the simple dilemma found that i tb d th i l dil f d th t approximately 40% of participants played quot;cooperatequot;
  5. 5. 商業組織與商業資本 There is an old story in Ming dynasty • Business is much more complex than two persons • 客商之合作始自二人合同經營 • 《李秀卿義結黃貞女》:輪後一人往南京販貨,一人在戶州 發貨討賬,一來一去,不致誤了生理,甚為兩便。 • 為此形態 惟其成功全賴信用 端在兩邊買價 毫厘不欺 為此形態,惟其成功全賴信用,端在兩邊買價,毫厘不欺。 • 亦因此之故,其結構不易擴大,其結果亦難持久。
  6. 6. Chinese Definition of “Cooperate” p 合字難寫,一人一張口 • The word of “cooperate” is very hard to write, since every persons among them have their own mouths with different opinions.. • Each person has one mouth. • It will be fine if “with one mouth: Agree 異口同聲
  7. 7. Chinese Definition of “Corporate” p 個人之慾與利皆要知止且有分際 • Each person’s wants, needs, and self- interests should be bounded with a clear edge (Law ) and a good awareness of limitation (Ethic).
  8. 8. Chinese Definition of “Share” 分字是白刀子進紅刀子出 • Sh Share i t cut the is to t th pile( large amount of money) of benefits or interests in adversely- selected conflicts conflicts. • If it were not well managed, managed the relevant beneficiaries will fight and war each g other to the knife.
  9. 9. Summary • “But h t i ht b th “B t what might be the reality I ethics and values. M lit In thi d l Money, nott morality, is the principle of commerce and commercial nations.” Thomas Jefferson, U.S. President said that in his letter to John Langdon, March 5, 1784. L d M h 5 1784 • It’s truth, the world we live was, is, and will not be 100% perfect. But how could we decide what’s right better than ever, the managerially reasonable, rational, and accountable evaluations should be positive to lead us making ethical decisions. • The payoffs and bribes for instance, probably the most y y frequent source of anxiety for multinationals’ managements operating abroad. What are the options? What’s likely to happen if I don’t pay? It’s really an ethic dilemma. • In this lecture, we will discuss the theories and models mostly being applied, and review the most critical theories in recent ethic development.
  10. 10. Outline • Are human characters natural good or evil? What’s the world of Utopia(烏托邦)and peach garden (桃花源) in business? • What’s matrix of law and ethic, and how to make ethical decisions by manageable approaches and accountable accesses? • The influential milestones and theories in business ethics, and what do those saints and masters want to teach us?
  11. 11. Learning Objectives • Learn a easy method and a quick way of , how to evaluate ethics, • As to be able to make business decisions ethically. ethically
  12. 12. What s What’s the Ideal World That Those Saints Want to Build 烏托邦與桃花源 Utopia and Peach Garden Utopia is a name for an ideal community, taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean, possessing a seemingly perfect socio politico legal system. socio-politico-legal system The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. 桃花源說的是武陵漁夫忽然看到絕美的桃花源,不只風景美,而且沒有君臣、壓迫、戰亂 和欺詐,到處充滿和平、幸福,是晉代詩人陶淵明的理想世界。 和欺詐 到處充滿和平 幸福 是晉代詩人陶淵明的理想世界
  13. 13. Natural Good O Natural Evil aua Or a u a What’s The Reality of Human Behavior • Humanity is natural good or natural evil • 人本是性善或性惡? • This is a not yet ceasing argument till now, and seems have no true answer even in the foreseeable future. • It depends 企業倫理的核心議題 The Story of Business and Its Development of Ethics Environment is the ecology of ethics
  14. 14. Social and Law Level The law is the basic floor • Ethi l business conduct should normally exist at a l Ethical b i d t h ld ll i t t level l well above the minimum required by law. • Law is the primary instrument of ethical advocacy at the social level, but management should not view law as the means of ensuring ethical behavior and practice.
