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Fashioning the Future: NYC's Garment District Fashioning the Future: NYC's Garment District Document Transcript

  • FASHIONING THEFUTURE: NYC’sGARMENT DISTRICTOCTOBER 2011 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 1
  • TABLE OF CONTENTSPreface: Why the Garment District?Executive Summary1. The Making of a Fashion CapitalII. Where We Are TodayIII. Lessons from Other Fashion CapitalsIV. Areas of OpportunityV. RecommendationsReferencesAcknowledgements MAS 2011 Garment District Report 2
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTPREFACE: WHY THEGARMENT DISTRICT? MAS 2011 Garment District Report 3
  • PREFACEThe Printing District and the Meat Market are now fashionable neighborhoodswith little but their names to remind us of their original purpose. Yet the GarmentDistrict persists into the 21st century where people continue to create, innovate andsell. The Garment District is New York’s history and future, a place where factoriesand fashion have been linked for almost a century. ers to cut, sew and assemble a finished garment to be shown and sold in these same blocks. This clustering facilitates discovery and creativity as well as effi- ciency, particularly important now that the costs of outsourcing are rising. To continue to lead in an industry as competitive, demanding, and creative as fashion, New York must support fashion entrepreneurs. As it has done for many industries, we must explore mechanisms to protect and promote an industry that contributes so much to the economic and creative vitality of NYC and the US. This report outlines some approaches to build on the very real strengths ofA livable city must offer diverse op- generate $9 billion in total wages with the industry. We recognize the futilityportunities to its citizens—housing, tax revenues of $1.7 billion for New of dependence on government alone.education, transportation, jobs. MAS’ York City. Every year the leading design Collaboration is crucial among thecore mission is to foster a more livable, schools - FIT, Parsons and Pratt - turn design community, manufacturers,more equitable, and more sustainable out thousands of educated designers educational institutions, non-profits,city. Over the last 20 years, MAS has looking for employment. New York fashion media, consumers and proper-viewed the Garment District through a City is also the nerve center of fashion ty owners; they all play a critical role invariety of lenses: design, manufactur- marketing and journalism, with Vogue ensuring the success of the district anding, architecture. We see a district that and Women’s Wear Daily as well as new the broader fashion industry whichhas evolved from a heavy manufactur- media outlets such as The Business of depends upon it.ing hub to a laboratory of research and Fashion, Refinery29, The Sartorialist,development, its nimble entrepreneurs and StyleCaster based here. The Garment District has already prov-adapting themselves to the vicissitudes en that it responds to change, providesof fortune and fashion. At the figurative and literal center of all an economic ladder for many recent of this activity is the Garment District. immigrants, and contributes to theToday, according to the New York The district has become an innovative city’s iconic status as a fashion capital.City Economic Development Corp., urban campus where designers en- Against the odds, the district continuesthe fashion industry employs approxi- gage directly in the iterative process of to create, innovate, and produce.mately 165,000 people, accounting for creating a product. Within the space5.5% of NYC’s workforce. Over 900 of a few blocks a designer can purchasefashion companies headquartered here raw material, work with manufactur- MAS 2011 Garment District Report 4
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTEXECUTIVE SUMMARY MAS 2011 Garment District Report 5
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe fashion industry is an essential part of the economic and cultural vitality ofNew York City. In 2010 the industry accounted for 4.6% of the country’s total fash-ion employment. This is almost equal to financial services, where NYC accountsfor 5.6% of the nation’s finance jobs; or media and entertainment, where 5.1% of theAmerican jobs in that sector are located in NYC. But numbers are only one part ofthe story. As many researchers have documented the Garment District is one of thefew remaining manufacturing and design clusters where young entrepreneurs canlaunch a company at the same time that a recent immigrant can put their skills touse and begin to climb the economic ladder.Over the last year MAS has conducted Made in NYC and programming the physical spacescase studies, gathered new data, inter- In the US, a growing number of con- within the district will help maintainviewed dozens of experts, researched sumers want to know where the prod- the critical mass of fashion businessesthe history and explored a variety of ucts they buy are made. A recent survey needed to keep this neighborhood thepolicy recommendations. The recom- conducted by American Express and the city’s fashion center and enliven themendations outlined in this report flow Harrison Group, a marketing research neighborhood with the creativity andfrom a careful recording of the history firm, found that sixty-five percent of af- energy that is hidden behind buildingof the fashion industry, an examination fluent Americans try to buy local goods walls.of our competitors, and a thorough whenever possible.analysis of the competitive advantages Consolidation of Manufacturingof the Garment District. New York City is well positioned to Today, manufacturing tenants face an take advantage of this trend given its uncertain future. A lack of affordableThese recommendations offer an strength in high end manufacturing. space is one critical issue. In an effortagenda for a conversation that needs to New York City’s reputation also lends to secure affordable space manufactur-continue to develop between the stake- itself well to a place-based marketing ing tenants should be consolidated intoholders. Ultimately lasting solutions campaign as companies like DKNY and several buildings. The total buildingfor supporting the fashion industry Brooklyn Industries already dem- capacity of the nine buildings withand the Garment District will emerge onstrate. With more retailers than the most amount of occupied manu-from the creativity and energy of those anywhere else in the country, with some facturing space would be sufficient tothat help make NYC the fashion capital of the best design and marketing minds, host the total amount of manufactur-of the world. It’s important that the and with billions of dollars in visitor ing space within the garment centerdiscussion include strategies to grow spending, we should be able to develop zoning district, approximately 1.34the fashion economy and not focus ex- a successful a Made in NYC campaign. million square feet. These buildingsclusively on the particulars of outdated should be managed by a non-profitzoning regulations or the specific Market the District organization(s) chartered to maintainamount of space to set aside for manu- The streets, particularly the side streets, the buildings, offer space at belowfacturing. The costs of doing nothing give little indication of the sophisti- market rates, and serve as an advocacyare lost jobs, missed opportunities for cated fashion industry that calls this organization for the manufacturingstrengthening a vital industry, and the area home. This atmosphere has been tenants. In addition to a number oferosion of a sector of the economy that touted as a reason some fashion firms incentives we have identified the fol-inspires entrepreneurship and helps have moved out of the district, opting lowing funding streams to help secureshape NYC’s identity for trendier locations such as Chelsea this space: or the Meatpacking District. Improving MAS 2011 Garment District Report 6
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY• By changing the zoning, tremendous and creating a non-profit to manage the There are also foreign trade sub-zonesvalue for the property owners is un- space we think there is a tremendous for companies with manufacturing fa-locked. Property tax revenues increase opportunity to provide a long term and cilities outside the foreign-trade zonebecause the value of the property affordable home for manufacturing in area. Companies seeking sub-zoneincreases. A significant portion of the the Garment District. status must apply to the federal gov-increased tax revenue generated from ernment through the NYC Economica re-zoning should help finance a bond Update the Zoning Development Corporation (NYC EDC).to purchase space for manufacturing The zoning needs to clearly express thepotentially through a non-profit entity economic development priorities for According to NYC EDC, New York Cityrepresenting manufacturers. this area and should only be amended is home to two subzones: a Pfizer’s in concert with a broader plan and com- pharmaceutical manufacturing facil-• Currently, properties within the mitment to grow the fashion indus- ity in Williamsburg, Brooklyn and aFashion Center BID pay an assessment try and provide security for garment Bulova watch manufacturing facilityto support the activities of the Fashion manufacturers. If a mechanism can be in Jackson Heights, Queens. Poten-Center BID which includes market- created to protect the amount of manu- tially, those buildings in the Garmenting, programming, sanitation, security facturing space that exists today in the District where manufacturing has beenand other services. An idea that has Garment District then a relaxing of the consolidated could be designated aalready been discussed by the Fashion zoning to introduce other uses should sub-zone which would allow for theCenter BID, among others, is to charge be carefully examined. importing of raw materials duty freean additional BID assessment dedicat- and significantly reduce the cost ofed to helping secure a long term home Explore Tariff Reduction manufacturing many items of clothingfor manufacturers. A US Foreign Trade Zone is a govern- which have high import tariffs. ment-designated, restricted-access• Shared responsibility is critical in site used as an import/export financial This report outlines approaches toorder to find a workable solution. A management tool. This regulatory build on the very real strengths of thecommitment from existing manufac- mechanism allows foreign and domestic industry. Against the odds, the districtturing/design tenants to provide fund- merchandise to be admitted for storage, continues to create, innovate, and pro-ing and/or a long term lease commit- assembly, processing and manufacture, duce and hopefully, with the right poli-ment to secure the space should also while reducing or eliminating duties on cies and partnerships, it will continuepart of any funding package. imports and exports. to inspire for many years to come.By combining these funding sources MAS 2011 Garment District Report 7
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTI. THE MAKING OF AFASHION CAPITAL MAS 2011 Garment District Report 8
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALThe history of New York City’s Garment District is about much more than clothing.This area and the fashion industry has played a vital role in New York City’s eco-nomic history and the district has served as a stage for many of the demographic,regulatory, cultural and economic changes of the last 100 years. The garment in-dustry has been instrumental in the development of a variety of industries includ-ing finance, marketing, merchandising, advertising, and publishing. It has providedrelatively steady and skilled jobs for generations of recent immigrants and workingclass New Yorkers, while at the same time, sustaining a ladder to the middle class.The flexibility required to thrive in the business - riding the waves of slack seasons,quickly changing styles, variable pricing on materials - has allowed those with en-trepreneurial temperament to thrive, adjust and even expand their businesses, andbring their business talents, honed in the garment district, into other fields. The area that comprises today’s Gar- ment District – roughly bounded by West 35th Street, Fifth Avenue, West 41st Street, and Ninth Avenue - serves as a reminder of how vital entrepre- neurs, industrious workers and chang- ing retail patterns turned Manhattan into a place that once manufactured 78% of America’s clothing. The history of the Garment District is an essential part of New York City’s history. 19th century Throughout the history of New York City’s fashion industry, proximity to labor, supplies and supporting trades has been a critical element in its suc- cess. New York’s fashion industry began in the mid-19th century and was largely built on ready-to-wear clothing that was mass-marketed and mass- produced. The industry thrived on the large influx of a cheap, skilled labor force—mostly Italians and Eastern European Jews— many of whom came from a tradition of tailoring. Equally important was New York City’s statusFig. 1 Boat unloading immigrants at Ellis Island in New York City harbor. as a major seaport, which allowed the MAS 2011 Garment District Report 9
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITAL and regulations. This was due in large part to the increasing number of im- migrants that opposed the long hours and sweatshop conditions and began to strike, demanding improvements. These strikes led to the New York State Factory Act of 1892, which required a minimum of 250 cubic feet of air for each worker and to a succession of other industry rules and regula- tions. (Soyer, 2005) The success of these strikes led to organized unions that were powerful enough to change industry standards and influence poli- tics and policy at the local, state and national level. Early 20th century The city’s garment industry continuedFig. 2 A.T. Stewart’s store on Broadway, one of the nation’s first department stores. to grow rapidly, expanding from 562easy import of supplies, such as mate- Streets creating what became known as manufacturing firms in 1880 to overrial from European and New England “Fashion Row” and “the Ladies’ Mile.” 1,800 firms in 1900, effectively estab-mills and provided manufacturers ac- (Robbins, 2009) These enormous stores lishing New York City as the hub ofcess to major markets. appealed to the middle class shopper the nation’s ready-to-wear industry. and helped create a market for ready-to- (Rantisi, 2004) This growth reflectedNew York’s shopping culture was wear women’s clothing. societal changes—notably transfor-cultivated by the first department mations in retailing and an expandedstores, which arrived in the mid-19th Towards the end of the 19th century, market in middle and working classcentury, and began merchandising the city’s garment industry was growing consumers.products in store windows in order to rapidly. As Manhattan’s Lower East Sideincrease consumer interest. To gain drew the majority of early immigrants,greater access to their customers, these the neighborhood subsequently became Garment workers unionsstores followed Manhattan’s residen- an early center of garment produc- The 1901 Tenement House Act fur-tial development north. In the 1880s, tion. Much of New York’s clothing was ther pushed garment production outlarge department stores were built in a created by workers sewing pieces of of the cramped working conditionsconcentration up along Sixth Avenue garments together at home - in often of the tenements into more regulatedand Broadway between 14th and 23rd crowded tenement apartments - or in commercial loft buildings. Once the small rooms that became known as factory system was established, gar- “sweatshops” getting paid by the num- ment industry unions followed quickly ber of pieces. Small contractors often and forcefully. These groups organized hired new immigrants because they by the thousands to demand improved were easy to manipulate and willing to working conditions. One of the largest work long hours at low wages in often unions was established in 1900 when unsanitary and dangerous conditions Jewish immigrants - soon joined by Italian immigrants - came together to As the Lower East Side became more form the International Ladies’ Gar- crowded and as production demands ment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). One rose, concern over working condi- of the ILGWU’s early accomplish-Fig. 3 Family finishing garments in their tenement apart- tions grew, prompting new reforms ments came from initiating a seriesment located at 7 Elizabeth Street, 1908. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 10
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITAL Triangle Shirtwaist Fire The greatest push for social reform occurred after the Triangle Shirtwaist factory tragedy of 1911, which is still considered one of the worst industrial disas- ters in American history. The tragedy occurred on the top floors of a building located on the corner of Greene Street and Washington Place in Manhattan which was home to one of the city’s leading produc- ers of the shirtwaist, a blouse that came in to fashion around 1890 and became one of the most popular products of the city’s early ready-to-wear industry. Two Russian-born Jewish immigrants, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, who were known as the “Shirtwaist Kings”, owned the Triangle factory. They were alsoFig. 4 Group of striking New York City shirtwaist workers, 1909.] known as two of the industry’s worst employers, rou-of influential strikes that led to estab- New York City’s tinely ignoring safety laws and locking their workerslished guidelines for hygiene and a garment industry in without breaks until the end of their shifts. Theyvariety of worker protections—result- reached its peak charged their employees for errors and required thating in the founding of Women’s Wear during the 1920’s they supply their own needles and thread.Daily in 1910, whose initial mission and women beganwas to cover these strikes. By 1912 the to outnumber men The fire broke out on March 25, 1911, on the build-ILGWU claimed 84,000 members and as union mem- ing’s eighth floor just before closing time. Most oftheir strikes helped establish the “Pro- bers. Despite the the workers on the eighth floor escaped; howevertocol of Peace” which created several industry’s success, the fire quickly spread to the floors above, claim-joint commissions that would help power struggles ing the lives of 146 garment workers, most of whomsettle disputes between labor and man- and instability were young immigrant women. The magnitude of theagement. Another influential union, within the ILGWU tragedy prompted a series of new city and state lawsthe Amalgamated Clothing Workers of in the early part of to protect the public from fires and to ensure theAmerica (ACWA) was founded in 1914 the 20th century health and safety of workers. These new laws wereafter the men’s tailors’ strike of 1913. almost destroyed the most advanced and comprehensive in the coun-The ACWA pioneered provisions to it, causing mem- try and reformed garment industry practices as wellempower working people by founding bership to decline as the buildings that housed these businesses. (NYCthe Amalgamated Bank and building from 129,000 at the LPC, 2003))middle class housing. (Soyer, 2005) end of World War I to 23,800 in 1931. The ILGWU regained its strength un- with nearly half of its members in New der the leadership of David Dubinsky, York City and assets of approximately becoming a major political force and $570 million. (Soyer, 2005) was instrumental in forming New York City’s American Labor Party and the Move uptown Liberal Party, with which the ILGWU At the beginning of the 20th century, was closely allied for twenty-five years. most garment manufacturers were lo- Pro-union provisions of the New Deal cated in loft buildings in the blocks just and the National Labor Relations Act of north of Houston Street. The industry 1935 inspired a surge in membership in however was growing at an explosiveFig. 5 Crowd celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Inter- the ILGWU, and by 1966 the union had rate—the number of women’s wearnational Ladies Garment Workers Union at the New York grown to more than 450,000 members industry workers grew from 39,000World’s Fair, 1940. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 11
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITAL increasing proximity, Fifth Avenue industrial uses from encroaching on business owners and residents created residential districts. The Committee the Fifth Avenue Association (FAA), a opposed industrial uses above retail civic association devoted to prevent- ground floors and supported height ing factories and factory workers from limits in the belief that shorter build- crowding the streets during their breaks ings would be economically unfeasible in front of their carriage trade establish- for manufacturing. The zoning resolu- ments. In 1916 the FAA created the Save tion placed Fifth Avenue in the lowest New York Committee, which started height district in Midtown. a campaign that effectively convinced many, including city officials and manu- Early – Mid 20th century facturers, that manufacturing had a Initially the Committee’s efforts were detrimental effect on the city’s elegant successful; however the industry residential and commercial neighbor- was quickly outgrowing the older hoods. The campaign suggested that production areas. Members of the it was in everyone’s best interest for Save New York Committee consulted manufacturers to either stay in the with manufacturers and came to the sections of the city already designated conclusion that the area from Sixth toFig. 6 Corner of Seventh Avenue and West 28th St, showing for manufacturing or move from the Ninth Avenue from 23rd to the blockgarment workers leaving factories during their lunch hour, commercial areas around Fifth Avenue below Pennsylvania Station would be1936.] to those sections. (Robbins, 2009) designated for manufacturing. Locat- The FAA’s actions played a major role ing near Pennsylvania Station and thein 1889 to 165,000 in 1919—requiring in the creation of what became New variety of transit lines in Midtownmore factory space. Factories contin- York City’s 1916 Zoning Resolution, gave manufacturers greater access toued to follow the lead of residential which regulated the height and bulk both employees, who began moving toand retail development north to what of new buildings and set aside specific new residential developments in thehad become a major shopping area zones for manufacturing, preventing outer boroughs, and to out-of-townfrom Fifth and Sixth Avenues between14th and 23rd Streets- known as LadiesMile. The high ceilings and largewindows of the area’s loft buildingsprovided more light and air for gar-ment workers and also had electricity,making it possible to increase outputby using electric sewing machines andother equipment. (Robbins, 2009) By1912 the side streets off Broadway andSixth Avenue above 23rd Street werebeginning to fill in with manufacturinglofts and by 1917 they began expandingnorth of 34th Street, encroaching onFifth Avenue.In an attempt to distance themselvesfrom the manufacturing businesses,many elite department stores beganrelocating from Ladies Mile to FifthAvenue north of 34th Street. In 1907,partly in response to manufacturers’ Fig.8 Garment District Streetscape, 1944. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 12
