Tom Clements Small Modular Reactor Overview for tva meeting 6.26.2012
Small Modular Reactor Overview Tom Clements Alliance for Nuclear Accountability June 29, 2012 – Know Nukes Summit
Claims about SMRs• Smaller than 300 MW• Cheaper than larger reactors• Constructed faster than larger reactors• Module approach means flexibilty• Safer, with passive cooling and underground• Smaller emergency zone• Fewer operators• Fabricate at one center - export and receive spent modules and spent fuel• “Plug and play”
SMR Designs• Babcock & Wilcox – mPower, 125 MW water-cooled, uranium fuel, 4+years• Holtec International – SMURF, 140 MW, water cooled, uranium fuel and possibly MOX, 10 years• Gen4 Energy (Hyperion) – Hyperion Power Module, 25 MW, lead-bismuth cooled, uranium nitride fuel• Westinghouse – 200 MW, uranium fuel similar to AP1000• NuScale – 45 MW, water cooled, uranium fuel• GE-Hitachi PRISM - 311 MW, sodium-cooled, uranium and plutonium fuel• General Atomics – EM2, 240 MW, gas-cooled, used LWR fuel, Pu• TerraPower Traveling Wave – 300 MW, liquid metal, used LWR fuel, Pu• AREVA HTGR
Load ‘em up, roll ‘em out, irradiate ‘em, bring ‘em back for dumping – it’s all so easy
DOE “winners & losers” solicitation –awards handout to 2 vendors in September“Obama Administration Announces $450 Million to Design and Commercialize U.S. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors” – March 22, 2012 “A total of $450 million will be made available to support first-of-its kind engineering, design certification and licensing for up to two SMR designs over five years, subject to congressional appropriations. Manufacturing these reactors domestically will offer the United States important export opportunities and will advance our competitive edge in the global clean energy race. Small modular reactors, which are approximately one-third the size of current nuclear plants, have compact, scalable designs that are expected to offer a host of safety, construction and economic benefits.” “SMRs can be made in factories and transported to sites where they would be ready to “plug and play” upon arrival, reducing both capital costs and construction times. The smaller size also makes SMRs ideal for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, offering utilities the flexibility to scale production as demand changes. “
Contenders for the bailoutB&W – TVA: mPower at Clinch River site - sell electricity at a “special” price to DOE’s Oak Ridge LabWestinghouse – Ameren Missouri/Missouri Electric Alliance - at Callaway PWR site near Jefferson City, MONuScale, Holtec? – DOE’s Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC
LETTER OF INTENT FOR THE BABCOCK & WILCOX (B&W) MPOWER PROJECT REACTOR AT TVA’s CLINCH RIVER SITE – February 2010• Phased approach• TVA will perform an economic and technical suitability eyaluation of its Clinch River site for provisional lead plant implementation of a-single unit BCW mPower reactor.• TVA will analyze the previous environmental studies of the Clinch River site and support an initial scoping study for an Early Site Permit (ESP) application to the NRC that encompasses the construction and operation of the B&W mPower reactor• TVA will work together with B&W to develop the scoping for a Phase 2 submittal of either a) a COLA for B&W mPower at the Clinch River site as described in 10CFR52, or b) separate Construction and Operating license applications for B&W mPower at the Clinch River site as described in 1 0CFR Part 50.• TVA will participate in the B&W mPower Design-Centered Working Group (DCWG) with the objective of supporting preparation of a DCD for submittal to the NRC.
mPower’s take on advantages• 125 MWe Nominal Output per Module and 60-Year Plant Life• NSSS Forging Diameter Allows Domestic Forgings and• Unrestricted Rail Shipment• Standard Fuel (less than 5% U 235 )• Long Fuel Cycle, 4+ Year Core Life• Spent Fuel Storage on Site for Life of Plant• Conventional/Off-the-Shelf Balance of Plant Systems and Components• Accommodate Air-Cooled Condensers as well as Water-• Cooled Condensers• Flexible Grid Interface (50 Hz or 60 Hz)• Digital Instrumentation and Controls Compliant with NRC Regulations
Why go for a 6 pack when you can get a 12 pack?
mPower licensing timeline, according to the NRC• B&W application for design – end of 2013/early 2014• TVA application for construction permit for Clinch River project – 2015• No schedule for license issuance or rulemaking – several yeasr afte applications
SMR at Savannah River Site – associated with spent fuel reprocessing complex and transmutation (fast reactor)
conclusions• Vendors are after the DOE bailout• Plans only exist on paper• DOE says they won’t fund construction, so where is the money?• No economy shown• Might produce more waste per kwh• Dangers in transport and locating reactors in vulnerable locations, where does waste go?• Who can intervene in B&W, TVA licenses?