  15. 15. The Law and Ethic Matrix Searching For Manageable Methods and Accountable Tools Ethical Should Be (What Ought To) Yes No Law Allow (Wha is) yes Legal Responsibility Whistle Blowing Natural Rights and Lay Off Freedoms F d Corruption/Bribe Consumer Protection Economic Responsibility Fair Competition w Business-running Business running No Social Responsibility Profit-making Charity at Social Welfare
  16. 16. 3 Steps Ethical Analysis In Business Application—Velasquez 1984 Step 1: Collect Relevant Information Step2: Analyze the solution being acceptable or not basing on 3 theories: •Utility: Eff i l satisfy all affected persons? U ili Effectively i f ll ff d ? •Rights: Favorably respect all persons’ rights? •Justice: Well Confirm with the standards of justice? Not all no All 3 No All 3 Yes •Any “irrevocable reason”? •Any one factor more important than others? •Any ineffective factor? Any •Double-effect Test No Yes Step3: Decide Unethical Ethical
  17. 17. Case and Example Payoffs and Bribes P ff d B ib • A bride is a payment to someone to secure a sale, or to obtain approval or assistance from an individual or organization (often a government bureaucrat). • Although an accepted part of commercial transactions in many Asia, African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern cultures, it is often against the law in these very some countries.
  18. 18. 3 S eps Ethical Analysis Steps ca a ys s Lockheed and CEO Carl Kotchian • Most of the companies do bribe: In the 1970s, the Securities and Exchange Commission found that the practice of bribing foreign officials was widespread among U.S. multinationals, and 450 companies including p g p g more than 100 Fortune 500 firms admitted to making questionable foreign payments in amounts totaling about $300million. • According to a survey of Journal of Business Ethics, almost half U.S. business professionals said that the bribery behavior was “nevernever acceptable”; 32.5 % , “sometimes acceptable”; and 18.5%, “always acceptable”. • At that time, to give bride to win the deal is quite norm in aircraft industry. And there was no law to regulate the bride action in foreign countries countries. • Lockheed CEO was wondering whether or not to make an estimated $25 million in payments in connection with sales of its Tri-Star L-1011 aircraft in p Japan. • How would you do? If you were Lockheed CEO. And Why?
  19. 19. 3-Steps Ethical Analysis p y Example in Bribe Utility Theory: Focus on creating the greatest balance of benefits Utilit Th over harms, generally giving equal weight to everyone who is affected. Bribe Example: • In short term: shareholders and suppliers could make pp benefit in this bribery deal; • Long run, company will have great possibility to suffer the unpredictable costs (business cost +psychological cost) from the deal; and it might bring the law sue and p public opinions p p punishment ; • So, in the whole, bribe is hard to match the effective standard of utility.
  20. 20. Quantitative Weighting & Congruency Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis • ECMA measures the contribution to corporate • Profits=Revenues -Costs • Adjusting Revenues j g – Derived by products and services (Material revenue); spiritual revenue . financial and investment;Shadow Foreign-exchange premium, • Adjusting Costs Adj i C – Business costs, Labor costs, Materials and service inputs, taxes, tariffs, subsidies, psychological costs • Discounting Di ti – Discounting the project’s life stream of benefits and costs to their present value. – Shadow interest rate. rate
  21. 21. Effect Model of Corporate Behavior 企業行為效益計量模型 “Cost-Benefit” is one of the constructive evaluation method, and Effect of corporate behavior is consequently basing on the same hypothesis. It’s model is: n n n n EFFECT (∑Pi)/(∑Ci)=∑(Ri-Ci)/(∑Ci) EFFECT=( C i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1 • Cost=∑(Business Cost)+∑( Psychological Cost) • Revenue= ∑f( Material Revenue) +∑f( Spiritual Revenue) ∑( ) ∑( p ) • Benefit/Profit = ∑P =∑(R-C)
  22. 22. Economic Congruency Pattern g y The Suitable and Agreeing Line ECBA Rates Of (d) Return Congruency Gains 25% Private Unacceptability Range 20% Congruency 15% Gains 10% Public Unacceptability bl 5% Range 0 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Private Financial Rates of Return
  23. 23. 3-Steps Ethical Analysis p y Example in Bribe • J ti Theory: Justice Th focus on the fairness of society, and the appropriateness of all affected affected. • Bribe Example: • Can Bribe increase the fairness and freedom of the people? Or hurt/harm anyone’s rights? • Are anyone in this government and society having the same chance to or to be bribed? • Can bribe be helpful in upgrading the live standards of low-class people, or at l l l l t least t the extend of acceptable t to th t d f t bl level? And how come to these three? Which is exactly clear,clear and which is not?