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITAL buyers. (Robbins, 2009) At this time ARCHITECTURE: manufacturers were responsible for The 1916 zoning resolution set parameters that both influenced where industry, every aspect of the garment industry, such as garment manufacturers, could locate in the city and also determined including selling the finished product. to a great extent the form of the new buildings. As much of today’s Garment Their central location allowed them to District developed between 1916 and 1935, its buildings reflect the physical cater to out-of-town buyers by setting mandates of the 1916 zoning resolution more coherently than anywhere else in up showrooms in the area to display the city. their merchandise and by establishing resident buying offices, which helped Before it was used for garment manufacturing, the area was an early tenement out-of-town buyers navigate the city’s and theater district as well as a publishing and printing district. The 1920’s loft apparel market. Manufacturers’ buildings built almost exclusively for the garment industry characterize the proximity to the city’s retail centers majority of area’s existing building stock today. Although individually these loft also proved to be a vital asset to the buildings are not remarkable, together with their similar heights and setbacks industry. Visiting buyers were able to along the district’s long, narrow blocks they give the streets a unique visual view products in manufacturers’ show- character. (Robbins, 2009) rooms and visit the nearby department stores and shops to see first-hand the A stone base generally characterizes merchandising of the same garment. a typical mid-block loft building with (Rantisi, 2004) [ some ornamentation along the base and upper stories of the building. Small lobbies lead to upper floors de- signed to be as open as possible to al- low light and air circulation. The large open floor plates complied with the specifications of insurance companies and city and state regulations and allowed the spaces to be subdivided to accommodate multiple tenants and also allowed employers to better see and supervise large numbers of employees at a time. (Robbins, 2009) The larger buildings along Seventh Fig. 7 View looking southwest from 42nd Street, showing Avenue and Broadway were favored by the district’s stepped back architecture, 1935.] the non-manufacturing segments of the garment economy and included larger more extravagantly decorated lob- bies, meant to impress clients. (Dolkart, 2011) In 2008, the National Register of Historic Places recognized the cultural and Fig. 9 View of Midtown Manhattan, 1928 architectural significance of New York City’s Garment District by listing the Developing midtown Garment Center Historic District on the National Register. The designated area The impetus for the development of covers nearly 25 blocks of Midtown between Sixth and Ninth Avenues from what is today’s Garment District was West 34th to West 41st Streets. This area includes a wealth of building types and the 1919 cooperative venture between styles but is distinguished by the 1920s era garment industry loft buildings. The one of the area’s most prominent build- nationally recognized district contains a total of 251 buildings, 215 of which are ers, Mack Kanner, and Saul Singer the listed as contributing to the chief character of the area. former President of the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers Protective Association The syndicate created by MAS 2011 Garment District Report 13
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALthese two former garment manufactur- dustry’s tremendous growth prompteders turned real estate developers built the development of numerous sup-one seventeen-story building and one porting businesses, creating an infra-twenty-four-story building on the west structure unlike any other in the world.side of Seventh Avenue between West Many of these businesses and institu-36th and 38th Streets. The buildings tions can still be found in the Garmentwere known as the Garment Center District and throughout the city today.Capitol buildings and were initiallymeant to house showrooms and manu- Innovations in industries, such as mer-facturing space for the garment indus- chandising and marketing increased de-try cloak and suit trade of New York, mand for products made in the Garmentwho were some of the most important District and encouraged the growth ofmanufacturers in the city. To promote the larger fashion industry. Departmentthis venture, Kanner explained that stores, mail order catalogues and fash-compared to the current going rental ion magazines like Harper’s Bazaar andrates of $2.50 per square foot, the Capi- Vogue began marketing simplified ver-tol would cost manufacturers closer sions of European fashions to Americanto $0.50 per square foot – a fifth of the consumers. One of the country’s mostcost, thereby making manufacturing in prominent early 20th century publish-Manhattan significantly more afford- ers, Cyrus H.K. Curtis, of the Ladies’able. (Robbins, 2009) Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, noted the critical relationshipThe Capitol buildings initiated a between production and the burgeoningbuilding boom in the area between fashion publishing industry when he35th and 40th Streets and 6th and 9th wrote:Avenues that created a new GarmentDistrict. The most prolific building “The editor of the Ladies’ Home Jour-occurred in the district from 1924 to nal thinks we publish it for the benefit1925, when 47 new lofts were built, of American women... The real reason,housing various aspects of the garment the publisher’s reason, is to give youindustry including offices, factories who manufacture things that Americanand showrooms. During the boom the women want and buy a chance to tell Fig. 10 Advertisement in the Ladies Home Journal for women’s blouses, 1910.demand for manufacturing space was them about your products.” (Martin, 237)tremendous. Kanner stated that “morethan 20,000 manufacturers in certain While increasing production for gar- immigrants and their children in vari-women’s wear industries, still located ment manufacturing, magazine adver- ous garment industry trades. A yearin the older sections outside of the gar- tising itself became a major industry, later the Tobe Report, a weekly fashionment zone, are fully awake to the need reaching total gross revenues of $196.3 consulting report for retailers wasof getting into the zone – the mart for million by 1929. (Rantisi, 2004) established followed by the Tobe-Co-buyers the country over. With 20,000 burn School in 1937, which specializedpotential tenants in this one class alone New York’s garment industry added a in retailing and merchandising andI see no saturation point in building new component with the emergence of emphasized the industry’s economicfor years to come – if ever.” (Robbins, fashion schools. The school now known importance. The Fashion Institute of2009) as Parsons began a costume design Technology (FIT) followed, opening program in 1904, and then launched the in 1944. In addition to the schools,New York’s growing industries nation’s first fashion design program in the industry also created support andAs New York’s garment industry grew, 1906. The High School of Needle Trades service institutions, such as textile andproximity to other industries played a was founded in 1926 in a Garment trim suppliers and lending institutions.major role in its development. The in- District loft on West 31st Street to train All of these establishments located in MAS 2011 Garment District Report 14
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALclose proximity to the manufacturers,creating a network of supporting busi- HISTORY OF NEW YORK’S FASHION INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - FITnesses. New York’s Fashion Institute of Technology was started in response to the apparel industry’s need for skilled labors. In the 1940s, New York’s apparelNew York City’s booming women’s workforce was dwindling. After an unsuccessful attempt to persuade areawear trade peaked in the 1920s when colleges to add fashion programs to their curricula, Mortimer C. Ritter,78% of the nation’s clothing was made an educator, and Max Meyer, a retired menswear manufacturer, alongin the city. Although the 1920s saw the with a group of designers, ILGWU officials, coat-and-suit manufacturersstrengthening of unions and a robust and other industry leaders raised $100,000 and founded the Educationalgarment industry, a shift began to occurthat would profoundly affect the gar- Foundation for the Fashion Industries. The Foundation obtained a charterment manufacturing industry for years from the New York State Board of Regents to establish a “fashion instituteto come. Before WWI, manufacturers of technology and design.” The institute opened in 1944 with 100 students,were performing every aspect of pro- and was located on the top two floors of the High School of Needle Tradesduction, from design to sewing to sales. on W. 24th St. (FIT, 2011)After the war New York saw the risethe “jobber,” a position created in part The school grew quickly, becoming a community college in 1951 and movingto get around working with the unions. to a 9-story building on Seventh Avenue in 1960. Initially the school hadJobbers effectively took the place of a close relationship with industry professionals. Night classes enabledthe manufacturer as the primary mover faculty to work in the industry during the day and many apparel manufac-in the industry, designing garments and turers and processors served on committees that reviewed and revisedsometimes cutting fabric, but contract- new courses. When the school needed money for new equipment, patronsing out the sewing to contractors or within the district often provided it.sub-manufacturers located in the cityor out of state. Because jobbers usedcontractors they avoided dealing with During the 1970s two-thirds of the courses at FIT were technical or profes-labor issues and unions thereby reduc- sional, the remaining third were liberal arts offerings. At this time representa-ing the cost of production. This newly tives and industry supporters lobbied to further expand the school’s cur-developed position reduced the size of riculum by offering bachelor’s and master’s degrees— something that wasmany manufacturing shops and was unheard of at the time for a community college. In 1975, an amendment to thethe first step in the separation of the Education Law of New York State permitted FIT to offer BS and BFA programsactual production of the clothing from and in 1979 its master’s programs were authorized. (Bard, 1974) the design and marketing, a rift that making something good, as in mak- would continue to grow. (Soyer, 2005) ing it cheap – and cheaper…” (Rantisi, 2004) New York did not gain prestige Mid-20th Century as a design center until World War II, Fashion capitol when the Nazis’ occupation of Paris Although New York’s early 20th century cut the city off from the rest of the fashion industry was thriving, it was not world. Around this time fashion maga- distinguished by its design capabilities. zines, such as Women’s Wear Daily The city’s industry succeeded by copy- (WWD) began highlighting American ing designs that came out of Paris and designers, who focused on what they simplifying them to make them easier knew best, ready-to-wear. The focus to replicate on a mass scale. For decades on ready-to-wear came at a time when New York’s industry was focused on increasing numbers of women were1 Fig. 11 New York City dress factory workers located in the production, as one 1940s stylist noted, entering the workforce and had lessGarment District. New York was, “… not so interested in time for custom-fittings or to make MAS 2011 Garment District Report 15
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALtheir own clothing. This major socialchange combined with increased me-dia attention and Manhattan’s status asa cultural center and hotspot for highsociety helped New York achieve sta-tus as an international fashion capitol. Fig. 13 Ralph Lauren, photograph by Edgar de Evia, 1978 Many of today’s most recognizable designer brands have roots in NewFig. 12 American fashion designer Norman Norell assisting York’s Garment District. Ralph Lauren started out in New York by creat-fashion design student, 1960. ing a line of handmade ties that he sold to Bloomingdales and specialtyIn the mid-20th century New York boutiques throughout the city. Calvin Klein, a Bronx native, spent someCity’s fashion industry continued to time at the Fashion Institute of Technology and briefly worked as a copydraw global attention with the help of boy at Women’s Wear Daily before going to work as an apprentice toinnovative designers, such as Norman a coat maker. In 1967, with $10,000 from his childhood friend turnedNorell and Bill Blass. In a 1999 inter- business partner, Klein started his business, creating his first collectionview with Vogue, Bill Blass explainedhow 1950’s era Paris WWD corre- of six coats and three dresses which he rolled on a rack the full twenty-spondent, John Fairchild figured out three blocks from Seventh Avenue to the Bonwit Teller department storethat you could make the paper more on 57th Street, where he was given his first order. (Clurman, 1982)interesting by writing about the de-signers instead of the manufacturers.(Gandee, 1999) This type of promotion designers who have created internation- promotional organization, the Newcaught on and in ensuing years fashion ally recognized labels. York Dress Institute. The Institute waseditors from esteemed publications created in 1941 by the union and dressbecame the champions of new tal- Designers were further supported by manufacturers with the goal of makingent, furthering the careers of today’s the emergence of the Council of Fashion New York City a world fashion center.most renowned designers. For the first Designers of America (CFDA), which At the institute, Lambert organizedtime manufacturers were no longer was founded in 1962 by American pub- the semi-annual Fashion Press Weekthe most prominent name on a label, a licist Eleanor Lambert. Before founding in New York to showcase designertrend that continues today with Calvin the CFDA, Lambert was Press Director collections for the international press.Klein, Ralph Lauren and Donna Karan, for the American fashion industry’s first She initiated a similar schedule for the MAS 2011 Garment District Report 16
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALEuropean fashion capitals establishing Late 20th century to be vital to the economic diversity ofthe coordinated centralized showings By the end of the twentieth century, the city and that it was an importantnow followed around the world. (Ran- more and more retailers and designers source of employment for minorities.tisi, 2004) had their own labels and were choos- These findings resulted in the creation ing to keep costs down by sending their in 1987 of the Special Garment CenterThe pioneering marketing spear- manufacturing jobs out to contractors District (SGCD), which mandated thatheaded by the CFDA in the 1960s overseas. In 1970 the industry em- approximately 8.7 million square feetgave American fashion designers star ployed 173,304 workers locally but by of space be conserved for manufac-status and also brought recognition to 1987 only 105,000 remained. (Soyer, turing and apparel-related uses. Thethe area of Manhattan in which they 2005) special zoning was created to inhibitworked. Many of the most prestigious building conversions by requiringdesigners could be found along the Concerned that real estate pressures buildings to commit space within mid-stretch of Seventh Avenue between were accelerating manufacturing job block buildings to apparel production34th and 42nd Streets, an area re- loss in the district, the ILGWU asked activities. (DCP, 1987)named Fashion Avenue in 1972. One the city to study the advantages of aNew York Times article stated that “for central garment center and to deter- In the 1990s, unions lost members andmany designers a showroom at 530 mine how the district’s apparel firms influence and were dealing once againSeventh Avenue is something to work could be expected to withstand devel- with competition from unregulatedtoward and a 550 Seventh Avenue ad- opment pressures. At the time of the sweatshop labor. Unions all over thedress may be a sign of arrival.” (Wede- study, 69% of all space in the center was US found themselves in similar situ-meyer, 1978) An address on Fashion characterized by apparel uses. The De- ations and began to seek each otherAvenue was important not only in partment of City Planning released the out in order to stay afloat. In 1995name; it also played a practical role, results, which stated that firms depend ILGWU’s 125,000 remaining memberskeeping the industry centrally located on proximity with manufacturers to nationwide merged with the Amalgam-and easily accessible to buyers. maintain relationships and be efficient. ated Clothing and Textile Worker’s The study also determined the industry Union (which itself was a mergerBy the end of the 1950s, New York’s de-cline in manufacturing was beginning tobecome apparent as the number of thesejobs began to fall due to higher costsof production. Manufacturing beganmoving out of the city while designers,showrooms and distribution centers re-mained in the district. It was also duringthis time that clothing began to be pro-duced overseas in places like Japan andHong Kong. The unions were the firstto notice that these imported garmentswere cutting into their profits and theyhelped negotiate the first agreementsmeant to protect the domestic industryby limiting imports- these later evolvedin to the Multi-Fiber Agreement. (Soyer,2005) The union’s efforts however couldnot combat the push to increase profitmargins by manufacturing offshore andunion membership continued to declineas garment industry jobs moved over-seas. Fig. 14 2009 Save the Garment Center Rally. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 17
  • THE MAKING OF A FASHION CAPITALbetween the Amalgamated Clothing reducing the amount of square footage vital core of the Garment District thatWorkers of America with the Textile reserved for manufacturing. Serious has adapted and even thrived in re-Workers Union). The new union was objections were raised by designers, sponse to changes in the marketplace,called Union of Needle Trades, Indus- manufacturers, and others concerned moving away from mass production totrial, and Textile Employees or UNITE. about the future of the Garment Dis- specialize in areas where they have aIn 2004, UNITE merged with the trict. competitive advantage. And the mar-Hotel Employees and Restaurant Em- ketplace itself is constantly changing asployees International Union (HERE) The fashion industry has a long history consumers re-think their relationshipto form UNITE HERE. (Soyer, 2005) of economic vitality in New York. The with products they consume. The sec- rise in imports and offshore manufac- tions of the report that follow docu-21st century turing has led to the loss of significant ment many of the important assets ofMost recently in 2007, the city, in portions of the garment manufacturing the Garment District that need to beresponse to ongoing complaints from sector that once dominated the industry. more effectively leveraged in supportlandlords that the zoning is outdated Today wholesale and retail are the most of the broader fashion industry.and depresses rents, looked at chang- profitable areas of the industry. (EDC,ing the regulations and drastically 2010) However, there remains a very MAS 2011 Garment District Report 18
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTII. WHERE WEARE TODAY MAS 2011 Garment District Report 19
