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How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]
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How To Thinking -971009 [Compatibility Mode]

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  • 1. NTUST MBA Forum How to Thinking & g Making Decision Ethically Through Pragmatic & Systematic Approach 迎向道德之路的實務性思考與系統性決策方法 Professor Andrew B.C. Huang National Taiwan University of Science And Technology Management School huang.porf@gmail.com h f@ il 2008 Summer
  • 2. Summary • Even we’re not prisoners, b t th same dil E ’ t i but the dilemmas h happen when situations h it ti having two or more values, rights, or obligations in conflict, and we’re frequently had to choose between or among equally unpleasant alternatives. • Prisoner's Dilemma shows that we even as a rational person, but when facing a unknown decision of others, will be confused to choose not the best and rational alternatives. • There’s no doubt that you’ll meet ethical dilemmas—every employee probably meets hundreds of times during a career—the only thing in doubt is when. • How could we do to this conflicts? The more informed you are, the more effective you’ll be in managing the ethical problems. • We will discuss a pragmatic approach and p p g pp practical decision-making tools g that you can use to the ethical dilemmas.
  • 3. Outline • The fundamental problems in identifying ; the ethical standards; • The questions for examining the ethics of a business decision; • The pragmatic and practical approaches and decision-making tools;
  • 4. Learning Objectives • Understand ethics as a practical and useful tool for making decision; g ; • Assess the ethics of a business using the influential frameworks of famous scholars; • Manage and make the business decisions ethically.
  • 5. What does ethics mean to you Sociologist Raymond Baumhart asked business people quot;What does people, ethics mean to you?quot; Among their replies were the following: • quot;Ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong.quot; • quot;Ethi h t d with my religious b li f quot; quot;Ethics has to do ith li i beliefs.quot; • quot;Being ethical is doing what the law requires.quot; • quot;Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts.quot; • quot;I don't know what the word means.quot; These replies might be typical of our own. The meaning of quot;ethicsquot; is hard to pin down, and the views many people have about ethics are p , yp p shaky. (Developed by Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre Thomas Shanks, Velasquez Andre, Shanks S.J., and Michael J. Meyer )
  • 6. Professor Gardner’s Argument on the Ethical Mind • The Harvard Business Review of March 2007 contains an interview worth reading with Harvard Graduate School Professor of Cognition and Education Howard Gardner. Gardner became well known by his 1983 book , in which he argued that people don't have one, but multiple intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Likewise, Gardner now proposes to distinguish between : • The Disciplined Mind - What we gain through applying ourselves in a disciplined p g g pp y g p way in school. • The Synthesizing Mind - Surveys a wide range of sources, decides what is important and is worth paying attention to. • The Creating Mind - Looks for new ideas and practices, innovates, takes chances, g p , , , discovers. • The Respectful Mind - The kind of open mind that tries to understand and form relationships with other human beings. • The Ethical Mind - Broadens the respect for others (see 4) into something more abstract. Asks: quot;What kind of a person, worker, and citizen do I want to be?quot;
  • 7. The Ethical Mind More difficult for businessmen to adhere to an ethical mind • The Ethi l Mi d Th Ethical Mind grows at home and in the surrounding community. B d b h i of others can th d i th di it Bad behavior f th undermine it. • Gardner mentions cheating MBA students as an example of this undermining, and thinks that it is more difficult for businesspeople to adhere to an ethical mind than it is for other professionals, because business is strictly not a profession, has no guild-structure, no professional model, no standards and no penalties for bad behavior. The only requirement is to make money and not run afoul of the law. • In order to stay on the right track, Gardner advises business leaders to: y g • Believe doing so is essential for the good of the organization, especially during difficult times. • Take the time to step back and reflect about the nature of their work. • Undergo quot;positive periodic inoc lationsquot; being forced to rethink what you're doing quot;positi e inoculationsquot;, hat o 're doing. • Use consultants, which should include a trusted advisor within organization, the council of someone completely outside the organization (an old friend), a genuine independent board. See also the related website The Good Work Project, an quot;effort to identify individuals and institutions that exemplify good work— that is excellent in quality, socially responsible, and meaningful to its practitioners—and to determine how best to increase the incidence of good work in our society
  • 8. Identifying Ethical Standards It’s Hard Or Easy? • Th There are two fundamental problems in identifying th t f d t l bl i id tif i the ethical standards: 1. On what do we base our ethical standards? 2. If our ethics are not based on feelings, religion, law, accepted social practice, or science, what are they based on? 3. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face? • M Many philosophers and ethicists h hil h d thi i t have h l d us answer helped this critical question. • They have suggested at least five different sources of y gg ethical standards we should use. But it is still hare to identify.