  24. 24. 3-Steps Ethical Analysis p y Example in Bribe Rights Theory: Contend people having certain natural rights and that actions such as lying, stealing, etc. are wrong. Bribe Example: • Is this deal against the law? • Does company attack personal privacy, dignity, and freedom? Are there anyone suffering threats? Or being hurt? • I global market, d In l b l k t does it hurt th rights of l h t the i ht f local people? l l ? Or enhance the corruption of local government?
  25. 25. 3-Steps Ethical Analysis p y Example in Bribe Priority d Double-effect T t P i it and D bl ff t Test: Comparing the advantages and disadvantages that the policy and decision will bring; Bribe Example: • How to compromise between advantages and p g disadvantages? And how to make sure the disadvantages will happen in consequence? • Will the disadvantages harm someone’s law and someone s personal rights? • Even the company get the deal, but will this kind of payoffs continually happen?
  26. 26. Ethics and Downsizing/Layoff An Ethical Attention of Top Managers Utility Theory: Net Benefit>Net H Utilit Th N tB fit N t Harm • Do the organization’s effectiveness increase? • Will the organization be able to generate the same gross revenues with profitability by reducing l b costs? d i labor t ? • What’s the law and regulation define? How about it’s relevant cost? b t it’ l t t? • One, 200 layoff, and how do others not layoff think thi k your organization value? D you walk th i ti l ? Do lk the talk? (psychological costs)
  27. 27. Ethics and Downsizing/Layoff An Ethical Attention of Top Managers Rights Theory: Human’s Nature Rights • Have you treated employee (p p ) with dignity y p y (people) g y and respect (human/nature rights), and then- when you get into a downsizing or lay off mode. y g g y • To treat employee with dignity and respect which means you give them advance notice, as much as you possibly can. You provide assistance, if you can, to get placement elsewhere.
  28. 28. Ethics and Downsizing/Layoff An Ethical Attention of Top Managers • J ti Th Justice Theory: Fairness and Truth F i d T th • Have your organization committed to fair play (the powerless could share the better rights) and to treating employee (people) honestly (justice and fair)—then when you get into a downsizing ) y g g or layoff mode • To play fairly and honestly, you do whatever you can: giving i f i i information, h l answers t ti help, to questions. • Believe that employees are not by and large not, large, unreasonable in their expectations. They ought to have answers to the questions. q
  29. 29. Think Creatively Value-added Ethics and Actions • Before making a final decision in ethics be sure that you ethics, haven’t unnecessarily forced yourself into a corner of systematic structure or system; • Sometimes, and quite often, a new value could be generate and add, if you can open your eyes and hearts to the whole world and human life. • Are there any alternatives I can do, or are there any value that I can contribute ? Back to the roots of value. value • 孔子:不憂不懼,是為君子 • 莊子:天地與我並生,萬物與我合一 • 道德的真義: 消遙的創意 (莊子) 海到盡頭天作岸,山登絕頂我為峰
  30. 30. Preferred Ethics and Interests 優位道德與利益 • Source from Preferred Freedoms(優位自由) of laws it happens laws, when the freedoms in conflict, and then which one will be preferred than the others. • In law the freedoms include: law, 1. Equality and Democracy: non-discrimination; 2. Freedom of Contract: Bargaining position’s unfairness due to its originality of power. Antitrust and restrictive trade practices; power Standard-form Contract. 3. The Right of Property; 4. 4 The Right of Association; Except against Public Order Act; 5. Freedom of Labor: 6. Freedom from Want and Social Security;