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYOver the years, the fashion industry has played a major role in shaping the social,cultural, and political landscape of New York City and it continues to energize andstrengthen the city today. The following section details some of the direct and indi-rect contributions the fashion industry makes to the city’s economy with a particularfocus on the importance of the Garment District.General Garment District MapWhere is the Garment District? The midblock portions of this district In 2005, the re-zoning of HudsonThe physical core of the district is de- were designated manufacturing preser- Yards was approved affecting thefined by the zoning regulations of the vation areas (P1), where residential uses blocks between West 30th and WestSpecial Garment Center District. This and hotels are not allowed as-of-right, 43rd Streets, between 7th and 8thspecial purpose district was created and the conversion of manufacturing to Avenues on the east, and the Hudsonin 1987 to retain and preserve produc- office space is restricted, requiring a River to the west. This proposal cre-tion and showroom uses in the blocks certification from the City Planning ated a new preservation area (P2) inlocated roughly between 35th and 40 th Commission (CPC) that an equal the Special Garment Center DistrictStreets, Broadway and 9th Avenue in amount of floor area is preserved for in the midblocks between 8th and 9thMidtown Manhattan. garment manufacturing. (NYC DCP, Avenues. The Hudson Yards proposal 2011) imagined a new mixed-use central MAS 2011 Garment District Report 20
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAY According to a recent comparative analysis of American fashion cities, New York City has more fashion establishments than anywhere else in the country. New York City stands out nationwide for its concentration of wholesale and design establish- ments. These two segments of the industry account for 30% and 27.5% of the national share. New York City also accounts for 17% of the nation’s total manufacturing establishments; and 14% of the suppliers in the country. (Currid; Williams. 2011) Industry growth in New York City andFur businesses along 29th Street LA has taken place through a processbusiness district. (NYC DCP, 2004) the activities that make NYC an interna- of market specialization that buildsNew residential and commercial space tional fashion capital. on specific niches. New York City iswas permitted on lots with less than internationally renowned for its high-70,000 square feet of floor area. The What role does the fashion end fashion, while LA has emerged asconversion of larger buildings (over industry play in NYC? a new hub for high-end casual sports-70,000 square feet) to residential, New York City is an international leader wear, particularly denim. Both of thesehotel, or office use is permitted by in fashion design and innovation. This markets are heavily anchored in aauthorization of the CPC. (NYC DCP, city is considered the most important downtown production cluster. (Currid;2011) These provisions have begun to fashion wholesale destination in the Williams. 2011)erode the manufacturing protections country, mainly because of the reputa-put in place in 1987. tion, quality, and diversity of products. In the case of NYC, the Garment District is both at the center of the cityThe boundaries of New York City’sGarment District have been defined ina number of ways – the special zoningdistrict, the state historic district, andthe Fashion Center BID are a few ofthe commonly used ones. Our researchhas focused within the Fashion CenterBID’s boundaries primarily becausewe have the best data and informationfrom which to make recommendations.There is nonetheless a significantamount of fashion related activity inthe blocks outside the Fashion CenterBID boundaries. Although the preciseboundaries of the Garment Districtcan be debated, what is clear is that theneighborhood has a concentration offashion designers, garment manufac-turers, showroom operators, wholesal- National share of specialized design establishments, 2007. Image Courtesy of Sarah Williams, Co-Director, Spatial Informationers, retailers and buyers engaging in Design Lab, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, Preservation (GSAPP), Columbia University. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 21
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYand region. Just as the city’s financialsector helps support a larger regionaleconomy with benefits that extendfar beyond the city’s boundaries, thefashion industry helps support regionalemployment. As documented by theNew York City Economic DevelopmentCorporation, NYC’s fashion industryemployed 165,000 individuals in 2009.The total employment includes 50,000 New York City share of U.S. employment for specific industries, 2010] (NYC EDC, 2011)working in wholesale / design (30%),25,000 in manufacturing (15%) and90,000 in retail (55%). (NYC EDC, Its cultural impact goes far beyond visit NYC every year. In fact, 14% of2010) numbers, but the most concrete way to all NYC conventioneers are fashion understand its importance would be to buyers—international fashion buyersA recent calculation estimates that the measure its contribution to the econo- are considered “high-end” and “high-concentration of fashion jobs in New my of New York City. (NYC EDC, 2009; spend” visitors compared to otherYork in 2010 accounted for 4.6% of the NYC EDC, 2010) conventioneers, and spend $11,903 percountry’s total. This is almost equal visit;to that of financial services, which • The fashion industry generates $9account for 5.6% of the nation’s total; billion in total wages citywide, and $1.7 • The average buyer visits New Yorkor that of media and entertainment, billion annually in tax revenues; City 4.2 times a year to attend fashionat 5.1%. Moreover, the concentra- trade shows, staying 4 days and 3.4tion of fashion jobs in NYC is much • Total sales are estimated at $55.6 nights.higher than the concentration of total billion per year--$34.7 billion fromprivate jobs, at 2.9% nationwide, and wholesale / design; $8.7 billion from To secure the economic contributionthat of other industries like bioscience, manufacturing; and $12.8 billion from of these visits, the city needs to sup-at 0.8%. (NYC EDC, 2011) It is clear fashion retail; port the origin of much of that activityfrom these numbers that the fashion – the Garment District. The district isindustry is incredibly important to the • Wholesale is the most prominent sec- a tremendous asset that makes fashioncity’s economy. And, just as New York tor, and is structured around a semian- innovation, research and developmentCity invests in sectors like media and nual fashion week (250 fashion shows), in New York City possible. A strongfinancial services it must continue to a series of trade shows that take place in interaction between designers, manu-make investments in the fashion sector Javits Center and approximately 5,000 facturers, wholesalers and retailers,to secure this unique position. showrooms; makes the city a vibrant capital of fashion innovation. These activitiesThe contribution of the fashion indus- • The wholesale market contributes are anchored in the Garment District,try to New York City can be measured $16.2 billion annually in direct where the density of fashion-servicesin a variety of ways. This industry is spending: and the formal and informal relation-at the center of a larger economy that ships that exist in the neighborhood docontributes to finance, marketing, mer- • The contribution of fashion week, a not exist anywhere else in the world.chandising, advertising, photography, semiannual event that takes place in (Teng, 2011) The direct and indirectmodeling, higher education, theater September and February, is estimated contributions of the industry to theand tourism. All of these sectors bene- at $466 million in direct visitor spend- city’s economy are heavily anchored infit from a network of economic activity ing per year leading to $773 million in this neighborhood, attracting fashionthat is often described as the “fashion economic impact per year; designers from all over the city, coun-ecosystem”. Fashion is also essential to try and abroad. (CFDA; DTFPS, 2010)the city’s cultural prominence, acting • About 578,000 individual wholesaleas an engine of the creative economy. buyers and fashion event attendees Brands like Nepenthes New York, or MAS 2011 Garment District Report 22
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYOwner Operator, are excellent exam-ples of a creative breed of young designtalent creating new fashion trends,while building relationships with fac-tories in the district, where they base100% of their production. Designerslike these set New York City apartfrom London or Paris—cities that haveeither lost or are struggling to sustainthe diversity of services that designersrequire for product development.The New York State Department ofLabor confirms that New York Cityfashion activity is concentrated inManhattan, followed by Brooklyn andQueens1. Manhattan hosts more busi- Wholesale / design Manufacturingnesses and employees across different Distribution of fashion establishments in NYC, 2009sectors of the industry than the otherboroughs, with the majority of thatfashion activity heavily clustered inand around the Garment District.Zip codes 10018, 10036 and 10001together, which include the blocksin and around the Garment District,have a much higher concentration ofnon-retail fashion establishments andemployees than the rest of the city’szip codes. According to the New YorkState Department of Labor, zip code10018, which roughly corresponds tothe Garment District boundaries, has atotal of 2,213 fashion establishments,or 16% of the total fashion busi-nesses in the city. The concentration Wholesale / Design Manufacturingof activity in the Garment District is Distribution of fashion average annual employment in NYC, 2009also true for the number of industryemployees, where this zip code employs25,412 people, or 16% of the city’s total 22,171 jobs, or 31% of the total fashion of the total of 3,348 fashion services sur-fashion jobs. Excluding fashion retail, annual employment. (NYS DOL, 2009 veyed are within the blocks between 7ththe economic activity generated in and 8th Avenues. This area has a diversethe Garment District from wholesale, The Fashion Center BID 2010 Tenants mix of wholesalers, showrooms, produc-design and manufacturing combined, Survey2 is a useful resource to further un- tion services and suppliers. This activityaccounts for 1,953 establishments, or derstand how fashion services are distrib- occurs primarily on the midblocks as25% of the fashion establishments, and uted across the Garment District. Most well as in a few buildings along 8thAt the time of this research the most updated complete dataset available from the New York State Department of Labor was the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) 2009 Data.12 The information in these paragraphs is from the 2010 FCBID survey of commercial tenants. Results of the voluntary and self-categorizing survey are based upon a 64.4% response rate of 3,526 distributed forms. Dataplotted reflects service location and is not adjusted for square footage occupied, number of employees, amount of sales, or number of establishments. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 23
  • Distribution of fashion wholesale / design establishments in NYC, 2009Distribution of apparel manufacturing establishments in NYC, 2009 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 24
  • Distribution of fashion wholesale / design average annual employment in NYC, 2009Distribution of apparel manufacturing average annual employment in NYC, 2009 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 25
  • FCBID general fashion industry services map, 2010FCBID buyers map, 2010 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 26
  • FCBID production services map, 2010FCBID suppliers map, 2010 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 27
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYAvenue. This clustering attractsdesigners who need to be in closeproximity to production businesses,and suppliers to buy the necessary rawmaterials. This is one critical asset thatgives New York City an advantage overother fashion centers. (CFDA; DTFPS,2010)The majority of fashion services areclassified as showrooms / wholesalers,constituting 2,711 services, or 81% ofthe total surveyed. These companiesdisplay, store and sell designs andfinished garments to retail stores andbuyers that visit the Garment Dis-trict from all over the world. (CFDA;DTFPS, 2010) According to the survey,these businesses can be found through-out the district, but the blocks be- FCBID street furniture / signage Garment District along 7th Avenuetween West 37th and West 40th Streets,between 6th and 8th Avenue have aparticular concentration. The location the blocks between West 36th and West tween 65 to 120 workers. The medianof showrooms clustered in large 40th Streets, between 7th and 9th Avenues. amount of space occupied by thesebuildings along Broadway and 7th companies is 3,400 square feet—whereAvenue make it easier for buyers to Who is in the Garment District? the five largest companies occupyshop more efficiently and the location The Garment Center Supplier Associa- between 9,000 to 12,500 square feet.along these central streets gives the tion (GCSA) is a trade association thatshowrooms additional prominence. voices the needs of apparel manufactur- Almost half of these companies (48.1%) ers and suppliers in the neighborhood. report a total annual revenue betweenSurvey data shows that production ser- Their mission is to retain the vital ser- $100,000 and $500,000. The rest ofvices are not only concentrated in a few vices that NYC designers use to translate them evenly reported revenues underblocks but in a few specific buildings. a sketch into a finished piece. Today, the $100,000, and between $500,000 andThe survey identified a total of 298 GCSA is one of the few organizations that $5 million—with only two companiesproduction services, including an array provides a voice for the needs of garment reporting over $5 million. (GCSA, 2009)of contractors that support designers, manufacturers—a largely immigrant andtranslating their ideas into garment non-unionized workforce. To better understand these compa-samples. This includes specialty nies, we conducted five case studiesmanufacturers such as pattern makers In 2009, the GCSA developed a survey of garment manufacturing companiesthat turn the designer’s drawings into of factories in New York City that sheds operating in the district. These studiesfabrication pieces; experts in cutting additional light on the characteristics were developed as semi-structuredfabric; assemblers that sew and finish of the manufacturing businesses. The conversations with factory owners,the garments; and suppliers that sell survey interviewed 148 manufacturing whose businesses were representa-the raw materials or decorate fabrics companies, of which 108, or 73%, were tive of the kinds of firms in the districtthrough embroidering or screen located in zip code 10018. The median based on size, but varied in terms ofprinting for silk and other materials number of employees for the companies manufacturing skills. As defined by(CFDA; DTFPS, 2010) There were 207 surveyed during the busiest part of the the factories, the services range fromproduction service providers, or 69.5% year is 14 employees—although the cutting and sewing, and sampleof the total surveyed, located within largest five companies employ be- making to sophisticated embroidery. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 28
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYManufacturers in the Garment Districtare highly entrepreneurial. They oftenengage in more than one venture, andsometimes they run their own designlabels. The relatively small size ofthese companies allows factories to ex-pand and contract in relation to thesecycles in order to adapt to changes indemand, or fluctuations in the econo-my. Although inexpensive rent is help-ful, manufacturers find one of theirgreatest challenges to be attracting aconstant number of orders year-round.The demand peaks twice a year aroundFashion Week, but it slows during therest of the year.Garment manufacturers are nicheplayers that survive primarily because oftheir locational advantage in the centerof NYC’s fashion industry—in closeproximity to fashion designers andbuyers. Other advantages derive fromartisanal production techniques, rela-tively skilled workers, trust they haveestablished with designers, and theirability to turn around small ordersquickly. They are not equipped to com-pete for large production runs. Thesecompanies confirm that their mostimportant competitive advantage istheir ability to interact one on one withdesigners and their capacity to producehigh-quality manufacturing goods.Where is manufacturing? Garment District factoriesThe most reliable resource availablefor determining how space is beingutilized in the Garment District is the forms in the Garment District we have our land use recommendations.Comprehensive Study of Tenants in blended the information from the CFDABuildings within the P1 and P2 Sec- / Fashion Center BID survey with data The CFDA / Fashion Center BID landtions of the Special Garment Center from the NYC Departments of City use survey determined that there areDistrict. This study was a joint effort Planning and Buildings, as well as the 1,447 fashion tenants including manu-of the Council of Fashion Designers of Fashion Center BID tenant’s survey facturers, designers with in-houseAmerica (CFDA) and the Fashion Cen- described earlier. These datasets reveal manufacturing, showrooms, ware-ter BID. (CFDA / FCBID, 2009) important differences within the Gar- houses, retailers, and other office uses ment District. Based upon these differ- related to the industry. In contrast,In order to provide a comprehensive ences we have broken down the district there are 1,029 non-fashion tenants inview of the land uses and building into 5 sub-zones which help to inform the district—space used for other types MAS 2011 Garment District Report 29
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYProposed garment district sub-zones mapof manufacturing, offices, institutionaluses, and other forms of retail.From the total 8,754,721 square feetof building area surveyed, 4,588,488square feet, or 52%, is occupied bythese fashion tenants. 2,797,107 squarefeet, or 32%, is occupied by non-fash-ion tenants. The remaining 1,399,126square feet, or 16%, is either vacant orundeterminable.In general, the land use survey docu-ments a predominance of office spaceover manufacturing. 3,458,525 squarefeet is occupied by office space. This is40% of the total area surveyed, whichis used both by fashion and non-fashion tenants. In comparison, total Distribution of fashion and non-fashion uses in comprehensive study of tenants in buildings withinmanufacturing uses occupy 1,569,557 P1 and P2 sections of the special garment center district. (CFDA / FCBID, 2009) MAS 2011 Garment District Report 30
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYsquare feet, or 18% of the surveyedarea—1,324,176 square feet, or 15% ofthe total area surveyed, was deter-mined to be used by fashion relatedmanufacturing tenants.Of the total commercial space,3,234,312 square feet are occupied byfashion tenants. 1,327,870 square feet,or 15.2% of the total area surveyed,was classified as fashion office space.Showrooms occupy 1,029,690 squarefeet, or 11.8%; warehousing accountsfor 662,353 square feet, or 7.6%; andretail occupies the remaining 214,399square feet of space, or 2.4% of thetotal area. Distribution of land uses in CFDA / FCBID comprehensive study of tenants in buildings within P1 and P2 sections of the special garment center district (CFDA / FCBID, 2009)A large concentration of fashionactivity within the Special GarmentCenter District is located between 7thand 8th Avenues. These blocks have thelargest share of apparel manufactur-ing space. The second largest shareis in the blocks between 8th and 9thAvenues.Manufacturing within thesetwo areas is not evenly distributedbut is further concentrated in severalbuildings.Sub-Zone A111 lots, total gross building area of12,311,483 square feet. (NYC DCP, 2009)3Sub-zone A includes the lots betweenWest 35th and West 40th Streets Distribution of fashion, non-manufacturing, land uses in CFDA / FCBID comprehensive study of tenants in build- ings within P1 and P2 sections of the special garment center district (CFDA / FCBID, 2009)]between 7th and 8th Avenues. Thisarea includes the P1 preservation areabetween 7th and 8th Avenues and iszoned M1-6.Sub-zone A has the largest share offashion activity in the Garment Dis-trict. The midblocks in this sub-zoneaccount for more than half of the docu-mented manufacturing space (50.3%),and an even higher share of the totalspace occupied by designersTwo lots in this section extend beyond the boundaries of the sub-zone, occupying the entire depth of the block between 34th and 35th Streets.3 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 31
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYwith in-house manufacturing (71.4%).Combining these two types of manu-facturing space, these blocks ac-count for more than half of the totalmanufacturing area surveyed (56.2%).Sub-zone A is also the primary loca-tion of showrooms, with almost threequarters (74.5%) of the total showroomspace located in this area.According to the Department of CityPlanning PLUTO data, there are impor-tant distinctions between the individualbuildings in sub-zone A. The buildings photo: Giles Ashfordin the midblocks, with a few exceptionsalong 8th Avenue, are mostly pre-warloft buildings with an average heightof 12 stories, designed for manufactur-ing. In contrast, most structures along7th Avenue are a combination of retailand office and are considerably higher,reaching 45 stories between West 37thand West 39th Streets. (NYC DCP, 2009)Although the CFDA / Fashion CenterBID land use survey didn’t includebuildings along the avenues, both theGCSA factory survey and the FashionCenter BID tenants survey document animportant concentration of productionactivity on 8th Avenue. The GCSA photo: Giles Ashfordfactory survey documented 9manufacturing companies on the east Building fabric in sub-zone Aside of 8th Avenue, on the blocks be-tween West 39th and West 37th Streets.We estimate that these businessesoccupy a total of 22,000 square feet. including the P2 preservation area of public facilities and institutions to theIn addition, the Fashion Center BID’s the Special Garment Center District. mix of manufacturing and commercialtenants survey documents additional In contrast to sub-zone A, only the lots uses that existed prior to the re-zoning.pockets of manufacturing services in abutting 8th Avenue are zoned M1-6. According to the Fashion Center BID’sthese blocks. The lots along 9th Avenue are zoned C1- 2009 and 2010 economic profiles, there 7A, and the midblocks are zoned C6-4M. have been 6 recent hotel developmentsSub-Zone B These blocks were re-zoned in 2005 as with 987 hotel rooms and more under85 lots, total gross building area of part of the larger Hudson Yards re-zon- construction. (NYC EDC, 2009; NYC5,268,941 square feet. (NYC DCP, 2009) ing, which allowed residential and hotel EDC, 2010) construction on lots less than 70,000This sub-zone includes the blocks square feet in floor area. This re-zoning Sub-zone B is the second most impor-located between West 35th and West has introduced non-industrial land tant concentration of fashion activity39th Streets, and 8th and 9th Avenues— uses—including residential, commercial, in the neighborhood. 45.4% of the man- MAS 2011 Garment District Report 32