  • 9. Ethical Decision Could Be A Rational and Logical Process—Down to Up Evaluate the Action Plan Make the Decision (Select the Action Plan) Explain the Results (How Should I Do?) Predict the Possible Results (What Will Happen?) Propose the Tactics (What Can I Do?) Get the Facts Collect Relevant Information (Identify the Truth) Source: Steven L. Wartick & Donna T. Wood, International Business and Society 2002 Society,
  • 10. Making Good Decisions A Framework by Markkula Center • Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. • Having a method for ethical decision making is absolutely essential. When practiced regularly, the method becomes so familiar that we work through it automatically without consulting the specific steps. This framework for thinking and working ethically is the product of dialogue and debate at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. U i it Primary contributors include Manuel Velasquez, Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean, David DeCosse, Claire André, and Kirk O. Hanson. This article appeared originally in Issues in , pp g y Ethics, V. 1, N. 2 (Winter 1988).
  • 11. Putting Approaches Together • Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. There are still problems to be solved, however. • The first problem is that we may not agree on the content of some of these specific approaches. We may not all agree to the same set of human and civil rights. • We may not agree on what constitutes the common g y g good. We mayy not even agree on what is a good and what is a harm. • The second problem is that the different approaches may not all answer the question quot;What is ethical?quot; in the same way. • Nonetheless, each approach gives us important information with which to determine what is ethical in a particular circumstance. And much more often than not, the different approaches do lead to similar answers answers.
  • 12. Approaches of Evaluating Ethic Approach A h Factors F Condition C di i Limitation Li i i Utilitarian Comparative Net benefit > Quiet hard to measure the social cost 功利理論 cost and net cost and minority benefit always not been benefit treated well enough 比較效益 Rights and Human rights General and Hard to balance the conflict of rights Duty 尊重權利 common The ethical action is the one that most dutifully human rights respects the rights of all affected. 權利 Justice and Fairness and Fairness of Hard to measure the cost and benefit, and share Cost and short of the mutual understanding about Integrity fairness 公平分配 benefit 公正 The ethical action is the one that embodies the habits and values of humans at their best.
  • 13. Recognize an Ethical Issue 1. Is there something wrong personally, interpersonally, or socially? Could the p y, y conflict, the situation, or the decision be damaging to people or to the community? 2. Does the issue go beyond legal or institutional concerns? What does it do to ? p p people, who have dignity, rights, and g y g hopes for a better life together?
  • 14. Get the Facts 3. What 3 Wh t are the relevant f t of the case? What th l t facts f th ? Wh t facts are unknown? 4. Wh t i di id l 4 What individuals and groups h d have an i important t t stake in the outcome? Do some have a greater stake because they have a special need or because we have special obligations to them? 5. 5 What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? If you showed your list of options to someone you respect, what would that person say?
  • 15. Evaluate Alternative Actions From Various Ethical Perspectives 6. Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm?
  • 16. Utilitarian Approach: The ethical action will produce the greatest benefits over harms 7. Even if not everyone gets all they want, will everyone's rights and dignity still be y g g y respected? Cost-Benefit Analysis: Institutional decision-making processes can powerfully influence the decisions that are made by individuals or groups.
  • 17. Rights Approach: g pp The ethical action is the most dutifully respects the rights of all affected 8. 8 Which option is fair to all stakeholders?
  • 18. Fairness or Justice Approach: pp The ethical action is the one that treats people equally, or if unequally, that treats people proportionately and fairly. • 9. Which option would help all participate more fully in the life we share as a family, y y, community, society?
  • 19. Common Good Approach: The thi l ti Th ethical action is the one that contributes most to i th th t t ib t tt the achievement of a quality common life together. 10. Would you want to become the sort of person who acts this way (e.g., a person of courage or compassion)?
  • 20. Make a Decision and Test It 11. Considering all these perspectives, which of the options is the right or best p g thing to do? 12. 12 If you told someone you respect why you chose this option, what would that person say? If you had to explain your decision on ? f television, would you be comfortable doing y g so?
  • 21. Act, Then Reflect on the Decision Later 13. Implement your decision. How did it turn out for all concerned? If you had it to do over again, what would you do differently?
  • 22. No One Is Perfect In Every Situation We don’t have a perfect solution. We certainly won’t resolve the academic controversies over the best philosophical approaches, even they will suggest important factors to keep in mind in making b i i t tf t t k i i di ki business ethics d i i thi decisions. Eight Steps to Sound Ethical Decision Making Ethical decision making is often not liner. But it will be helpful to recover all of these points even if not in this sequence points, sequence. Source: Kinda K. Trevino, Katherine A. Nelson, Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right The Wharton School, Right, School University of Pennsylvania, 1995
  • 23. Eight Steps to Sound Ethical Decision Making In Business 1.Gather the Facts 8.Check Your Gut 2.Define the Ethical Issues 7.Think Creatively 3.Identify the about Potential Actions Affected Parties 6.Consider Your 4.Identify the Character and Integrity Consequences 5.Identify the Obligations
  • 24. The Layoff: An Easy Job e ayo asy Job? Your Painful Decision Last to Come • Your boss j t t ld you i complete confidence that the company will Y b just told in l t fid th t th ill have to layoff 200 workers. • Luckily, your job won’t be affected. • But, a rumor is now circulating in the plant and one of your workers (an old friend) asks you “Is the plant closing? Am I going to lose job? What will you say? • This is a true ethical dilemma, because two values are in conflict. Two “right” values that can create the significant conflicts are “truth y y and loyalty”. • Telling the truth to your friend means that you have to break your promise to be loyal to the company that has treated you so well.
  • 25. Eight Steps To Sound Ethical Decision Making In Layoff 1. 1 Gather th F t G th the Facts: • Asking yourself, “How did the situation occur? • Are there historical facts that I should know? • Are there facts concerning the current situation that I should know such as legal requirements on informing workers about layoff?” Even fact gathering is often easier than done. Many ethical choices are particularly difficult because of the uncertainty involved in them. Facts may simply be unavailable. For example, in this layoff case, Pat may not have good information about the legal requirements on informing workers about layoff. Also, she may not have enough information to determine how long it will take these 200 workers to find new jobs. But, recognizing these limitation, you still should attempt to assemble the facts that are available to you before proceeding.
  • 26. Is Legal be Ethical? • What is legal may be unethical. • Example: • Laying off thousands of employees in the name of downsizing i l fd i i is legal, l • But widely viewed as u et ca ut de y e ed unethical (Source: S Puffer & D McCarthy 1995 Finding the common ground in S. D.McCarthy, 1995, Russian ad American business ethics; B. Victor & C. Stephens, 1994, The dark side of the new organizational forms.)
  • 27. 2. Define the Ethical Issues Truth VS Loyalty, Right VS duty • Don’t jump t solutions without fi t id tif i th i D ’t j to l ti ith t first identifying the issues or points of conflicts i th i t f fli t in the dilemma. • It’s not so easy as “Pat should keep promise to her boss and protect her job, or she should tell the truth to her friend ” friend. • The issues often go back to such as deontological( focus on rights and duties of human nature), consequentialist ( also called Utilitarianism, focus on total benefit>total harm) , or virtue Ethics (Integrity) theories. ) ( g y) • In layoff, one issues has to do with the workers’ right to know about the plant closing in advance. How much advance notice is appropriate? What does the law say? • Another issue has to do with the company’s right to keep the information private. What is the company’s obligation to its workers in this regard? Is it more important to be honest with a friend or to keep a promise to one’s boss? • What’s more, you may miss some other important issues. To present your dilemma to co-workers, t your spouse or to your friends you respect is a good way. k to t fi d ti d
  • 28. 3. Identify the Affected Parties Shareholder VS Stakeholder • Once stakeholders are id ifi O k h ld identifies, role-playing can h l you to see l l i help the issues from different stakeholders perspectives. • The consequentialist will want to identify all those who will q y experience harms and benefits. • The deontologist might want to know whose rights are involved and who has a duty to act in the layoff. layoff • Being able to see the situation through others’ eyes is a key moral reasoning skill. One question you could ask yourself is, how could this or that stakeholder react if this decision were made public? • It often helps to begin with the individuals in the case who are immediately affected (Pat the worker Pat’s boss); (Pat, worker, Pat s • An then to progressively broaden your thinking to incorporate larger groups( the other workers, the local community, the rest of the company, and society i general) d i t in l)
  • 29. 4. Identify the Consequences positive and negative: long-term vs. short-term • After identifying the affected parties think about the parties, potential (positive and negative), (long-term vs. short-term) consequences for each of the parties. • It isn’t necessary to identify every possible consequence. • But, you should try to indentify consequences that have a relatively high possibility of occurring and those that would have particularly consequences if they did occur. • And Who will be harmed by a particular decision or action? In the layoff case telling case, the truth to the worker might cause Pat to lose her job, which will have negative consequences for her entire family. However, it will give her workers the benefit of more time to look for new job, perhaps saving many families from negative financial consequences. q • Can you determine which solution would accomplish the most net good (the greatest good for the greatest number of people? Would telling a lie to your friend benefit the most people? Or would it be better for all affected parties if you tell the truth? • And evaluate which decision or action will produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
  • 30. 5. 5 Identify the Obligations • Identify the obligations involved and the reasons for each In layoff each. for instance, consider Pat’s obligation toward the affected parties, and be sure to state the reasons why she has this duty and g obligation. • Think in terms of values, principles, character, or outcomes. • For example, if you consider Pat’s obligation to keep her promise to her boss, since promising-keeping and trust are important values in , p g p g p superior/subordinate relationships. • • Obligations may very depending on the p p involved g y y p g people • and the roles they play. For example, since the truth of • financial report and scientific date is core, so, the auditor • and the scientist have a particularly strong obligation to • tell the truth.
  • 31. 6. Consider Character and Integrity If uncomfortable to tell your family, Rethink it • You have to begin by identifying the relevant community community. Then, you have to determine how community members will evaluate the decision you’re considering. • A method that can help you with this process is know as “the disclosure rule” • It asks whether you will fell comfortable if your activities were disclosed in the light of day in a public forum and news medium. • If you will be embarrassed to have someone read about your activities in newspaper—or if you will be uncomfortable telling your parents, children, spouse, or clergy about your d i i l b t decision—you probably should rethink b bl h ld thi k it.
  • 32. Being ethical is not the same as doing quot;whatever society accepts.quot; • standards t which most citizens subscribe. B t l t d d to hi h t iti b ib But laws, like feelings, can deviate from what is ethical. Our own p pre-Civil War slavery laws and the apartheid laws of y p present-day South Africa are grotesquely obvious examples of laws that deviate from what is ethical. • Fi ll b i ethical is not the same as doing quot;whatever Finally, being thi l i t th d i quot; h t society accepts.quot; In any society, most people accept s a da ds a are, standards that a e, in fact, e ca But s a da ds o ac , ethical. u standards of behavior in society can deviate from what is ethical. An entire society can become ethically corrupt. Nazi Germany is a good example of a morally corrupt society society.
  • 33. Being ethical is not the same as doing quot;whatever society accepts.quot; • M Moreover, if b i ethical were d i quot; h t being thi l doing quot;whatever society accepts,quot; then to find out what is ethical, one would have to find out what society accepts accepts. To decide what I should think about abortion, • Further the lack of social consensus on many Further, issues makes it impossible to equate ethics with whatever society accepts Some people accept accepts. abortion but many others do not. If being ethical were doing whatever society accepts, one would g y p , have to find an agreement on issues which does not, in fact, exist.
  • 34. 7. Think Creatively Potential Actions y Is there another answer? • Before making a final decision, be sure that you haven’t unnecessarily forced yourself into a corner. • If you have only two choices, either “A” or “B”, it’s important to look for other creative alternatives. • For example, will you receive an extravagant gift from a foreign supplier. Should I accept the gift ( li Sh ld t th ift (against company policy), or refuse i t li ) f it (slap in the face). The “C” solution was to accept the it as the company gift that will be displayed in the headquarters entrance. How about in this layoff? Do you have another “C”?
  • 35. 8. Check Your Gut Intuition is gaining credibility • Intuition is gaining credibility as a source for good business decision making. • In ethical choices, If your gut is bothering you, it probably means that something is not right Pay attention to your gut but don’t let right. gut, but, don t your gut make your decision for you. • Your gut is your internal warning system. The gut never lies. When y your g tells y something’s wrong, consider it a warning siren. gut you g g, g The emphasis in these steps has been on a highly rational fact g gathering and evaluation p g process once y know that y you you’re faced with an ethical dilemma. But don’t forget your gut. It might be your only clue that you’re facing an ethical dilemma to begin with and it can be a source of empathy for th f those affected by a decision or action. ff t d b d i i ti
  • 36. How to Manage The Grey Area Vedan’s Application in Vietnam • Legal: I th action l L l Is the ti legal? I it comfortable t b di l l? Is f t bl to be disclosed? d? • Mutual Benefits: Do the counterparts know the project’s advantages and disadvantages? • Truth: Show the figures and truths (examples) • Why we have to do that : Communicate with workable tactics and sincere mind. • Look for the long run, Don’t take the short medicine ( those you can not control and manage) • Catch the hand of knife by yourself: 100 % Shares • With workable master plan and promises: First Mover Strategy
  • 37. Steps of Evaluating Ethical Dilemmas Theories can be Applied in the Layoff • Focus on Consequences (Consequentialist Theories): Utilitarianism is probably the best know consequentialist theory. According to the principle of utility, an ethical decision should maximize the benefits to society and minimize harms. What matters is the net balance of good consequences over bad. What will be the consequences ( (societal harms and benefits) of my telling/not sharing what I know about the layoff? ) y g g y • Focus on Duties, Obligations, and Principles (Deontological Theories): The word “deontological” comes from the Greek deno or duty, rather than focus on consequences, it approaches would ask,quot; what's right on broad, abstract universal principles such as honesty, promise keeping, fairness, rights, justices and respect to persons and property. This model of thinking asks whether the rationale for you actions (telling/not telling) is suitable to become a universal law or principle for every to follow. • Focus on Integrity (Virtue Ethics): A Virtue ethics perspective considers primarily the actor’s character, motivations, intentions, and actor’s character and integrit as well. And character is very much defined b ones’ comm nit integrity ell er m ch by community. Therefore, it’s important to think about the community and communities within which business people operate. What matters is are you a person of integrity? What if the community has not done this type of thinking? What’s the relevant community standards?
  • 38. Texas Instruments The Ethics Quick Test Keep asking IS THE ACTION until you get an answer LEGAL ? Does it comply with your best If you’re not sure, ask. ’ t k understanding of d t di f our value and principles? If you know it’s wrong, If you do it, Don’t do it, period! ,p Will you fell bad? y How will it look In the newspaper
  • 39. Rotary International oay e a o a Four-Way Test Is it the truth? Truth Beneficial Fair Will it be beneficial Is it fair to all concerned? to all concern4ed To All Good will Better Relationships Will it build good will and better relationships?
  • 40. Practical Preventive Medicine In Ethical Decision Source: Linda K. Trevino, Katherine A. Nelson, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania School There is no doubt that you’ll encounter ethical dilemma— every employee probably encounters hundreds of them during a career—the only thing in doubt is when. Your mission is to be as prepared as possible before you run into a problem. The more informed you are, the more effective you ll be in protecting yourself and your employer. you’ll employer
  • 41. Doing Your Homework • First, First Read Your Company’s Code of Ethics and Policy Manual. Manual The best way to be effective in ethical decision is to learn the rules of your organization and your profession, and to develop relationships that can help y you if and when the need arises. • Second, ask questions. Managers, executives, and peers will admire your initiative when you ask what they think is “important around here” since many organizational standards are unwritten and they differ from company to company company. • Finally, develop relationships with people who are outside of your chain of command. Get to know people in human resources or p p p personnel, legal, audit, and in , g , , other departments who might be able to provide information, help you raise an issue or determine if something even is an issue, or vouch for your credibility in a crisis. Suggestion: After you’ve done your homework, and if you learned that your, your employer’s, and your company’s standards and values are in substantial conflict, you may have to look for work in another organization.
  • 42. When You’re Asked to Make a Snap Decision • Obviously, Obviously making decisions quickly can be dangerous dangerous. • Assume you have some time to devote to the decision, consider the following guidelines when a quick decision seems called for: 1. Don t 1 Don’t underestimate the importance of a hunch (presentiment (presentiment, rather think) to alert you that you’re facing an ethical dilemma. 2. Ask for time to think it over. Say something like, “let me think about it and I’ll get right back to you ” “Bargaining for time is a smart way to I ll you. Bargaining give yourself a break.” 3.Find out quickly if your organization has a policy that applies to your decision. 4. Ask your manager or your peers for advise. Regardless of your level within the organization, you should never hesitate to ask for another opinion. 5. Use The New York Times test. If you’d be embarrassed to have your decision disclosed in the media or to your family, don’t do it.
  • 43. To Be, or Not To Be It’s really a headache to your ethical decision • Suppose: 1.You’re upgrading your department’s data processing capabilities and have just placed an order for 4 personal computers and 2 laser printers with a computer company’s representative. p p y p 2. When you mention that you wish you had a printer at home like the ones you just ordered, the representative tells you that because of your larger order, she can give you a 50% discount on a printer for your home. However, However all items must be ordered new new. 3. You fell that this is not quite right, but you’re not sure why. • Questions and Doubts: 1.He could have real doubt about whether or not to accept a 50% discount p % on a printer for his home. Even though, he feels funny about the offer, he might be thinking that he does a lot of work at home, so accepting a personal printer could be justified. 2. And, 2 And since the computer representative made the offer after the order was placed, there’s not conflict of interest—his decision to purchase wasn’t influenced by the offer of a discount. 3. If it was you, what and how you can do?
  • 44. Twelve Questions for Examining the Ethics of a Business Decision Laura L. Nash, Harvard Business School Professor • Have you defined the problem accurately? • How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence? • How did this situation occur in the first place? • To whom and to what do you give your loyalties as a person and as a member of the corporation? • What does this intention compare with they likely results? • Whom could your decision or action injure? • Can you engage the affected parties in a discussion of the problem before you make your decision? • Are you confident that your position will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now? • Could you disclose without qualm your decision or action to your boss, your CEO, the board of directors, your family, or society as a whole? y y y • What is the symbolic potential of your action if understood, if misunderstood? • Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stand?
  • 45. The Prescriptive Approaches You may be able to take Step Actions to Take Don’t underestimate the Listen to the gut. When your gut tells you something is wrong and Importance doubt, consider it a warning. Ask the time to think it Stall the company representative by telling her, he will get back to over her later in the day or tomorrow Read Company Policy Find out what’s the company’s saying about making purchase. Does company allow personal discounts? Ask your manager or your Ask for another opinion peers for advice Use The New York Times Ask yourself how would the public react to this decision? Someone test might believe that the order was influenced by the discount, if it’s not absolutely true, but hard to convince other. The Bottom Line If you think that your decision could be misinterpreted or if someone could think the objectivity of your decision has been compromised. Rethink The Decision If you ever feel that accepting a favor from a vendor will place you under an obligation to the vendor, be very careful.
  • 46. The Topic We Will Discuss • The N Th New Business Ethics And Today’s Mangers: Th Ethical Skills B i E hi A d T d ’ M The E hi l Skill of the New Information Society. • Changing is the reality of business world; nevertheless, the ethics g g y ; , even the content in depth might be varied somehow, but the values still remain the unchangeable. • See you next Monday Monday.

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