  31. 31. Preferred Ethics and Interests 優位道德與利益 7. 7 Freedom of Speech and of the Press; Limit of Tolerance忍耐極限,民主政府對於某些特定團体挑撥不 滿情緒時所能忍受之最大程度。The privacy of information source. i f ti 8. Freedom of Religion; 9. 9 Personal Freedom; Travel job and place to live人身自 Travel, job, 由包括任意旅行、納拒聘僱與擇地而居的自由。 10. The Rule of Law;法冶指 due process of law (法律正當 程序),包括司法獨立與任何人除非觸犯適當公佈的特定 程序) 包括司法獨立與任何人除非觸犯適當公佈的特定 法律,否則不受刑事處罰、公平與迅速審判、警察獲取口 供方法之司法節制、被捕在押候審時之對被告提供適適法 律辯護保障。 律辯護保障
  32. 32. The Managerial Strategy To Cross-Cultural Conflicts Highly E hi l Hi hl Ethical Fully-Managed F ll M d Highly U Hi hl Urgent Strategy S Meaning Trend/develop. Problem-solve yes yes yes Nego yes yes no Educate/Coop yes no yes Escape yes no no Educate/Coop no yes yes Escape/Nego/ E /N / Endure no yes no Educate/Coop no no yes Adjust no no no Escape Source: Kohls and Buller, 1994
  33. 33. Self-reinforcing Mechanisms in Ethics g The Ethics as an Evolving Dynamic System • Dynamic Ethic Value: A. A The Structural Theory(概念框架): The Accountable value (可度量的價值) David Ruelle, France Scientist Chance and Chaos Scientist, Chaos,, B. The Basic Theory (理論基礎): Newton Dynamic Th D i Theory and M d l(牛頓力學) 位置 速 d Model(牛頓力學), 位置,速 度和流量+純度
  34. 34. The Model of Ethical Value 道德價值方程式 • N t ’ M d l (Th Newton’s Model (Theory)--Energy=MV²/2 ) E MV²/2 • 牛頓定律=動能(E)=質量(M)乘以速度(V)平方之一半 We therefore evaluate “the value of ethics” basing on the same model by adding some amplification. That is: amplification • The model of Ethical Value=MVPV • M (Greatest Good) V (Greatest Number), Good), Number) • V (Vitality of Time), P( Purity of Ethics) • 道德價值方程式=質(道德價值高低)量(影響人數多少)時間 (信譽時間長短)純度(道德)
  35. 35. The Dynamic System y y Managing Ethics by Accountable Access Ethical Dynamics (E Ethi l D i (Energy)=MVPV=Quantity + Q lit V lidit P it ) MVPV Q tit Quality+ Validity+Purity Source: Newton’s Energy Model=MV²/2=動能是質量乘以速度平方的一半 Purity No illegal Ethical Priority No Unreason Quality-M No Misunderstood Greatest N Quantity— Q Majority M Affected A Greatest Good No Undisclosed Validity —M Validity Creative C ti Number y Time Value- Record added
  36. 36. Flowchart of Ethic Evaluation Model Creative Dynamic Energy Flexibility Matrix Mobility Ethic Conical Value Model Purity Vitality Time Period Cost-Benefit Net Profit
  37. 37. The S e g o Ethical Co c e Strength of ca Conflict An Issue-contingent Model by Thomas M. Jones,1991 Factor Strength The benefits and The greatest balance of benefits and harms of results h f lt harms, positive impact The social The more consensuses, the more consensuses strength The possibility of The greater possibility, the greater influence influence i fl The urgency of time The more urgent, the more strength The closeness of The more close, the more strength society, culture, and psychology
  38. 38. The Ethics Priority--Majority Matrix y j y Value Sensing of Ethics Quality/ Q li / Universal U i l Social S i l Professional P f i l Private Pi t of conce Ethical P Quantity High Low Human Responsibility Ethics Virtue erned goo Priority=T Grea Nature Contract Character High Rights Justice Trust Honest Duty y Fairness Integrity g y Kind The od Property Charity Loyalty Talent Freedom Gut Worldwide Equality atest prio Value in Ladder Community ority Corporate Individual Affected Majority= The greatest possibility of affected numbers.
  39. 39. Conical Distillation Purity Processing and Selecting Negative Test Details/Factors •None hurt the general None illegal universal values; 沒有不合法 •None bring only net harm result; •None f N focus only l None Unreasonable the short term; 沒有不合理/無不正當 •None make decision Justice/Fair in a vacuum; None Irresponsible •None stop looking 沒有不合情 for alternatives; Harm to others •None hurt your gut or intuition; None Undisclosed None Misunderstood Ethical Behaviors
  40. 40. What’s the Val es in Ethics Values Those Saints and Masters Want to Teach Us 天下為公、講信修睦 老吾老以及人之老、幼吾幼以及人之幼 Reducing selfish and sharing power are the two key issues that all those saints both western and eastern want to deal
  41. 41. The Ethics Theory of China 已所不欲勿施於人 • Confucius Confucius' principles championed strong familial loyalty, ancestor 仁者不憂、智者不惑、勇者不懼 worship, respect of elders by their children, and the family as a basis for an ideal go ernment government. • He expressed the well-known principle, quot;Do not do to others what you do not want done to y yourselfquot; • He also looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, Chinese particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. quot;The superior man seeks for it in himself. himself The petty man seeks for it in othersquot;
  42. 42. Ethics: What one does not wish for oneself, one ought not to do to anyone else • The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in禮Lǐ is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, social and political institutions, and the etiquette of daily behavior. • yì (義 can be translated as righteousness though it may simply mean what is righteousness, ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done out of self-interest. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one based one's life upon following a path designed to enhance the g g greater ggood, an outcome of yì. This is doing the right thing , y g g g for the right reason. Yì is based upon reciprocity. • (仁). Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as quot;benevolencequot; or quot;humanenessquot;; translator Arthur Waley calls it quot;Goodnessquot;, and other translations been put forth include quot;authoritativenessquot; and quot;selflessness.quot; quot; lfl quot; • Confucius's moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather than divinely ordained rules. To develop one's spontaneous responses of仁rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even better than living by the rules of義yì. To lti t T cultivate one's attentiveness to仁rén one used another Confucian version of th ' tt ti t 仁é d th C f i i f the Golden Rule: one must always treat others just as one would want others to treat oneself. • Virtue is based upon harmony with other people, produced through this type of ethical practice by a growing identification of the interests of self and other other.
  43. 43. What s What’s Ethics in Society? And Its’ Application in Public Interests • What exactly are ethics? Roughly translated an individual’s or translated, individual s organization's ethics come down to the standards that are followed in relationships with others—the real integrity of the individual or organization. • Philosophers throughout the ages have debated the essence of ethics. p g g Aristotle’s Golden Rule mean of moral virtue could be found between two extreme points of view. Kant’s categorical imperative recommended acting “ on that maximum which you will to become a universal law”. Mill’s principle of utility recommended “ seeking the g y g greatest happiness for the g pp greatest number.” And the traditional Judeo-Christian ethic prescribes “ loving your neighbor as yourself” • Indeed, this golden Rule makes great good sense in the practice of public relations and many other professionals professionals. • Public relations people, in particular, must be ethical. They can’t assume that ethics are strictly personal choices without relevance or related methodology for resolving moral quandaries. Rather, as the Code of Professional St d d of th P bli R l ti P f i l Standards f the Public Relations S i t of A Society f America St t i States, practitioners must be scrupulously honest and trustworthy, acting at all times in the public interest.
  44. 44. Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince 馬基維利:君王論 • 君王既受全民所托,生死與共,則不能在行事時受一般道德習慣之約束。 君王既受全民所托,生死與共,則不能在行事時受一般道德習慣之約束 • 君王用詭計亦為之,主持謀殺亦為之,其為人敬愛不如令人畏懼。 • The Prince, by Machiavelli, touches on all the important character traits of an ideal ruler. He includes a prince's attributes, his focus, his strategies and prince s his behavior. • Machiavelli's idea of a prince's attributes should be. There are four main attributes that a prince should possess: intelligence, strength, determination, and tenaciousness tenaciousness. • A prince must have the smarts to determine right from wrong. In times of trouble, he must know which path to take next. Strength; a prince must be physically, and emotionally strong to face whatever comes at him. A prince's determination is very crucial i ti d t i ti i i l in times of h d hi f hardship. • A prince must be willing to push on through the most difficult of times. He also must encourage his people and believe for himself that the struggle will soon be over.