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAY and there is an important concentra- tion of production activity in specific buildings between West 36th and West 39th Streets. Sub-zone B has a more diverse mix of building types. There is still a significant collection of pre-war loft buildings in the midblocks; however, this area also has a number of residential buildings, office buildings, and recent hotel developmentsFig. 24 (24a + 24b) Building fabric in sub-zone B between West 39th and West 40th Streets, in proximity to the Portufacturing area, and 15% of the space is located there4. However, there are Authority. 9th Avenue, in particular,surveyed for design companies with considerably fewer showrooms in sub- has a number of walk-up residentialin-house manufacturing, is contained in zone B, only 8.2% of the total assessed buildings. In contrast, structures alongthis sub-zone. More than a third of the for this land use group in the CFDA / the west side of 8th Avenue tend to betotal manufacturing space, or 37.1% of FCBID survey. Just as with sub-zone A, much taller and primarily consist ofthe total manufacturing space surveyed, manufacturing is not distributed evenly retail and offices. (NYC DCP, 2009)Concentration of manufacturing uses in the garment district mapAccording to the CFDA / Fashion Center BID survey, there is a total of 7 non-fashion manufacturing spaces in the study area.4 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 33
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAYAccording to the CFDA / Fashion Cen- manufacturing space account for justter BID land use survey, 589,820 square 6.7% of the total manufacturing space infeet, or 44.5% of the total 1,324,176 the survey.square feet assessed for fashion-relatedmanufacturing, are concentrated in These blocks stand out for the large9 buildings within sub-zones A and number of showrooms. 17.3% of the totalB5. These buildings were originally showroom space is located in this area.built for manufacturing in the 1920s Following sub-zone A, this is the secondand 1930s and based on the concen- largest concentration of showrooms intration of manufacturing tenants in the district, particularly between Westthese buildings today still continue 37th and West 38th Streets, to the northto provide functional manufacturing of the P1 preservation area. Building fabric in sub-zone Dspace. An additional 306,416 squarefeet of manufacturing space, or 23.1%, Within the P1 area, the majority of theis located within a second tier of 9 buildings are pre-war loft buildings. The Sub-zone D includes a series of lotsbuildings, and the remaining is spread avenues, however, have a number of post- within the Fashion Center BID serviceout across the rest of the surveyed area. war buildings that are better suited for area including the blocks between West office and showroom space. (NYC DCP, 36th and West 41st Streets, 6th Avenue,The total gross square footage of the 2009) Recently, some of the buildings Broadway and 7th Avenue. These blockstop 9 manufacturing buildings is equal have sold and the new building owners are located outside of the Special Gar-to 1,471,045 square feet. This is larger are trying to market the office space to ment Center District and overlap withthan the total amount of fashion-related industries other than fashion. the Special Midtown District. Themanufacturing space in the special properties in this area located north ofdistrict. Given that manufacturing is Sub-Zone D West 38th Street are zoned C5-3, andconcentrated in relatively few buildings 47 lots; total gross building area of those located to the south are zonedwithin the study area, there is potential 8,544,331 square feet. (NYC DCP, 2009) C6-6. Although this area wasn’t sur-to further consolidate manufacturing veyed by the CFDA / Fashion Centerin a select few buildings, and allow the BID land use survey, the Fashion Cen-introduction of other complementary ter BID’s tenants survey documents theuses elsewhere in the Garment District. presence of a number of showrooms and wholesalers along Broadway,Sub-Zone C particularly between West 38th and32 lots; total gross building area of West 39th Streets. The building stock4,370,675 square feet. (NYC DCP, 2009) in this section has a strong commer- cial office character with a number ofSub-zone C contains the remaining post-war office buildings that reach 42lots within the Special Garment Center stories along the avenues. (NYC DCP,District, between West 36th and West 2009)39th Streets, Broadway and 7th Avenue.This area is very similar to sub-zone A Sub-Zone Ein terms of zoning. There is a second P1 145 tax lots, total gross building area ofpreservation area in this sub-zone, and 6,149,721 square feet. (NYC DCP, 2009)all lots are zoned M1-6. According tothe CFDA / Fashion Center BID land Sub-zone E contains the remaining lotsuse survey, the midblocks in this sub- located within the Fashion Center BIDzone have the lowest neighborhood service area to the east of 6th Avenue.share of factory space, where manu- This section is located outside of thefacturing and designers with in-house Building fabric in sub-zone C Special Garment Center District, andThis area accounts for fashion related manufacturing space.5 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 34
  • WHERE WE ARE TODAY narrower buildings. These structures are predominantly a combination of loft and other commercial buildings on the midblocks, and a series of taller structures along the avenues— including mixed-residential and commercial buildings. The neighborhood offers a concentrated array of services to the fashion industry, attracting designers from around the country and abroad. The economic ac- tivity derived from designers interacting with manufacturers, suppliers, show- rooms and buyers, among others, rep- resents an important contribution to the city’s economy—extending to other sectors beyond the fashion industry. None of this would be possible without a core of manufacturing businesses in the Garment District. These are highly entrepreneurial, specialized companiesBuilding fabric in sub-zone E that stand out for their ability to adapt tois zoned M1-6. According to the Depart- This is the area of the Garment District change and fluctuation in the industry.ment of City Planning PLUTO data, there that is least connected to the fashion Their geographic concentration withinis a mix of industrial uses with some resi- economy, housing a variety of other busi- several blocks and in specific buildingsdential and mixed commercial-residen- nesses that make use of the Class B & C should be secured in order to ensuretial buildings. Nonetheless, the Fashion office space. their long-term presence in the neigh-Center BID’s tenants survey documents a borhood, thereby maintaining New Yorkvery small number of production busi- According to the Department of City City’s preeminence over other domes-nesses spread across the area. The survey Planning PLUTO data, this sub-zone tic and international fashion capitals.does document scattered showrooms and stands out for having much smaller lotswholesalers between 5th and 6th Avenues. than those in the other sub-zones, and MAS 2011 Garment District Report 35
  • photo: Giles AshfordFASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTIII. LESSONS FROMOTHER FASHIONCAPITALS MAS 2011 Garment District Report 36
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSIn June 2010, MAS and the Design Trust for Public Space hosted two panels focusedon the Garment District and the findings of the Design Trust’s study, Made in Mid-town, www.madeinmidtown.org, researched in collaboration with the Council ofFashion Designers of America (CFDA). Made in Midtown conclusively documentedthe critical relationship between the Garment District and the broader fashion in-dustry. The report noted that as manufacturing has declined since its midcenturyheyday, the district has evolved from a concentrated production hub to a researchand development center. Although mass production has mostly moved overseaswhere costs are much lower, the Garment District remains a vital resource duringthe design phase when designers need quick turnaround of their prototypes andinput from manufacturers regarding production techniques. As IDEO’s Fred Dustexplained at one of these discussions, design and manufacturing are inextricablylinked through a highly iterative design process. Known as fertile ground for young entrepreneurs, New York City attracts young designers from all over the world. Start-up designers with small runs who cannot afford to start pro- duction overseas can cost-effectively produce limited quantities in the Gar- ment District. Former Chair of the De- partment of Fashion Design at Parsons, Tim Gunn, who moderated one of the Garment District panels, reflected on the importance of the district saying, “The Garment District is for designers at all levels, not just those at the top photo: Giles Ashford like Yeohlee Teng; it’s for the young entrepreneurial designers, those at theIn an effort to determine what New mechanisms that nurture opportuni- midpoint in their careers. It providesYork City could learn from its com- ties for entrepreneurship. We also incredible resources for everyone.”petitors, MAS contributed research to explored the emergence of the Asian MAS’ international research reinforcedMade in Midtown, which focused on fashion economy with a particular focus the importance of these resources; theythree international fashion capitals— on China in order to better understand give New York City a critical competi-Paris, Milan and London. MAS looked where New York City is positioned tive advantage over other internationalat the proximities of fashion compa- globally. Our research revealed some fashion capitals that have lost this typenies in these three cities and analyzed very clear competitive advantages for of small-scale production ability.the effects of industry clustering, New York City as well as some impor-and the official policies and informal tant opportunities. London’s manufacturing core was lost MAS 2011 Garment District Report 37
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALS training creating a highly skilled work- force. (Owen, 2003) Even though the Italian government provided more than four times as much aid (as a percentage of manufac- turing value added) than the Brit- ish government in the period from 1997-1999, starting a new business in Italy as a young designer is report- edly very difficult. The institutional- ized, insular structure dominated by a few large brands (Armani, Prada, Valentino, Versace) means that work- ing for one of these large corporations is frequently the only realistic option for many emerging designers. In New York, meanwhile, the Garment District serves as a neighborhood-wide incuba- tor, providing internships and trainingGoogle maps 2010: Milan for students. When they graduate they can draw on this network of resourcesdue to real estate pressures, Milan than in the US, however, for emerging and support to start their own lines, ashas re-assembled a regional manu- designers, opportunities are limited. young designers like Jason Wu, Alexan-facturing network under the Made in der Wang, and labels such as ProenzaItaly system, and Paris, like London, is The Milanese industry is largely com- Schouler have demonstrated.struggling to recover its manufactur- prised of small, family-owned opera-ing capacity. China and Asia have seen tions—many of them with only 5-10 Londonincredible growth over the last two de- employees. State fiscal policies promote Start-up designers in London havecades with a very different model, but this tradition of small-sized companies some advantages over young designerschanges in larger global forces raise through certain tax benefits. In addi- in other cities because of the Britishquestions about a production model tion, the network of small, clusteredthat is built on large amounts of cheap companies exploits economies of scalelabor, inexpensive transportation and allows firms to stay lean and tapcosts, government subsidies, a trade into a market of subcontractors. Theseregulatory scheme which is subject companies excel in employing provento change, and scarce environmental methods of craftsmanship and main-resources, which are being heavily taining a tradition of high-quality arti-depleted. san work such that in 2001 the Italian textile and clothing sector’s total outputMilan (wages and profits) was more than threeMilan’s manufacturing sector is the times larger than the British industry.most robust of the European fashion Italy’s manufacturing sector is suc-centers. The model of small manufac- cessful because the cost of productionturing firms is very similar to the kinds is lower than in many other Europeanof firms producing in the Garment countries, the Italian government offersDistrict – specialized and nimble. Gen- more state aid to its manufacturing sec-erally, the public sector support for tor than other European governmentsthe fashion industry is much stronger and provides and encourages vocational Google maps 2010: London MAS 2011 Garment District Report 38
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSFashion Council’s (equivalent to NewYork’s CFDA) numerous initiatives.Nevertheless, once their talent is rec-ognized, young designers tend to leaveLondon for New York, Paris and Milan(Stella McCartney, John Galliano andAlexander McQueen are prominentexamples). Because designers have re-ported difficulty locating reliable, high-quality manufacturers, UK industrialpolicy has started to focus on train-ing and building skills in an effort tobridge the gap between designers andmanufacturers. The UK is historicallyvery entrepreneurial and there is lessstart-up administrative bureaucracythan in France or Italy. Still proximityis an issue; the once-recognizable clus- Google maps 2010: Parister in west London, formerly knownas “Fitztruvia” has largely dispersed, immigrant labor. Designers tend to be New York City was building its ready-relocating to cheaper real estate in East more evenly distributed throughout the to-wear industry and in Japan whichLondon. One new initiative, released in city and less clustered than the manu- rebuilt its economy after World War II2010, is an online database called “Let’s facturers, wholesalers, and suppliers. by developing a textile industry. In Ja-Make it Here” that contains a complete Paris is home to nearly 8,000 firms in pan, this industry accounted for 48% ofdirectory of manufacturers. This was the apparel industry but New York has exports in 1950, but decreased to 4.9%a public/private venture created as a more than Paris and Milan combined. by 1980, as the economy changed.step toward simplifying the process of (Lepore/Ryan, 2010) Much manufactur-finding skilled manufacturing services ing has fled to Asia and very little takes The majority of supplies to the U.S. andin the UK. place in Paris. Of the manufacturing Europe come from Asia, with China as that continues in France, it is mostly the clear leader. Chinese advantagesIf New York City– like London– loses found in the western and southern parts with respect to other countries in theits core manufacturing services, de- of the country. An effort is underway region such as Bangladesh, Cambodia,signers will need to search for these by French design companies to restore and the Philippines, is abundant labor,services elsewhere and may leave in manufacturing capacity in an attempt to proximity to fabric sources, high pro-order to be closer to centers of design restore the prominence of the Made in ductivity, and better infrastructure—anand production. London has respond- France label. improving highway system, and easiered to this loss of its garment core by access to air, marine and rail transpor-helping to create a sourcing database Globalization of production tation terminals.to connect the manufacturers that re- Over the last five decades, the US andmain with designers, an initiative that Europe have increasingly relied on Asiarelies on the collaboration of the de- imports from developing countries. China has been the largest garment ex-sign community and the government. The low cost of labor in Asia and Latin porter since 1994; however it has few America provides, in many cases, sig- big design brands of its own. WhileParis nificant costs savings. Emerging econo- mass production of garment goods hasIn Paris, the fashion industry has been mies typically follow this development relocated to various Asian countries,historically clustered in the 2nd and process partially because garment pro- China has maintained the lead through3rd arrondissements. Initially, the duction requires a comparatively lower a combination of models for stream-industry grew in the eastern suburbs investment in technology. This was the lined garment manufacturing.because of a concentration of skilled case during the mid 19th century when MAS 2011 Garment District Report 39
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSMany of the models of mass produc- One of the key strengths of the Chinese strategically located in China to taketion that are now in place in China are production model is their ability to advantage of the low-cost labor supply,simply not possible in the Garment coordinate sophisticated sourcing and and most importantly the reliability ofDistrict with its space constraints; production. By having considerable the infrastructure. This manufacturinghowever the approach to coordinat- administrative operations and systems complex is a ninety- minute drive froming manufacturing is something that in place, these companies are able to re- Hong Kong, where foreign companieshas potential in New York City. In spond quickly to change and add value had already been relocating design andaddition, despite China’s meteoric rise at each step of the product development development employees. It was builtthere are a number of challenges the process and save design companies a lot to accommodate 8,400 employees inmanufacturing industry faces which of the work of sourcing and coordinat- 1.4 million square feet of productionover the coming years may call in to ing production. Two large companies, and worker housing space. The Luenquestion decisions to locate production Luen Thai and Li & Fung represent two Thai campus factory model providesthere. While there may be signifi- different but important models of large full amenities to designers, productioncant cost advantages to production in scale manufacturing in Asia. developers and retail executives withChina, the trade-off is less flexibility the center’s first-class hotel and con-in terms of production schedules and Luen Thai improved the interaction solidates all of the services a designerthe iterative design processes can often between designers and the rest of the or buyer would need in one location.be difficult if the designer is based supply system through a two-foldelsewhere. strategy. Creating large apparel design Manufacturing generally represents facilities called “supply-chain cities” about one-third of the total costs ofGarment production in China has enabled Luen Thai to integrate the dif- garment production. The other two-traditionally been located in coastal ferent phases required to launch a new thirds are soft costs—design, logistics,areas where manufacturers were able to apparel product from start to finish in handling, and transportation. Apparelfind qualified workers and easy access to one place. This model consolidated the companies often focus on reduc-transportation infrastructure for export- creative process where designers could ing the manufacturing cost but Luening. Beginning in the 1970s, the govern- create the initial design, choose fabric, Thai realizes savings for its customersment’s Open Door policy and Economic buttons and other components, see a by cutting other costs as well. WithDevelopment Zones targeted coastal prototype, alter it, and have the finished everything in one location, develop-areas for building industry. More than product shipped directly to their store, ment teams from designer firms are70% of China’s apparel production is all under one roof. able to reduce development time to aconcentrated in three coastal provinces matter of hours rather than the days(Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu) and two The first “supply chain city” was built it might take to source materials fromriver deltas (Pearl River and Yangtze in Dongguan in 1999. This facility was other locations. Some supply chain cityRiver). Besides the well-equipped infra-structure in the region and the low costof labor, the higher population density,higher incomes, and better education ofresidents means more fashion awarenessand better domestic market potentialthan what is available further inland.As China’s industrial economy matures,garment manufacturing is migratingfurther inland moving closer to cheapand low-skilled labor. Meanwhile, high-er skilled labor centers, which includemore advanced garment production,electronics, and heavy equipment, are photo: Giles Ashfordreplacing the low-skill factories. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 40
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSfactories even have in-house designers early 1900s with the founder acting different countries and from multipleon staff to work with product develop- as intermediary between American manufacturers and suppliers. This mod-ers from the large design firms. This and European companies and Chinese el of manufacturing was particularlyopportunity resulted in a considerable factories. Over the years, the com- useful when the quota system restrictedshortening of the development phase, pany’s foreign clients became more the amount of production for specificreducing a process that would normal- sophisticated and traditional models countries. Large agents, like Li & Fung,ly take weeks into just a couple of days, of Chinese trade began to change. In advise clients when and where to moveconsiderably increasing profits. the late 1970s, the company underwent production to remain in compliance. a major overhaul and developed what They also specialize in helping theirThe “supply-chain city” model trans- has now become the modern supply clients find the most cost-effective solu-formed the apparel industry, allowing chain management model. Li & Fung tions during each portion of the design,the designer to develop the prototype is considered a “smokeless factory”, a manufacturing and shipping process.at the overseas factory and have it producer that doesn’t own factories or For every garment, agents source theshipped directly to the retailer. The manage factory workers. Instead they best quality materials and services at“city” included design studio space manage production, contracting out the lowest price. A single garment mayfor companies to relocate design and to several different manufacturers at a consist of yarn from Korea that wasdevelopment staff. In addition, the time. Not owning factories allows Li & dyed and weaved in Taiwan with zip-concept also incorporated free show- Fung to have greater flexibility because pers from a Japanese company that pro-room space for material providers. it is able to base decisions on meeting duces in China. The same garment mayThis guaranteed a permanent oppor- client’s needs instead of exhausting then be manufactured simultaneouslytunity to interact with suppliers of raw its own production capacity. It also across five Thai factories to provide amaterial, allowing them to evaluate allows the company to respond quickly quick turnaround for a 100,000 pieceand re-consider materials during the to changes in tariffs, regulations and order. This method of supply- chaindevelopment phases of the product. labor shortages. management can reduce a typical eight-Finally, Luen Thai developed inven- week production cycle to three weekstory management programs to create Dispersed manufacturing allows indi- and allow clients to replenish theira more efficient interaction between vidual components of each product to merchandise more frequently, allowingdesigners/retailers that improved the be sourced, produced and finished in a quick response to consumer trends.effectiveness of distribution.Luen Thai is a firm that helps a de-signer develop, source, produce, packand ship their product all with onecompany. Difficulty finding that muchspace may prevent manufacturersfrom being able to replicate the LuenThai model at the same scale in NewYork City; nonetheless, the GarmentDistrict is uniquely positioned to buildon existing concentrations of apparelmanufacturers, suppliers and design-ers, to better coordinate services andcreate shared spaces for designers andrelated service providers.Another important production modelis represented by firms like Li & Fungwhich is a family- owned business photo: Giles Ashfordthat started in Canton, China in the MAS 2011 Garment District Report 41
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALS HOW DOES THE QUOTA SYSTEM WORK? In order to protect their domestic apparel industries, industrialized countries have created bilateral agreements between importers and exporters establishing a quota system for the amount of apparel to be traded. The quotas were part of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing or ATC, that were originally established under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a short- term measure to allow the US and Europe to adjust to emerging competition from other parts of the world. This system led to the creation of the Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA) in 1974. This mechanism set annual quotas to limit the amount of apparel imported from each country. By 1983Li & Fung works with over 12,000 the quota system heavily regulated the apparel industry to controlmanufacturers and suppliers. As a the volume of exports from developing countries to industrializedvaluable customer, Li & Fung is able toleverage its relationships with sup- nations.pliers and manufacturers to drivedown cost, ensure higher quality, and To circumvent the quota system, US and European designers andplace reserves on raw materials andproduction availability on its clients’ retailers import from multiple suppliers, creating markets to tradebehalf. However, there are disadvan- import rights for different products, and between countries. As a re-tages to this supply chain model. For sult, this process created a fragmented array of individual supplyinginstance, Li & Fung must build close companies that required coordination. Intermediary firms becamerelationships with manufacturers andsuppliers to ensure quality and labor necessary to coordinate products that sometimes were made in dif-standards are met. Clients must also ferent factories and even different countries. In order to orchestrateturn over a great deal of trust to the this multi-stakeholder sourcing process, these companies haveagent as they have less ability to exert been in charge of contracting with factories, monitoring compliancecontrol when dispersed production oc-curs. For fashion companies where the with contracts, arranging the sourcing of raw materials and gettinginteraction between the designer and them delivered to the factories and then managing the logistics ofthe manufacturer is critical for product getting finished goods back to designers and retailers.development - particularly when de-veloping innovative styles- this modeldoes not work as well. The memorandum of understanding or “Bilateral Textile Agreement” between the US Government and the People’s Republic of ChinaIndustry challenges faced by China concerning trade in textile and apparel products was implementedCosts for raw materials and labor haverisen steadily in China, forcing some on January 1, 2006 and expired on December 31, 2008. The agree-companies to look at sourcing from ment included 34 categories of textiles and apparel from China thateven less expensive production centers were covered by 21 annual absolute quota limits. On January 1st,like Vietnam and Cambodia. Labor 2005 over 40 years of quotas on global trade in clothing and textilesshortages in China’s manufacturingzones, particularly in the lowest-pay- were eliminated. Over the past several years, ATC quotas have beening jobs, are forcing manufacturers to removed in phases.pay higher wages. This labor crunch MAS 2011 Garment District Report 42
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALS Recently it has become clear to the sales. Despite the strengths that make Chinese government that the pollution NYC the most important US destina- problem is and will continue to nega- tion for fashion buyers, cities like Las tively impact the economy. To begin to Vegas constitute growing competition. deal with the issue, China’s Develop- ment Research Center commissioned The 2009 NYCEDC report Strengthen- researchers from around the world ing NYC’s Fashion Wholesale Market to come up with solutions. Research- highlighted some of the challenges. ers suggested the creation of a “Green Half of NYC’s fashion event attend- Trade Policy” to encourage sustainable ees and buyers surveyed in this study cotton growing, supply chains, and agree that Las Vegas is NYC’s biggest textile production. The commission also competitor, followed by 22% of respon- suggested the use of dyeing technol- dents that identify Los Angeles. In ad- ogy that uses decreased levels of toxic dition, 31% of the buyers surveyed had chemicals and does not require mas- reduced their number of annual visits sive amounts of water. The Chinese to NYC in the past two to three years. government has also begun working photo: Giles Ashford with organizations such as the Natural The survey indicates that the higher Resources Defense Council (NRDC), cost associated with visiting NYC who has developed a process outlining (mainly hotel expenses) is one of thehas hit the textile industry particularly the “Ten Best Practices for Textile Mills biggest concerns. Along with ac-hard and many factories have had to to Save Money and Reduce Pollution.” commodation cost, hotel availability,close or move to lower-cost areas. (Greer, 2010) difficulty getting to and from facilities and to and from NYC, represent someIn addition, the environmentally haz- As the regulatory system in China be- of the other reasons visitors prefer Lasardous process of making fabrics and gins to tighten some of the production Vegas instead of NYC.leather goods tends to dictate where advantages of manufacturing in Chinathese facilities can locate. Countries will diminish or disappear entirely. Las Vegas has emerged as one of thewith the least strenuous environmental biggest apparel and fashion wholesaleregulations tend to become hosts for Las Vegas & Los Angeles locations in the US. Seven of the larg-these processes. This has triggered There is no other city in North America est apparel shows in the country takeshifts in leather manufacturing from with the same concentration of fashion place in Las Vegas, drawing 380,000Europe to emerging Asian countries and apparel designers, manufacturers, attendees. Some of the most importantdue to tightening European environ- and wholesale businesses as NYC. Its events are the Men’s Apparel Guild inmental regulations. diversity of brands, including interna- California (MAGIC) and the World tional designers, and its strategic loca- Shoe Show (WSS).Although China’s government has tion in Midtown Manhattan—close tocreated environmental guidelines and hotels, cultural attractions, restaurants Today, MAGIC is a 1 million squarepolicies to curb pollution, there is little and other amenities—give the district a foot exhibition show, attracting overenforcement of national environmental comparative advantage for national and 95,000 visitors from the US andpolicies at the local level. Local agen- international buyers. abroad. It is one of the largest tradecies often ignore violations because of shows of men’s, women’s, children’seconomic development incentives. With Wholesale represents the largest sector apparel and accessories. Founded inChinese activists linking factories with of the NYC fashion industry. As docu- 1933 as an association of Los Angelesquestionable practices to the compa- mented in the EDC 2011 snapshot of the menswear manufacturers, the shownies that purchase their products, large fashion industry, wholesale and design opened to worldwide manufacturersAmerican retailers that source from employ 50,000 people and include 5,932 in 1979, and relocated to Las Vegas tenChina, such as Wal-Mart and Nike, need businesses. Altogether, these operations years after to accommodate this growth.to be mindful of their reputation. represent $34.7 billion dollars in annual In 1995, MAGIC expanded to include MAS 2011 Garment District Report 43
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSwomen’s apparel in a joint venture withWomen’s Wear Daily, creating WWD-MAGIC. And in 1997, MAGIC pur-chased Children’s Trade Expo to launchMAGIC kids. These tradeshows werethen acquired to become a subsidiary ofAdvanstar Communications, Inc.Las Vegas trade shows take advantageof the hotel infrastructure developedto cater to the needs of the casinoindustry. As documented by EDC, LasVegas had 140,000 hotel rooms in 2009with 40,000 in the pipeline. Theseamenities have positioned the city asan ideal destination for trade shows,with approximately 490,000 trade photo: Timothy Coghlanshow visitors over the course of 33shows. In comparison, NYC convenes300,000 people throughout 70 shows. center of fashion-related activity in LA District, wholesaling represents the county with 41% of all fashion-related largest sector of growth in the LA’sIn order to compete more effectively, businesses located there. Like New fashion district. According to a 2007NYC apparel and fashion event pro- York’s Garment District, LA’s fashion study released by LA’s Fashion Districtducers need additional exhibit space. district is comprised of a mix of retail, BID, over 80% of businesses in the dis-Of the 15 existing apparel and fashion manufacturing, design and wholesaling trict are wholesalers with over 53,000events studied by EDC that require uses. buyers visiting the district annually.additional space 11 of them require As noted in the previous section, NYC400,000 square feet, while the re- This concentration of fashion services fashion event attendees and buyersmaining 4 require 80,000 square feet. has allowed Los Angeles to emerge as surveyed by NYCEDC in 2009 believedHowever, not all of them believe this the major hub for design and produc- LA is New York’s second largest com-additional space should be built as an tion of US denim and casual wear in the petitor for wholesale business, withextension to Javits Center. 67% believe country. Over the last decades, manu- Las Vegas number one.that creating new convention centers facturing and supply businesses havein Manhattan would be the ideal venue increased in LA while they have steadily “The Intersection,” a cluster of build-investment. Others divide equally decreased in the rest of the country. ings in the district located at the inter-between those that favor expanding These services have positioned the section of 9th and Los Angeles Ave., isJavits Center, expanding other venues city as an important hub of innovation, the center of LA’s wholesale business.in the city, creating more special event allowing the establishment of medium This well-known intersection housesspaces, and increasing the number to high end labels for jeans and sports- approximately 1,200 showrooms andof hotels. Only a minority consider wear. LA has successfully strengthened 4,500 fashion brands. In 2003, thisexpanding the meeting space or creat- its manufacturing industry by creating intersection was branded “The Inter-ing new venues in the other boroughs a design, production, and wholesale section,” to promote awareness of thisa priority. An expansion that allowed destination focused on the development incredible concentration of wholesal-for 10 additional shows, drawing 2,000 of a specialized niche product. (Currid; ers and the value of the fashion districtout-of-town attendees would represent Williams, 2011).. overall. In addition to providing regu-a $100 million economic impact. lar service to buyers, businesses work collectively to host five market weeks LA’s wholesale businessLos Angeles Similar to New York City’s Garment at “The Intersection.” Like a tradeLos Angeles’ fashion district is the epi- show, buyers are able to visit multiple MAS 2011 Garment District Report 44
  • LESSONS FROM OTHER FASHION CAPITALSwholesalers in a well-defined area savvy customers. Luxury denim manu- tion methods that were unique to theand shop the market more efficiently. facturers often rely on hand stitching, designer’s needs—oven- baking denim,This unique model allows wholesalers sanding and other fine details that are using balloons to mimic the feel ofto work out of their own space, while difficult to mass produce. In addition, legs for hand sanding, creating plasticbuyers can remain centrally located manufacturers like Caitac have invested coatings to prevent dye rubbing off etc.instead of traveling to a less accessible substantial resources in developing the In order to build on the success of theconvention center. unique equipment and technologies neighborhood the City Redevelopment that allow luxury brands to create the Authority has undertaken a govern- perfect wash, color and fit. ment sponsored $1 million studyLA denim business: creating a niche entitled “Fashion District Design forLos Angeles has positioned itself as the These technologies have been devel- Development” to expand the presenceSilicon Valley of designer denim—serv- oped over a number of years and have of the industry in the area, and exploreing as the capital for luxury denim made local manufacturers so competi- long-term opportunities for the neigh-brands and developing new, innovative tive that premium denim companies, borhood as a mixed-use district.manufacturing processes for high-end such as Bread, moved their productiondenim looks. After experiencing signif- back to the US in the mid 2000’s to take This research initiative has been struc-icant decline when key denim brands advantage of the high quality manufac- tured as a participatory process. It in-such as Tommy Hilfiger and Guess turing and low minimums. As a result, volved different industry stakeholdersJeans Inc. moved their production the luxury denim industry has helped to envision collectively how to build onoverseas in the late 1980’s, LA denim revive US-based denim manufacturing. the progress made given the neighbor-manufacturers were forced to retool While these manufactures no longer hood’s capacity for innovation, whichtheir businesses to remain competitive. produce large volumes of denim, the relies on local design and manufactur-Because of their existing denim infra- margins they create from small luxury ing skills and the proximity of busi-structure, LA’s denim manufacturers denim orders are significant. Caitac nesses. The study examines differentwere uniquely positioned to meet the earns approximately $30/pair for creat- areas of opportunity including physicalemerging demand for high-end denim ing unique washes on premium denim, and economic development, long-termin early 2000. versus $2/pair on traditional denim. In industry opportunities, the encourage- addition, emerging designers are able ment of other creative industries, andCaitac Garment Processing has to place smaller orders and like those promotional opportunities for LA’semerged as a leader in premium denim in NYC’s Garment District, they benefit garment center. (Los Angeles Citymanufacturing—producing jeans for from having hands-on access to their Redevelopment Authority, 2011)brands such as 7 for All Mankind, Pa- products through the entire productper Denim & Cloth, and True Religion. development process.What makes Caitac and other localdenim manufacturers competitive is These denim manufactures took thetheir ability to provide handcrafted time and resources to create produc-details that meet the expectations of MAS 2011 Garment District Report 45
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTIV. AREAS OFOPPORTUNITY MAS 2011 Garment District Report 46
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYThe emergence of manufacturing overseas, particularly in Asia, means that the gar-ment center will never be the global manufacturing hub it was at its peak in theearly to mid-20th century. Nonetheless our analysis of the Garment District clearlydemonstrates that it is the most important fashion hub in the world with criticalstrengths to build on, as well as some important challenges to be addressed. As NewYork City considers the future of manufacturing and the design industries the Gar-ment District helps to support, we need to be very mindful of these strengths in or-der to fully realize NYC’s economic potential.The following areas of opportunities and challenges lay the groundwork for our recommendations.The garment district offers an Los Angeles has proven that it is pos- ways to support this area as a uniqueincredibly unique combination of sible to build a district that supports neighborhood, integrated with the restresources to support fashion garment manufacturing. In the last of Downtown; while also reinforcinginnovation. twenty years Los Angeles’ garment the district’s position as a preeminentThe Garment District cluster is an im- district has emerged as an international international fashion center. Theportant resource for the entire fashion center of design, development and study will develop an implementa-industry and fashion related industries. production of denim and sportswear—a tion plan and address multiple issuesA comparable cluster does not exist process that is anchored in its down- including: market feasibility, land use,anywhere else in the world. This core town manufacturing cluster. The City streetscapes improvements, transpor-of manufacturing, design, and whole- of Los Angeles is in the process of com- tation, sustainability, and public art &sale is surrounded by unparalleled pleting an 18 month long study to find creativity. This is exactly the kind offashion schools and fashion media – anincredibly unique asset.Our research in Europe has docu-mented that many other internationalfashion capitals have lost their manu-facturing core and are struggling tore-build it. London’s manufacturingcore for example was lost due to realestate pressures and lack of a long termplanning framework. With signifi-cant government support, Milan hasrebuilt their manufacturing base in aregional manufacturing network underthe Made in Italy system. New Yorkneeds to be very careful to not lose thiscluster. The resources it would take tore-create it are much more significantthan finding ways to put it on firmerfooting. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 47
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYcareful analysis we think New York ticular is experiencing a labor shortageCity’s Garment District needs, of 2 million workers. (Bradsher, 2007)reaching far beyond the real estate andzoning questions that often dominate Trends in Asian manufacturingthe discussion. If we fail to carefully highlight the comparative advan-examine these opportunities NYC runs tages of the Garment District as athe very real risk of falling behind our platform to sample, develop andAmerican competitors. produce short runs in their own neighborhood.Meanwhile, garment manufacturers At the 2010 MAS Summit for Newin China have expanded their role York City Andrew Rosen, President offrom production to managing other Theory, explained that it is becomingaspects of the supply chain. more and more expensive andTo make the research and development challenging to produce in Asia,process possible overseas, Chinese gar- particularly in China, because ofment factories have created an inter- transportation and logistical expenses.face that enables designers to interactwith the manufacturing process. The important pool of skilled labor that exists in the district and its ca- photo: Giles AshfordCompanies like Luen Thai have con- pacity to turn around orders quickly,solidated production in a few factories reducing the waiting time dramatically,and expanded their services to cover but does not work as well for small runs have been two important reasons NYCmany aspects of the supply chain. or sample development, when design- based design companies continue toThey have created entire garment ers need to be in close contact with focus segments of their production inmanufacturing campuses to offer the manufacturing process in order to the US.all the amenities required by shape and adapt the garment through-designers, from manufacturing facili- out production. It is also a very rigid The Garment District allows designersties, to logistics and accommodation. and capital intensive production model, to respond more quickly to theDesigners can visit one of these supply with large facilities and large initial in- demands of the marketplace andchain cities and develop a prototype, vestment, often with significant govern- capitalize on trends. Established de-produce it, and then distribute it all ment subsidy, that does not lend itself signers take advantage of the servicesfrom one place. well to market changes. in the district to produce second and third runs of pieces that have sold outThis type of interactivity represents However, given changing conditions in stores. As described by staff froma structural difference in the role of in China design brands have moved Nanette Lepore, a well-known NYCthe garment manufacturing company, their production to other countries. based design label, they work with lo-where under traditional garment Costs for raw materials and labor have cal companies to respond to the marketmanufacturing models, designers risen steadily in China, forcing some and quickly produce merchandise towould place orders with a non- companies to source from cheaper coun- replenish popular collections. Produc-manufacturing third party who would tries like Vietnam and Cambodia. Labor ing with local factories, allows themthen orchestrate production with shortages in China’s manufacturing to fill these orders in significantly lessmultiple factories often located in dif- zones, particularly in the lowest-paying time than it takes to produce overseas.ferent countries to assemble a finished jobs, are lifting wages. This labor crunchproduct. has hit the textile industry particularly The Garment District is also a critical hard and many factories have had to resource for emerging designers whoThis coordinated model for manufac- close or move to lower-cost areas. Some cannot afford to export production andturing and distribution accompanied production activity has shifted to interior rely on the interaction with manufact-by the relatively low cost of production provinces from the traditional coastal urers to shape the product. The rela-works very efficiently for larger orders, manufacturing hubs. Guangdong in par- tionship between emerging designers MAS 2011 Garment District Report 48
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYis one of the most important elements train students in vocational skills such school provides a rich pool of resourc-of the Garment District. Manufact- as sewing, cutting, grading and tailor- es for the city’s fashion industry. (USurers will often produce samples for a ing, in order to provide the industry News & World Report: College Guide,young designer at cost in an attempt to with a trained workforce. Located just 2011)help get a designer started and hope- blocks away from the Garment Districtfully build a relationship which will on West 24th Street, HSFI’s current In addition to their undergraduate andlead to more orders. curriculum reflects the needs of today’s graduate programs, FIT offers execu- industry and offers four majors: Fash- tive education programs designed forManufacturers are also constantly ion Design, Fashion Marketing, Visual senior and mid-level executives work-evolving to better fit the demands Merchandising and Graphics and Il- ing in retail, fashion and related busi-of the marketplace and have lustration. nesses. These programs are tailored toincredible entrepreneurial energy. the needs of individual companies andGarment manufacturers are specialists The Garment District is also home to are focused on variety of topics includ-that survive primarily because of their two of the most prestigious fashion ing; managing in a creative industry,locational advantage in the center schools in the world- Parsons the New entrepreneurship and leadership.of NYC’s fashion industry, near design- School for Design and the Fashioners and buyers, and because of their Institute of Technology (FIT). These Marketing efforts need to leveragespecific expertise. schools, with the addition of Manhat- the CFDA and the fashion media tan’s LIM College, the New York School and build on other efforts.Like Milan, garment manufacturers in of Design, the Wood Tobe-Coburn One of the American fashion indus-the district tend to be small companies, School and Pratt, another notable fash- try’s greatest promoters is the Coun-generally between 5-20 employees. ion school located in Brooklyn, create cil of Fashion Designers of AmericaTheir small size allows much more one of the greatest fashion industry Inc. (CFDA). Since its inception, theflexibility to adapt to market changes training grounds available anywhere in CFDA has helped promote the work ofand demands. the world. American fashion designers through- out the world. Founded in 1962 byBased upon our case study research New York’s fashion schools draw tal- American publicist Eleanor Lambert,of garment manufacturing firms that ented students from all over the world. the CFDA is a non-profit trade associa-remain in the district, they have con- According to Parsons’ estimates, 78% tion invested in ensuring the futuretinued to diversify their businesses. of their students come from out of state of the industry. Before founding theSome have begun to use their expertise with 34% from out of the country. Their CFDA, Eleanor Lambert was Pressin manufacturing to start labels of their students come to New York for the Director for the American fashionown. opportunity to learn from industry pro- industry’s first promotional organiza- fessionals, many of whom continue to tion, the New York Dress institute,In addition, many have grown work as consultants to major brands or created in 1941 by the union and dressincreasingly technologically savvy in fashion labels of their own. Parsons’ manufacturers with the objective ofusing newer machinery to improve curriculum also stresses innovation by making New York a world fashionproduction techniques encouraging interdepartmental collabo- center. (Rantisi, 2004) At the insti- rations and external partnerships and tute, Lambert organized New York’sThe fashion and design schools that helps students secure internships with semi-annual Fashion Press Week toowe their existence to the Garment established labels such as Calvin Klein, showcase designer collections for theDistrict are an incredible asset that J Crew and Ralph Lauren. international press. She initiated aneeds to be more fully leveraged. similar schedule for European fashionIn New York City students can begin As part of the State University of New capitals, establishing the coordinateda career in the fashion industry as York or SUNY system, the Fashion centralized showings now followedearly as the 9th grade by attending Institute of Technology (FIT) attracts around the world.Manhattan’s High School of Fashion a number of in-state students. With aIndustries (HSFI). Founded in 1926, staggering 93% of FIT’s students re- The CFDA remains vital to the Ameri-the HSFI was originally established to maining in the city after graduation, the can Fashion industry by promoting MAS 2011 Garment District Report 49
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYthe work of American designers and CFDA partnering with the New York to communicate the importance of thisencouraging industry innovation. Lo- City Economic Development Corpora- industry to broader audiences and tocated in the heart of New York City’s tion (NYC EDC) to create the CFDA consumers.Garment District, CFDA membership Fashion Incubator. Located in Manhat-includes 370 of America’s leading tan’s Garment District, the incubator Changing Consumer Behaviorwomenswear, menswear, jewelry, and provides twelve designers with two years In the US, a growing number ofaccessory designers, such as Diane of low-cost design studio space, business consumers want to know where thevon Furstenberg and Michael Kors. mentoring, educational seminars, and products they buy are made. A recentThe Council promotes the industry by networking opportunities. In May of survey conducted by American Ex-hosting annual awards such as the De- 2012, the second round of startups will press and the Harrison Group, a luxurysigner of the Year /Swarovski Awards, move in to the incubator, replacing de- research firm, found that sixty-fiveamong others, which recognize leading signers— such as Prabal Gurung, Bibhu percent of wealthy Americans try todesigners for their outstanding con- Mohapatra and Alice Ritter—that have buy local goods whenever possible.tribution to the industry. These events been in the space since 2010. The NYC Another marketing firm, Unityreceive a great deal of media atten- EDC provided the CFDA with a three- Marketing, found a similar trend:tion, promoting the American fashion year, $200,000 grant to help establish theindustry throughout the world. incubator, after which they hope it will “One of the most powerful trends to be self-sustaining. emerge in the latest survey is that luxu-The CFDA has also partnered with ry consumers are getting more aware ofsome the nation’s top companies such With the consolidation of industry where their favorite luxury brands areas Vogue, Target and Saks Fifth Avenue unions and the decision to move manu- sourced... It suggests opportunities forto offer initiatives to help support facturing overseas, garment industry brands to create awareness in the mindseducation in the industry. The mar- businesses have become more depen- of luxury consumers about the place ofketing power of the CFDA and the dent on designers for their voice. The manufacture and how to position ‘place’fashion media based in New York City manufacturers located in the district to influence the consumer toward pur-to support the design and production are small businesses and without a chase.” (Danziger, 2011)that happens in NYC is a tremendously unifying entity, such as unions, theyunderutilized asset. lack the platform they once had. These New York City is incredibly well businesses need the strong voice of the positioned to take advantage of thisThere have been some encouraging CFDA and the fashion media along with increasing trend in the luxury market.signs of investment, including the a coalition of like-minded organizations Although manufacturing has declined sharply in the last decade, New York remains a niche market for high end manufacturing. (Crean/ Doeringer, 2006) In addition to its manufacturing base, New York City’s name lends itself well to a marketing campaign as it already has for companies like DKNY or Brooklyn Industries. The city attracted 48.8 million visitors in 2010 alone. (NYC & Co., 2011) With more retailers than anywhere else in the country and billions of dollars in visitor spending, New York City is an ideal location for a well-designed and executed place- based marketing campaign. photo: Giles Ashford MAS 2011 Garment District Report 50
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYSustainability is an increasingly others. Since 2009 these groups have beginning to address these questions.important concept in manufactur- been working toward an industry-wide Transprint, a company with offices ining. index to measure the environmental New York City’s Garment District andA recent Harvard Business Review performance of individual products. manufacturing plants in Harrisonburg,article noted that sustainability is a This initiative builds on previous work Virginia is developing AirDye, an inno-key driver of innovation. Companies undertaken through the Outdoor Indus- vative technology that uses air insteadthat invest in it to improve their public try Association Eco Index, and Nike’s of water to convey dye and decorateimage, end-up reducing costs and/ Environmental Apparel Design tools. textiles, reducing the dependency onor creating new business. (Hanson, (Sustainable Apparel Industry Coalition water and the emission of hazard-Joyce. 2009) A focus on the environ- Group. 2011) ous waste. (AirDye. 2011.) Through amental and social costs of garment design center located in the Garmentproduction will only make domestic This information will be made public, District, designers have the opportu-production– where labor and environ- allowing consumers to quantify the nity to explore the possibilities of thismental standards are higher—more at- individual impact of each product. This product with the manufacturer, takingtractive for companies. In addition, as will be a critical piece of information, this product straight to the runways ofconsumers become increasingly aware given the growing consumer demand fashion week.of environmental and labor practices for organic and environmentallyabroad, designers may be less willing friendly products--which is expected to Jeffrey Costello and Robert Tagliapi-to take the risk of linking their compa- increase with a better informed audi- etra’s collection launched at the Springnies with these practices. ence on the environmental and social 2010 Ready-To-Wear NYC fashion impacts of clothing. More broadly, this week is an example of the possibilitiesAs reported in the New York Times, in initiative will create industry standards, of the AirDye technology. As pub-places like Xintang, China -- the world like the minimum number of miles per lished by Women’s Wear Daily, thesecapital of blue jeans production -- gallon set by the US government for au- designers “... turned out a collection ofconsumers can see blue dye and other tomobiles, allowing companies to clean eco-friendly clothes, without sacrific-chemicals washing down the river their supply chains, locally and abroad. ing beauty and design.” (AirDye 2011.)with just a few clicks in Google Earth. This type of technological innovation,(Zeller, 2011) Chemicals used in the Some US-based companies are already deriving from the manufacturers ofdying process along with other organicmaterials, starches and bleach createtoxic wastewater that requires care-ful disposal. Due to the high demandof low cost cotton products, China hastraditionally forgone the expensivetreatment necessary to treat contami-nated water. (Scott, 2005) Much ofthis water has been discarded straightinto China’s rivers without treatment ordilution. This situation has generatedinternational interest in finding collab-orative solutions to reduce the variousimpacts of garment manufacturing.The Sustainable Apparel CoalitionGroup is a volunteer coalition thatworks with major stakeholders likePatagonia, Timberland, Wal-Mart,JC Penney, H&M, and the US Envi- photo: Giles Ashfordronmental Protection Agency, among MAS 2011 Garment District Report 51
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITY framework. As reported by several stakeholders, such as the New York Industrial Retention Network, lack of enforcement of zoning restrictions has allowed the conversion of hundreds of thousands of square feet of manu- facturing space to other uses, mostly office space. There is a need for a more up-to-date plan for the neighborhood and the industry’s future. Such a plan would need to recognize that the introduc- tion of new uses - in particular Class B and C office space - is reflective of an important evolution in the city’s economy, but also must seek to provide photo: Giles Ashford a stable home for manufacturing and design to flourish.highly engineered raw materials work- Without a clear commitment to light Manufacturing is clustering ining with designers, enables product manufacturing activity, manufact- specific buildings within theinnovation, while improving environ- uring tenants find themselves Garment District.mental performance. competing with speculation and the 589,820 square feet or 44.5% of the prospect of other higher paying total manufacturing space surveyed byMost of the recent attention that tenants that threaten to displace the CFDA and the Fashion Center BIDhas been given to the fashion indus- them—particularly office tenants in is concentrated in just 9 buildings. Antry has been focused on the needs search of class B and C office space. additional 306,416 square feet of manu-of designers. The zoning framework put in place facturing space, or 23.1%, is locatedRecently, the New York City Economic in 1987 and modified in 2005 no within another 9 buildings.Development Corporation created six longer represents a clear regulatory By further concentrating these manu-initiatives to bolster long-term growthin the fashion industry. These initia-tives combined with the creation of thefashion incubator, which was createdin partnership with the CFDA in thespring of 2010 constitute an importantcollection of government-sponsoredmechanisms meant to support thefuture of the industry. (NYCEDC, 2010;NYCEDC, 2009) However, these initia-tives focus almost exclusively on theneeds of young and emerging design-ers, helping them develop successfulbusiness plans, expand their retailopportunities, and provide them withtemporary affordable space in the gar-ment district. photo: Giles Ashford MAS 2011 Garment District Report 52
  • AREAS OF OPPORTUNITYfacturing uses in particular buildings economic downturn, the pressure towe can provide a sustainable platform convert apparel manufacturing space tofor the amount of manufacturing that other uses is no longer as intense. Theexists in the Garment District today. companies MAS interviewed suggestThese garment manufacturing build- that the current economic climate hasings can potentially also provide a slowed down real estate pressures andconvenient location for designers and landlords are now more likely to securebuyers and help create a more sophis- longer leases to manufacturing tenants,ticated and vertical manufacturing or provide them with rent deferrals.model similar to what companies like However, all of them expressed thatLuen Thai have done with their supply there is a struggle to find affordablechain city. manufacturing space, which often forces them to move once their leaseThe current real estate market has expires. This provides an importantcreated some breathing room for opportunity to re-think the regulatorymanufacturing tenants and policy- structure; the recommendations thatmakers. follow is an effort to lay out some newIn 2007 when the last rezoning pro- approaches to these questions.posal was discussed, the real estatemarket was at a high point. Since the MAS 2011 Garment District Report 53
  • FASHIONING THE FUTURE: NYC’s GARMENT DISTRICTV. RECOMMENDATIONS MAS 2011 Garment District Report 54
  • RECOMMENDATIONSThe following recommendations flow from a careful recording of the history of thefashion industry, an examination of our competitors, and a thorough analysis of thecompetitive advantages of the Garment District. These recommendations offer anagenda for a conversation that needs to continue to develop between the stakehold-ers. Ultimately lasting solutions for supporting the fashion industry and the Gar-ment District will emerge from the creativity and energy of those that helped makeNYC the fashion capital of the world. What is clear is that we need to focus on thisneighborhood. The costs of doing nothing are lost jobs, missed opportunities forstrengthening a vital industry, and the erosion of a sector of the economy that in-spires entrepreneurship and helps shape NYC’s identity“Made in NYC” some of the best design and marketingIn the US, a growing number of minds, and with billions of dollars inconsumers want to know where the visitor spending, we should be able toproducts they buy are made. A recent develop a successful a Made in NYCsurvey conducted by American Ex- campaign.press and the Harrison Group, a luxuryresearch firm, found that sixty-five New York currently has a number ofpercent of affluent Americans try to groups engaged in promotional cam-buy local goods whenever possible. An- paigns focused on products that areother marketing firm found a similar made in New York. The website ma-trend. Unity Marketing president Pam deinnyc.org for instance was createdDanziger noted that: by the New York Industrial Retention Network (NYIRN) to support New“One of the most powerful trends to York City businesses, providing manu-emerge in the latest survey is that luxu- facturers a place to list their products.ry consumers are getting more aware of Other resources include, Make it inwhere their favorite luxury brands are Midtown, a site created by Jamessourced... It suggests opportunities for Belzer & handbag designer Michellebrands to create awareness in the minds Vale, which aims to promote New Yorkof luxury consumers about the place of as a fashion capital by highlighting themanufacture and how to position ‘place’ The Garment District at work importance of domestic manufacturingto influence the consumer toward pur- tion translates well into a place-based options. http://www.makeitinmanhat-chase.” (Danziger, 2011) marketing campaign as companies like tan.com/index.html DKNY and Brooklyn Industries haveNew York City is well positioned to demonstrated. The city attracted 48.8 In addition to these groups, New Yorktake advantage of this trend given its million visitors in 2010. (NYC & Co., City’s official marketing arm, NYC &strength in high end manufacturing. 2011) http://www.nycgo.com/articles/ Co. and the NY State’s I Love NY site(Crean/ Doeringer, 2006) New York nyc-statistics-page. With more retailers help increase the visibility of New YorkCity’s reputation and name recogni- than anywhere else in the country, with City based products and services. As MAS 2011 Garment District Report 55
  • RECOMMENDATIONS The National Chamber for Italian Fash- sumers and increase demand for goods ion or Camera Nazionale della Moda manufactured in America. This would Italiana (CNMI,) is an Italian organiza- help American industries break into tion similar to the CFDA that works foreign markets, such as China where a to promote Italy’s fashion industries. demand for designer American brands Located in Milan, it represents over 200 already exists. Prabal Gurung, a critical- Italian fashion companies in various ly acclaimed fashion designer, chosen sectors of the industry encompass- to participate in the CFDA’s Fashion ing the entire production chain from Incubator, said that having a “Made in materials to finished product. One of New York” line has helped him break CNMI’s main functions is to safeguard into the Asian market, stating that and promote Italian fashion. “There has definitely been more open- ness to my brand because we’re made In 2000 CNMI and the Federation in the US…” (Dawson, 2010) Francais de la Couture signed a French- Italian protocol agreement aimed at A suite of initiatives focused on sup- developing and circulating luxury prod- porting local manufacturing couldYeohlee Teng’s storefront on West 38th Street ucts in non-euro areas. The objective include the following:important as these efforts are, they are of the agreement is to create a sharednot connected to each other and they commitment to spreading haute couture • Develop a “Made in NYC” campaignlack the level of visibility that could fashion products in international mar- to encourage designers to use local busi-be created by a more substantial and kets, counter imitations, cooperate in nesses and manufacturers for sourcingfar-reaching branding campaign. The professional training, monitor imports and production and as a way of morepublic sector, the CFDA and the larger from non-European countries, and effectively marketing those productsdesign community, in addition to the increase the industry’s competitiveness that are made in New York City. TheNYC based fashion media all have very within the European Union. marketing talent for this kind of initia-important roles to play in the devel- tive rests with the design, advertising,opment of a Made in NYC label and In the US, national efforts are also retail sectors but it is nonetheless anmarketing campaign. underway to support American manu- initiative that the public sector should facturing. The Obama Administration throw its weight behind. has established a much publicized goalCase Study of Made in Italy to double exports by 2014. To achieve • Create an incentive program that of-The Italian Institute for Foreign this goal the Departments of Commerce fers benefits to designers that manu-Trade also known as the Italian Trade created the Trade Promotion Coordi- facture in the district or elsewhere inCommission or ICE is a government nating Committee which developed a NYC potentially through a reductionagency that develops and promotes strategy, outlined in the National Export or elimination of sales tax for goodstrade between Italy and other coun- Initiative, to increase exports. (National purchased in New York City. The Statetries. The agency is funded by public Export Strategy, 2011) of NY has a tax incentive for filmsand private funds from the Ministry of made in New York and the City of NewInternational Trade and the companies With these policy initiatives at the York, until very recently, had a similarthat utilize their services. ICE works federal level to increase exports, now is incentive which was considered a suc-to support the internationalization of a perfect time to consider a collabora- cess. In addition, the City of New YorkItalian firms and their consolidation in tive campaign to promote American offers free publicity on bus shelters forforeign markets. Although ICE is not products abroad. As the government films made in NYC that meet certainsolely responsible for fashion products, works on fostering connections between criteria, expanding this campaign toItalian fashion figures prominently American manufacturing and foreign garment manufacturing – particu-in the agency’s roster of promotional markets, a concurrent effort focused on larly in the area around the Garmentevents. promoting American made products District and in key retail destinations – would help inform international con- should also be explored. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 56
  • RECOMMENDATIONS• Produce an annual trade show fea-turing designers that manufacture inNew York City. Potentially, as YeohleeTeng and others have suggested, thestreets of the Garment District couldbe used for an open air fashion show.This event could be coordinated withFashion Week or could be held at an-other time of the year.Market the Garment DistrictMuch has been said about the lacklus-ter nature of today’s Garment District photo: Ali Baysestreetscape. The streets, particularlythe side streets, give little indication of THE NEW YORK CREATION LABELthe sophisticated fashion industry that Before the CFDA, dress manufacturers joined forces with the Internationalcalls this area home. This atmospherehas been touted as a reason some fash- Ladies Garment Union and in 1941 formed an organization known as theion firms have moved out of the dis- New York Dress Institute. The Dress Institute’s goal was to market clothingtrict, opting for trendier locations such made in New York by promoting New York as a fashion capitol. The insti-as Chelsea or the Meatpacking Dis- tute created an agreement that specified that one half of one percent oftrict. Improving the physical spaces the cost of every union dress would go into a fund for advertising Ameri-within the district may help maintain can clothes. These clothes were distinguished by a label, called the Newthe critical mass of fashion businesses York Creation label, designed to identify dresses made in New York. Withneeded to keep this neighborhood NewYork’s fashion center. the help of America’s first fashion publicist, Eleanor Lambert, the institute started a group called the New York Couture Group, which was comprisedThe Fashion Center BID has made of the highest quality garment manufacturers in the city and highlightedsome strides in enlivening the streets the top designers of the time. Lambert then started Press Week, invit-over the past few years. One such ing fashion editors from all over the country to New York to get the firstevent, 2010’s SIDEWALK CATWALK, glimpse of the latest fashion. In addition, she established the Best-is a public art event to celebrate Ameri-can fashion. The event featured custom Dressed list, which has since been taken up by Vanity Fair; and created thebuilt mannequins designed by thirty of Coty Awards, the precursor of today’s Council of the Fashion Designers ofthe New York City’s most prominent America Awards. Collectively these innovations helped New York attain itsdesigners along Broadway from Times current status as a major international fashion capitol.Square to Herald Square. Two studentteams, one each from Parsons and FIT,were also invited to design a man- locations of Fashion Week shows. As focused on design and production thatnequin for the show. The show was Broadway has been transformed to the is happening in the Garment District.promoted by Macy’s and the New York north with the investment and energy of DOT during particular days during theTimes. More recently, the Fashion the Department of Transportation and summer closes off certain streets andCenter BID initiated the Tour de Fash- the Times Square Alliance, opportuni- creatively programs these streets forion, a free bicycle program designed ties to reinvent the public spaces in the use as recreational space. Somethingfor Fashion Week. Thirty bicycles were Garment District need to be explored. similar could be done in the Garmentcustomized by top designers for use Some examples include: District to showcase the creativity andduring September 2011’s fashion week. energy of this neighborhood.Each bike had maps of safe routes • Facilitate permitting for street closuresbetween the Garment District and the in order to hold fashion shows that are MAS 2011 Garment District Report 57
  • RECOMMENDATIONS• Streetscape investments particularly services. This is an approach that could in Made in New York capsule collection.on the avenues where showrooms tend apply in the Garment District which has For instance, the Made in New Yorkto be clustered. Broadway, Seventh a similar concentration of wholesalers. tote bag or the Made in New York tie.Avenue, and Eighth Avenues have a This modest commitment on the parttremendous amount of activity to the Develop capsule collections of established designers would help tonorth of the Garment District in Times Domestic production largely involves demonstrate the manufacturing is stillSquare and further to the south in the small manufacturers and contractors viable in Midtown and simultaneouslyHerald Square/Penn Station neigh- serving niche markets where order sizes create a new marketing hook for theborhood. Improvements along these tend to be smaller. The scale of this designer and retailer.streets should seek to draw people type of production could be a model forfrom these surrounding hubs into and expanding local production through cap- Improve the trade showthrough the Garment District. Because sule collections. The idea of a capsule experienceof the very heavy pedestrian volumes, collection is to extend the production In a survey of fashion designers thatexpanding the sidewalks in critical lo- season, by developing smaller collections EDC conducted with the assistance ofcations and potentially at intersections created during periods in the fashion the Council of Fashion Designers ofshould also be considered in order to season when manufacturers are not America, designers said they neededimprove the pedestrian experience. as busy. Smaller runs are often more help marketing the importance and cost-effective because the higher cost value of NYC fashion to buyers, trade• As the Fashion Center BID has noted of labor for each garment is recouped show exhibitors and event producers.in their annual reports there is signifi- through cost savings for freight and They also pointed out the need to im-cant retail vacancy throughout the BID through marketing opportunities for a prove the scheduling and marketing ofarea. Aggressively using this under- select, more exclusive collection. One the NYC Market Week/Fashion Week,used space for fashion pop up stores approach, working closely with some of and improve trade show/runway showwould help to both create a livelier en- the prominent design firms based in New facilities.vironment on the street and potentially York, the CFDA, and retailers wouldmarket the design and manufacturing be to establish a commitment to either The majority of showroom tenantstalent of the Garment District. produce or help to promote a particular and owners agree that having a large• “The Intersection” a cluster of build-ings located at the intersection of 9thand Los Angeles Ave., is the center ofLA’s wholesale business. This well-known intersection houses approxi-mately 1,200 showrooms and 4,500fashion brands. In 2003, this intersec-tion was branded “The Intersection”,to promote awareness of this incred-ible concentration of wholesalers andthe value of the fashion district overall.In addition to providing regular serviceto buyers, businesses work collectivelyto host five market weeks at “The In-tersection.” Like a trade show, buyersare able to visit multiple wholesalers ina well-defined area and shop the mar-ket more efficiently. This unique modelallows wholesalers to work out of theirown space, while buyers can moreeasily and quickly locate goods and 8th Avenue MAS 2011 Garment District Report 58
  • RECOMMENDATIONS local firms upon graduating. However, the reliance on universities goes deep- er than simply hiring their graduates. In medical fields like biotechnology a large number of innovations come di- rectly from university laboratories. A biological breakthrough is often made in a research department, patented, and then the university enters into an agreement with a private firm that refines the discovery and investigates opportunities for commercialization. Proximity of private firms near uni- versities is what makes this process successful. It allows discovery and in- novation to be translated into commer- cial opportunity. Through internships photo: Timothy Coghlan at design firms, NYC fashion students make connections with potentialcluster in and around the NYC Gar- address industry needs. The public employers and learn to navigate thement District is important. A number sector and the design community have resources of the Garment District.of the respondents identified a need to a particularly important role in leadinga create a mart with dedicated trade- these conversations. NYC is blessed EDC has recognized this connectionshow space, improve signage, maps with a number of the top fashion and and as part of their Fashion NYC 2020and way-finding, and establish a visitor design schools in the world and there campaign has targeted a number ofcenter or buyer center with comput- is also an important opportunity for their investments towards studentsers, bathrooms, and meeting spaces for them to play a more vocal role in these and young designers. Programs likebuyers who are out of town but need conversations. Fashion Campus NYC provide youngto do work in the Garment District. designers with networking oppor-The wholesale segment of the fashion The relationship between universities tunities and time to learn from moreeconomy is one of its strongest assets and particular industry clusters is well- established industry professionals.and improving convention space in documented especially for biomedical There is potential to go further andManhattan, whether at Javits or else- and engineering. The cluster around think about how the Garment Districtwhere, and finding better ways to con- Stanford in Silicon Valley as well as itself can serve as a better resource fornect visitors with this space will be an the high tech corridor around Boston these designers.important step in growing the whole- are two prominent examples. Whatsale segment of the industry. This will both of these regions make clear is that • The fashion schools, using the exten-have the added benefit of improving universities can play a key role in the sive help and on the ground expertisethis experience for buyers across a development of knowledge intensive of students and faculty can help torange of sectors of the economy, not industrial corridors. The synergies create a fashion or Garment Districtjust fashion buyers. between university research depart- mobile app to orient new students to ments and commercial industries allow the wealth of suppliers/manufactur-Leverage partnerships biotechnology innovations to be quickly ers/retailers and to then help provideFundamental to any successful plan adopted, developed, refined, and mar- reviews for these companies. Muchfor the Garment District is harnessing keted by local businesses. of the industry operates on a word ofthe talents of those who are experts mouth basis and connecting youngin this field and bringing these groups In Boston, universities like Harvard designers with these companies willtogether to form partnerships to help and MIT train students that take jobs at only help to expand the customer base MAS 2011 Garment District Report 59
  • RECOMMENDATIONSfor manufacturers and better equipdesigners to one day launch their own THE SILICON VALLEY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CLUSTERcompanies. Frederick Terman was a Stanford University professor, Dean of Engi-• Partnering with business schools to neering and Provost. Terman modeled Stanford’s electrical engineeringcreate MBA & designer teams to help department on MIT after realizing the significance of cooperative educa-develop the next generation of fash- tion programs sponsored by companies such as GE and AT&T. By theion companies. One of the challenges 1930s Terman had built a nationally-recognized graduate program infor getting fashion companies off the electronics at Stanford that both supported student-entrepreneurs suchground is a lack of business expertise. as Hewlett, Packard and Charles Litton and encouraged investment fromNYC has an incredible wealth of MBAprograms so formally connecting the large companies such as GE and RCA, which then contributed to theyoung entrepreneurs in fashion with industry’s growth.those in business could help to createthe kind of collaboration to launch an Terman focused on creating an environment for innovation. Key toidea and start a business. Terman’s success was what he called the “steeple-building” strategy. Instead of competing directly with established universities and firms• Helping to expand the network ofofferings for vocational support. As such as General Electric, he concentrated on the technical niches wherefashion designer Yeohlee Teng asked in northern California had an edge. By hiring some of the best in electronicsMAS’s first panel discussion: “I think (many of them former students) he was able to build highly visible re-that besides it being a real estate and a search and teaching programs in selected specialties that attracted topzoning issue, there’s a human issue we students, federal funding, government (mainly military) subsidies andneed to contend with... If you build an local industry support. In 1951, because his model proved successful, heincubator for supporting young design- was able to create the Stanford Industrial (later Research) Park, whichers, what are you doing to replace the[manufacturing] skills that support is considered one of the most successful efforts to foster academic-them?” industrial cooperation. By developing a high tech park on university land, companies such as Hewlett-Packard, were eager to co-locate and endedConsolidate manufacturing up creating jobs and contributing millions in rent to Stanford.The role of the factories extendsbeyond their individual economiccontribution to providing a structuralsupport to fashion designers and the almost exclusively on support to young cates the total building capacity of theindustry overall. However, most of the and emerging designers – helping them nine buildings with the most amountrecent attention that has been given to to develop successful business plans, of occupied manufacturing spacethe industry has been focused on the expand their retail opportunities, and would be sufficient to host the totalneeds of fashion designers. EDC’s cre- access long-term affordable space in the amount of occupied garment manu-ation of six initiatives to bolster long- Garment District. facturing space currently in use in theterm growth in the fashion industry preservation areas of the special zon-is the most significant initiative since In addition to ideas to help grow the ing district. The CFDA/BID land usethe creation of the fashion incuba- fashion economy, which will help survey documented the presence of ap-tor, which took place in partnership manufacturers increase their orders, proximately 1.34 million square feet ofwith the CFDA in the spring of 2010 there also must be careful attention paid garment manufacturing; this includes(NYCEDC, 2010; NYCEDC, 2009). Al- to securing affordable space. space that is exclusively garment man-together, these initiatives constitute an ufacturing and some space that is aimportant collection of government- As our analysis of land use as well as the mixture of manufacturing and design.sponsored mechanisms to support the analysis undertaking by Joerg Schwartz The 9 buildings with the most amountfuture of the industry but they focus – land use consultant to CFDA - indi- of manufacturing in the district can MAS 2011 Garment District Report 60
  • RECOMMENDATIONS hold over 1.4 million square feet of manufacturing space. Our approach doesn’t necessarily require these particular 9 buildings be the only ones designated for garment manufacturing but because these buildings already have a very significant manufactur- ing presence there will be a minimum amount of relocation involved. In order to consolidate manufacturing in these building there would need to be a sustainable financing mechanism to secure the space, pay for mainte- nance and operation costs, and any required capital improvements. We have identified a number of potential funding streams:Caption: Distribution of land uses in CFDA / FCBID comprehensive study of tenants in buildings within P1 and P2 sec-tions of the special garment center district (CFDA / FCBID, 2009)Manufacturing concentrations MAS 2011 Garment District Report 61
  • RECOMMENDATIONS• Create a tax increment finance In addition to these funding sources, tax-exempt bonds enables borrowers tomechanism for areas of the district to there are a number of incentives to help initiate needed capital improvements atbe re-zoned. When land is re-zoned support this manufacturing space: the lower cost and to better manage thefrom manufacturing to other uses or • NYC Office of Small Business - Indus- timing of their capital investments.when use restrictions are lifted the trial Business Zone Credit (IBZ)public sector is unlocking tremen- A tax credit of $1,000 per relocated Create a governance model for thisdous value for the property owners. A employee is available to help industrial manufacturing spaceportion of the increased tax revenue and manufacturing firms that relocate With the waning influence of unionsgenerated needs to be returned to to one of the City’s sixteen IBZs. Only another organization needs to stepthe Garment District in order to help firms that moved into an IBZ after into this vacuum in order to carefullymanufacturers secure space. This ad- July 1, 2005 are eligible. Currently, the manage the space that is set aside forditional money could help fund a bond Garment District is designated an IBZ manufacturing. Potentially, a non-profitwhich would finance the purchase of ombudsman zone with limited benefit entity could be created to help manage,space by manufacturers or a non-profit to the manufacturers. If manufacturing maintain, and tenant the space. Thisentity representing manufacturers in the Garment District were to be suc- non-profit would need to be represen-thereby helping to alleviate the busi- cessfully consolidated, these building tative of the needs of the manufactur-ness displacement that would other- should be designated IBZs and there- ing and design community. Space inwise occur in a re-zoning. fore eligible for the relocation benefits the building could be leased at a rent that come with the program. The IBZ that would be below market rates or• Increase the assessment on proper- program would serve as a modest incen- potentially space could be purchased byties within the Fashion Center BID. tive for companies to move production a manufacturer at a below market priceOne particular initiative highlighted by into these buildings. but with restrictions on re-sale value tothe Fashion Center BID in their discus- ensure its affordability. Strict enforce-sions of land use, is a proposal to desig- • NYC Department of Finance - In- ment provisions would be prescribednate a building or a couple of buildings dustrial and Commercial Abatement in the lease or in the case of ownershipwith 300,000 to 500,000 square feet Program (ICAP) recorded in a restrictive declarationof space for manufacturing tenants. Property tax abatement for renova- which would run with the property.Funding for this proposal would be tion or construction. To be eligible for A non-profit management structuresecured by issuing a bond that would benefits for commercial renovation, the would also bring with it some tax ben-be funded through an additional busi- building owner may be modernizing or efits that would be helpful in makingness improvement district assessment. improving an existing structure. Poten- this consolidation of manufacturingPotentially, those properties owner tially, this program could be helpful in financially feasible and help limit thethat stand to benefit the most through upgrading these consolidated manu- incentives for illegal conversion.a change in the zoning could pay a facturing buildings and create a mod-higher assessment ern and technologically sophisticated Update the zoning vertical manufacturing facility. Andrew Since the 1987 Special Garment Center• Combine the investment of the Rosen, President of Theory, among District was put in place there havepublic sector and the property owners others has noted the need for more been many changes in New York City’swith funding by a coalition of manu- advanced manufacturing facilities. economy and in the Garment Districtfacturers. A commitment on the part in particular. As is documented by theof the Fashion Center BID to increase • Industrial Development Agency Manu- CFDA/Fashion Center BID land useits assessment and on the part of the facturing Facilities Bond Program survey a significant percentage of theCity to direct additional tax revenues Manufacturers that are acquiring, devel- building’s floor area is no longer gar-toward financing manufacturing space oping, renovating, or equipping facili- ment related space.combined with a commitment on the ties for their own use can access triplepart of the manufacturers to help fund tax-exempt bond financing and reduction The current zoning framework doesn’tthis space would go a long way to se- in real estate tax, deferral of mortgage- match the diversity of activity in thecuring manufacturing space. recording tax, and exemption from sales Garment District nor has it encouraged tax. Financing a project with triple much investment beyond the blocks MAS 2011 Garment District Report 62
  • RECOMMENDATIONSPreservation Areas in the Special Garment Center Districtbetween 8th and 9th Avenues which only become a more important corridor In examining the zoning we identifiedwere re-zoned in 2005 as a part of the between these neighborhoods. It has three important goals:broader Hudson Yards re-zoning. tremendous potential to be a hub of manufacturing, design, and wholesale, o recognize the importance of otherThe neighborhood is positioned surrounded by a diverse mix of com- commercial uses including Class B&Cbetween the tourist, commercial, and mercial uses. office spacetransit center that is Times Square a o allow for other complementary usesfew blocks to the north, an emerging The area is now poorly served by an to support manufacturing and designcommercial district with a significant overly complicated regulatory frame- to bring additional energy into theresidential and retail component in work which doesn’t articulate a vision districtHudson Yards to the west, and the best or direction forward. Fundamentally, o update outdated bulk rulestransit access point in New York City the zoning needs to clearly express thein Penn Station a few blocks to the economic development priorities for The following recommendations weresouth. As Hudson Yards develops, as this area and should only be amended developed in support of these goals.8th Avenue continues to see the kind of in concert with a broader plan and com- The Garment District has many bound-development it has seen recently with mitment to grow the fashion industry aries but if we use the boundaries ofthe addition of the NY Times building and provide some security for garment the Fashion Center BID we believeand 11 Times Square, and potentially manufacturing. it makes sense to break the districtas Moynihan Station is constructed to down into five sub-zones – each withthe south, the Garment District will distinct features. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 63
  • RECOMMENDATIONSGarment District Sub-AreasSub-Zone A & B: These two areas the Hudson Yards re-zoning but this ter of these blocks. An up-zoning on 7thremain the heart of the Garment area should remain predominately Avenue & Broadway could also be con-District. Sub-zone A includes the commercial in character. Provided a sidered to regularize these blocks withlots between West 35th and West 40th safe home can be secured for manufac- avenue zoning in the rest of Midtown.Streets between 7th and 8th Avenues. turing the zoning should be relaxed to Any increase in density would need toThis area includes the P1 preservation allow for commercial office space and be evaluated with a more detailed studyarea between 7th and 8th Avenues and complementary uses such as hotels, and should focus on improving pedes-is zoned M1-6. M1-6 is a high density cultural uses – galleries, theaters – and trian circulation and subway entrancesmanufacturing zoning district. Sub- potentially nightclubs. Given the suit- throughout the district.zone B includes the blocks located be- ability of these buildings for commercialtween West 35th and West 39th Streets, use, their location in the heart of NYC’s Sub-Zone C: Sub-zone C contains theand 8th and 9th Avenues—including the central business district, and the lack of remaining lots within the Special Gar-P2 preservation area of the Special affordable office space we don’t think the ment Center District, between WestGarment Center District. In contrast to introduction of residential is appropriate. 36th and West 39th Streets, Broadwaysub-zone A, only the lots abutting 8th and 7th Avenue. This area is very simi-Avenue are zoned M1-6. The M1-6 bulk rules should be updated lar to sub-zone A in terms of zoning. to require high street walls in order to fa- There is a second P1 preservation areaWe don’t propose to change any of the cilitate the construction of buildings that in this sub-zone, and all lots are zonedrequirements put in place as a part of complement the high street wall charac- M1-6. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 64
  • RECOMMENDATIONSThese blocks stand out for the largenumber of showrooms. 17.3% of thetotal showroom space is located in thisarea. Within the P1 area, the majorityof the buildings are pre-war loft build-ings. The avenues, however, have anumber of post-war buildings that arebetter suited for office and showroomspace. Given the lack of manufactur-ing space in this sub-zone we thinkit would be appropriate to lift the P1protections and allow commercial usesas-of-right. Lifting the P1 restrictionwould continue to allow showroomand manufacturing uses but also allowfor the introduction of new Class B&Coffice tenants. Much like sub-zonesA and B, given the incredible locationbetween 7th Avenue and Broadway andthe commercial nature of these largefloor plate buildings, residential shouldnot be allowed. Midblock in Sub-Zone CSub Zone D: Sub-zone D includesa series of lots within the FashionCenter BID service area including the district which allows a wide variety of tionship to the surrounding buildings.blocks between West 36th and West commercial uses. There is no need to The area should continue to serve as41st Streets, 6th Avenue, Broadway and change the zoning in this sub-zone. primarily a light manufacturing/com-7th Avenue. These blocks are located mercial district but the zoning shouldoutside of the Special Garment Center Sub-Zone E: Sub-zone E contains the be updated to require street walls. TheDistrict and overlap with the Special remaining lots located within the introduction of residential on a limitedMidtown District. The properties Fashion Center BID service area to the basis should be examined, the neigh-in this area located north of West east of 6th Avenue. This sub-zone is borhoods to the north, south, and east38th Street are zoned C5-3, and those located outside of the Special Garment all permit residential. Furthermore,located to the south are zoned C6-6. Center District, and is zoned M1-6. it’s an area that has a prevalence of un-Although this area wasn’t surveyed This is an area outside of the special derdeveloped sites including parkingby the CFDA / Fashion Center BID zoning district that has a very limited and doesn’t have the same commer-land use survey, the Fashion Center amount of manufacturing although cial/manufacturing core as the por-BID’s tenants survey documents the it does have some fashion wholesale tions of the Garment District further topresence of a number of showrooms and retail mixed in to a predominantly the west.and wholesalers along Broadway, commercial area. The buildings in thisparticularly between West 38th and neighborhood tend to be significantly Explore tariff reductionWest 39th Streets. The building stock smaller than other portions of the Gar- The US Textile Industry is the thirdin this section has a strong commer- ment District and built on smaller lots. largest exporter of textile products incial office character with a number of This area is an important home to many the world. In 2009, the total com-post-war office buildings that reach 42 commercial uses because of its rela- bined value of US textile and apparelstories along the avenues. The zoning tively less expensive commercial space. shipments was $62.8 billion ($47.2represents its location in the center of The only new construction are hotels billion in textile industry shipments,Midtown – a high density commercial that don’t bear any architectural rela- $15.6 billion in apparel industry ship- MAS 2011 Garment District Report 65
  • RECOMMENDATIONSments) and the U.S. earned $9 billion Recently President Obama signed leg- Navy Yard and John F. Kennedy Inter-in revenue on imports of textile and islation authorizing duty-free importa- national Airport.apparel products. The textile industry tion of some 800 components, includingis located primarily in the Southeast, some man-made-fiber products. The A Foreign Trade subzone can be estab-while the apparel industry is concen- legislation is a one-year extension of the lished for operations that do not fit intotrated in California, New York and Miscellaneous Tariff Bill which allows one of the two New York City generalNorth Carolina. raw materials not made in the US to be purpose FTZs. Companies seeking imported duty-free. subzone status apply for certificationThe Office of Textile and Apparel from the federal FTZ Board through(OTEXA) is the US government agency The Miscellaneous Tariff Bill is meant the NYC EDC. Currently, New Yorkresponsible for textile and apparel is- to help domestic manufacturers com- City is home to two FTZ subzones asues. OTEXA negotiates and executes pete by giving them tariff breaks on Pfizer’s pharmaceutical manufacturingFree Trade Agreement (FTA) provi- components such as yarns and fibers facility in Williamsburg, Brooklyn andsions to ensure fair and balanced trade. that are no longer made in the US. a Bulova’s wristwatch manufacturingThey are responsible for supporting According to law, duty breaks in each plant in Jackson Heights, Queens.the US textile industry through re- grouping cannot amount to a total losssearch and marketing. OTEXA works in tariff revenue to the US government The costs of tariffs can represent awith lobbying groups such as the of more than $500,000 a year. If trade significant portion of the cost of theNational Council of Textile Organiza- grows in a given category, lawmakers raw material in some cases up to 30%tions (NCTO) on efforts to preserve increase duties to bring overall tariff of the costs of the raw material. Ifthe textile industry. In addition to revenue loss back under the cap. garment manufacturing space can bequotas, the US and other countries are successfully consolidated in a severalable to set tariffs which are designed to A US Foreign Trade Zone is a govern- buildings then designating the compa-protect the nation’s domestic manufac- ment-designated, restricted-access nies/buildings foreign trade sub-zonesturing market. The US tariff rates on site used as an import/export financial would help make these companiesclothing and textiles are broken down management tool. The FTZ allows more competitive by reducing the costsinto 14 chapters; there is significant foreign and domestic merchandise to be of acquiring materials which are notcost variation from product to product admitted for storage, assembly, process- readily available in the US.in addition to peak rates that can be ing and manufacture, while reducingapplied in special circumstances. Gen- or eliminating duty on imports anderal rates vary from zero to 32 percent exports. There are two general purposeof the product’s cost. FTZs in New York City: the BrooklynThis report outlines some approaches to build on the very real strengths of the industry. Collaborationwill be crucial among the design community, manufacturers, educational institutions, non-profits, fashionmedia, consumers and property owners in helping to implement these ideas. Against the odds, thedistrict continues to create, innovate, and produce and hopefully, with the right policies and partnerships,it will continue to inspire for many years to come MAS 2011 Garment District Report 66
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  • REFERENCESHum, Tarry. “Mapping Global Production in New York City’s Garment Economic Impact of Food Manufacturing in New York City.” Reportindustry: The Role of Sunset Park, Brooklyn’s Immigrant Economy.” presented to the Mayor’s Office of Industrial & Manufacturing2003. Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 17 No. 03, 294-309. Businesses. 2007. http://www.nyc.gov/html/imb/downloads/pdf/ more_than_link_food_chain.pdfLepore, Nanette and Rep. Tim Ryan. “Made in Midtown – TheFuture of American Manufacturing.” Huffington Post. Oct. 22, 2010. Office of Textile and Apparel. “OTEXA: Enhancing the Competitive-http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-tim-ryan/made-in- midtown- ness of the U.S. Textile & Apparel Industry.” International Tradethe-futur_b_772379.html Administration. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2010. http://otexa. ita.doc.gov/Webinars/OTEXA_University_Webinar_Oct_2010.pdfLos Angeles City Redevelopment Authority. “Fashion Your District.”2011. http://www.fashionyourdistrict.org/ Owen, Nicholas. Cannon Jones, Alan. “A Comparative Study of the British and Italian Textile and Clothing Industries.” DTI EconomicsMalone, Scott. “Turning to the East.” Women’s Wear Daily, Vol. 189, Paper No. 2. 2003. Accessed 10/04/11. http://www.bis.gov.uk/files/Issue 60, special edition 16-17. 2005. file14772.pdfMartin, R. “Fashion in the Age of Advertising.” Journal of Popular Rantisi, Norma M. “The Ascendance of New York Fashion.” Interna-Culture. 1995. tional Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28 (1): 86-106. 2004.New York City Department of City Planning. “Hudson Yards Re- Rantisi, Norma M. “The Local Innovation System as a Source ofport.” 2004. Accessed September 29, 2011. http://www.nyc.gov/ Variety: Openness and Adaptability in New York City’s Garmenthtml/dcp/pdf/cpc/040500a.pdf District.” Regional Studies, 36 (6): 587-602. 2002.New York City Department of City Planning. “PLUTO dataset.” Robbins, Anthony. “Garment Center Historic District National Reg-2009. As published by Space Track in “Lot Info ® 2009.” ister Nomination.” Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior. 2009.New York City Department of City Planning. “Zoning Text.” 2011.Accessed September 29, 2011. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/ “Shop Italian Style in Manhattan: Maps, Events and Promotions.”subcats/zoning.shtml Fashion Italian Style (blog). June 2010. http://www.fashionitalian- style.com/?page_id=327New York City Economic Development Corporation. “Fashion inNew York City, Industry Snapshot.” 2010. Accessed October 4, 2010. Soyer, Daniel, ed. A Coat of Many Colors: Immigration, Globalizationhttp://www.nycedc.com/NewsPublications/NYCEconomics/Publi- and Reform in New York City’s Garment Industry. New York: Ford-cations/Documents/Fashion_IndustrySnapshot_2010.pdf ham University Press. 2005.New York City Economic Development Corporation. “Strengthen- Spencer, Jane. “China Pays Steep Price as Textile Exportsing NYC’s Fashion Market.” 2009. http://www.nycfashioninfo.com/ Boom.” Wall St Journal. 2007. http://online.wsj.com/article/getdoc/8dc193de-9b7d-48fc-9d45-edf9aada3379/NYC- Fashion- SB118580938555882301.htmlWholesale-Report_081209.aspx Sustainable Apparel Industry Coalition Group. “Press Release: Ap-New York City Economic Development Corporation. “New York parel Industry Leaders Launch Sustainable Apparel Coalition.“ 2011.City and U. S. Employment and Wages for Specific Industries.” 2011. http://www.apparelcoalition.org/sites/default/files/Sustainable%20Accessed on September 21, 2011. http://www.nycedc.com/News- %20Apparel%20Coalition%20Launch%20Press%20Release_FI-Publications/NYCEconomics/DataResources/Documents/LF%20 NAL.pdfAND%20PAYROLL4.pdf Teng, Yeohlee. “Making it In Midtown: A Day With Yeohlee Teng.”New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. “Brown Video produced by The Municipal Art Society of New York, in part-Building Designation Report.” prepared by Gale Harris. 2003. nership with the Academy for Careers in Television and Film. 2011.New York State Department of Labor. “Annual Employment Survey.”2009. THIRTEEN, WNET New York Public Media. Does NYC Zoning Policy Preserve Local Manufacturing? An interview with NYC CouncilNew York State Department of Labor. “Quarterly Census of Employ- Member Brad Lander, Director of the Pratt Center for Communityment and Wages (QCEW).” 2009. Provided by the author. Development. 2009. http://www.thirteen.org/uncertainindus- try/2009/03/19/does-nyc-industrial-zoning-policy-preserve-local-“NYC Statistics: Tourism.” NYC & Co. 2011. http://www.nycgo.com/ manufacturing/articles/nyc-statistics-page Wedemeyer, Dee. The Fashion Among Designers Is Off 7th Ave. NewNew York Industrial Retention Network and Fiscal Policy Institute. York Times (1923-Current file); Nov 19, 1978; ProQuest Historical“More Than a Link in the Food Chain: A Study of the Citywide Newspapers. MAS 2011 Garment District Report 68
  • REFERENCESImage References Section III: Lessons from Other Fashion Capitals*All images attributed to Giles Ashford unless otherwise indicated. Coghlan, Timothy. “Entrance to the WWD Magic Trade Show in Las Vegas.” Maosuit (blog), August 29, 2011. http://maosuit.com/Section I: The Making of a Fashion Capital industry-events/us-fashion-trade-shows-and- china/attachment/ img_4532/Fig. 1: Keystone View Company. “Boat unloading Immigrants at El-lis Island, New York harbor.” c.1928. Library of Congress Prints andPhotographs Division. JPEG file. Section V: RecommendationsFig. 2: Richardson & Cox. “Stewart’s Store, Broadway Front.” n.d. Basye, Ali. “Bust Out the Gold Needles: New York Poises for FashionMid-Manhattan Picture Collection. New York Public Library Digital Dominance.” On This Day in Fashion (blog) July 7, 2010. http://on-Collection. JPEG file. thisdayinfashion.com/?p=5308Fig. 3: Hine, Lewis Wickes. “Mr. & Mrs. Bruno, 7 Elizabeth Street.” Coghlan, Timothy. “Entrance to the WWD Magic Trade Show in Las1908. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. JPEG file. Vegas.” