Bioethanol Production
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Bioethanol Production



Production of Ethanol from Cellulose Residues: Microbiological Approaches

Production of Ethanol from Cellulose Residues: Microbiological Approaches



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Bioethanol Production Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mohamed Mosaad Abo El-Gheit MSc. Student, Applied Microbiology, SCU, Ismailia, Egypt
  • 2. Contents:  Biofuel  Types of Biofuel  1st and 2nd generation of Bioethanol  Lignocellulosic Biomass in Egypt  Composition of Lignocellulose  Pretreatment of Lignocellulose  Microbial Enzymatic Hydrolysis  Bioprocessing of Biomass  Cellulosic Activities in Actinomycetes  Microbial Consortia
  • 3. Biofuel: Energy from newly-growing plant sources CO2-neutral alternative source of energy to the current traditional sources e.g. gasoline
  • 4. CO2 –Neutral?
  • 5. 1st Generation of Bioethanol Sugars extract ferment ethanol sugarcane BRAZIL (sucrose) Sugars Hydrolyze (enzymes) ferment ethanol USA (starch) Cosgrove; 2005
  • 6. Types of Biofuel  Solid  animal wastes and agricultural residues can be used as sources of energy by direct burning (primitive way)  Liquid  Bioethanol C2H5OH ( fermentation of sugar)  Biodiesel (by saturation of vegetable oils)  Gas  e.g. methane and biogas derived from organic wastes by anaerobic digestion Organic wastes Heat energy Direct burning
  • 7. 2nd Generation of Bioethanol Cosgrove; 2006
  • 8. Lignocellulosic Biomass  Agricultural Residues: Source: Quantitative appraisal of biomass resource and their energy potential in Egypt; 2013
  • 9. Lignocellulosic Biomass:  Energy crops: plants which grow at low cost, to make biofuel. 
  • 10. Composition of Lignocellulose  Cellulose  Hemicelluloses  Lignin Ash Extractives Cellulose Hemicellulose (both 5 and 6 carbon sugars) (need modified microbe to convert to ethanol) Ash Extractives Lignin (phenols) (6 carbon sugars) Chapple, 2006; Ladisch, 1979, 2006
  • 11. Pretreatment  break down the shield formed by lignin and hemicellulose  Open the fiber structure  reduce the degree of polymerization of cellulose. Source: Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production; 2009
  • 12.  Pretreatment has been viewed as one of the most expensive processing steps within the conversion of biomass to fermentable sugar  Pretreatment methods maybe: physical, chemical or biological  Biological:  Adv. : no chemicals, no energy requirements, mild environmental conditions  Disadv.: slow, the activity of the microorganisms maybe not specific to lignin only!
  • 13. Pretreated Lignocellulose  What is “Pretreated Biomass”? increased surface area, solubilization of cellulose, redistribution of cellulose and lignin  Cellulose 35-50%  Hemicellulose 20- 35%  Lignin 5-30% Microbial cellulose utilization fundamental and biotechnology; 2002
  • 14. Enzymatic Treatment Pretreated Lignocellulose Pentoses and hexoses + lignin and lignin degradation Enzymatic Hydrolysis cellulose glucose hemicellulose glucose + xylose+ other C5 and C6 sugars Microbial cellulose utilization fundamental and biotechnology; 2002
  • 15. Microbial Enzyme system:  Substrate  cellulose + hemicellulose  Enzymes:  endoglucanases: cut at random internal sites along the cellulose/hemicellulose chain  exoglucanases: act at reducing and nonreducing ends  beta-glucosidase: break betaglucoside bond to form glucose
  • 16. Enzyme system Cellulose Oligosaccharides (<10) Endogluconase Cellobiose + glucose glucose Exoglucanase Beta-glucosidase Microbial cellulose utilization fundamental and biotechnology; 2002
  • 17. Lignocellulosic Activities of Actinomycetes  According to Lynd et al (2002) there is a considerable concentration of cellulytic capabilities among Actinomyceltales.  Actinomycetes are well known for their ability to decompose complex molecules, particularly lignocellulose components  Micromonospora spp and Strptomyces spp are well known for their decomposition ability on Biomass
  • 18. Actinomycetes and cellulytic activities Growth TempSpeices mesophilicM. chalcea mesophilicS. roseflavus MesophilicS. reticuli ThermophilicThermobifidia fusca mesophilicKibdelosporanguim Philippinenses Most of actinomycete species can be isolated from both soil and water.
  • 19. Bioprocessing of cellulosic Biomass  Steps (mediated events): 1) Cellulase production 2) Hydrolysis of cellulose/hemicellulose 3) Fermentation of cellulose hydrolysis products e.g. glucose 4) Fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysis products other than glucose e.g. xylose biomass fuel Microbial cellulose utilization fundamental and biotechnology; 2002
  • 20. Bioprocessing of cellulosic Biomass This diagram shows the capability of consolidation or separation of mediate events (steps) of bioprocessing of Biomass Source: Microbial cellulose utilization fundamental and biotechnology; 2002 • SHF: Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation • SSF: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation • SSCF: Simultaneous Saccharification and Cofementation • CBP: Consolidate Bioprocessing
  • 21. Consolidated Bioprocessing CBP  In which all bioprocessing steps are combined together as one process  Biomass processing technology has exhibited a trend toward increasing consolidation over time  Advantages  Efficiency + Economically effective  CBP organisms:  Single organism  Community of organisms( symbiotic consortium) (which is more efficient???)
  • 22. Symbiotic Consortium  A community of organisms  i.e 2 or more organisms living in association  Symbiosis may be : mutualism, commensalism, o antagonism  Types:  Natural consortuim  Engineered consortuim Genetically Recombined natural capabilities i.e. ecological approaches
  • 23. Natural Consortium  The main problem  doesn’t accumulate high levels of biofuel why?  Biofuel molecules are molecules of energy  Biofuels represents an a pportunity for a new consortia member (organism) to exploit  Natural consortia tend to thermodynamically free energy of molecules till the lowest level  Be overcome by  engineering consortia
  • 24. Models of microbial interactions in a consortuim (dual culture)
  • 25. Sequential utilization  2 oranisms M1 and M2  The fuel molecule (F1) is considered a waste product of M1. However, it is degraded by M2 as source of energy e.g. commensalism  No accumlation of fuel molecules
  • 26. Co-utilization  M1 & M2 are competing to utilize the substrate , producing fuel molecules  Competitive symbiosis i.e. controlled by inhibitors /activatiors  Fuel considered waste product of both organsims  There is accumulation of fuel
  • 27. Substrate transformation  M1 acts on substrate converting it to a form that can be utilized by M2  e.g. pretreatment of lignocellulosic material  mutualsim
  • 28. Product transformation  M1 produces fuel products as waste product  M2 act on fuel to convert it into an alternative fuel  Look like sequential utilization. However, the fuel molecules are converted to alternative fuel , not completely utilized