  45. 45. John Locke: Property Right 洛克:私人財產權 • Two Treatises of John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 Government政府論二講 October 1704) was an English • Theory of value and property philosopher. 勞力價值論 英國光榮革命(Glorious Revolution) • 上帝以全世界的資源分配於全 發言人 and supported社會契約 人類,凡人以一己之力與一部 social contract theory. 份資源結合即成為私產。 • He argues that property is a natural right and it is derived from labor. • Locke believed that ownership of property is created by the application of labor. In addition, property precedes government and government cannot quot;dispose of the estates of the subjects arbitrarily.quot; j y
  46. 46. J.J. Rousseau 盧梭:社會公約 • Theory of Natural Man “The first man who, having fenced in a piece of land, said quot;This is mine,quot; and found people naive enough to believe him, that man was the true founder of civil society. From how many crimes, wars and murders from how many horrors and misfortunes crimes wars, murders, might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: Beware of listening to this imposter; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody. nobody ” — Jean-Jacques Rousseau Discourse on Inequality 1754 Jean Jacques Rousseau, Inequality, • Political theory quot;The Social Contractquot; Perhaps Rousseau's most important work is The Social Contract, According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right individuals can both preserve themselves right, and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will公眾之志願of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are collectively the are, collectively, authors of the law.
  47. 47. Karl Marx (1818 1883) (1818-1883) At the Communist league s request Marx and league's • Frederick Engels /a> Marx and Engels Engels,/a>. Engels authored the quot; Communist Manifesto,quot; were both active in various which outlines the theory of the class struggle, revolutionary groups and together and of the revolutionary role of the proletariat. worked out the theory and tactics of quot;Revolutionary Proletarian Socialism Revolutionary Socialismquot; • In 1864 the quot;International Working Men's or quot;Communism.quot; Associationquot; was founded in London. Marx was a central figure in the new organization, and author of its first statement, and a host of resolutions declarations and manifestos resolutions, manifestos. • The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally i t f th l t i t ll inevitable.” — (The Communist Manifesto
  48. 48. Max Weber 1894 1920 1894-1920 • Protestantism新教主義which led to the development of capitalism, bureaucracy and the rational-legal state in the West. • Weber s Weber's major works deal with rationalization in sociology of • In another major work, Politics as religion and government. a Vocation, Weber defined the state as an entity which claims a • His most famous work is his essay monopoly o t e legitimate use o o opo y on the eg t ate of The P t t t Ethi Th Protestant Ethic and the Spirit d th S i it physical force, a definition that of Capitalism, which began his became pivotal to the study of work in the sociology of religion. In modern Western political science. this work, Weber argued that His analysis of bureaucracy in his religion was one of the non- li i f h Economy and Society is still exclusive reasons for the different central to the modern study of ways the cultures of the Occident organizations. His most known and the Orient have developed,p contributions are often referred to and stressed importance of as the 'Weber Thesis'. particular characteristics of ascetic.
  49. 49. John Rawls (1921-2002) 正義論 • In A Theory of Justice Rawls attempts to reconcile Justice, liberty and equality in a principled way, offering an account of quot;justice as fairness.quot; Central to this effort is his famous approach to the seemingly intractable problem of distributive justice.(分配的正義) • Rawls appeals to the social contract. What principles of justice would we agree to if we desired to cooperate with others, but would also prefer more of the benefits, and less of the burdens, associated with cooperation? • Justice as fairness is thus offered to people who are neither saintly altruists nor greedy egoists. Human beings are, as Rawls puts it, both rational and reasonable: we have ends we want to achieve but we are happy to achieve achieve, them together if we can, in accord with mutually acceptable regulative principles. • 正義論重點:1.每個人都有擴展其基本自由的權利;2.達成 正義論重點 1.每個人都有擴展其基本自由的權利;2.達成 社會與經濟的均等,以便讓弱勢者可以享有較多的利益。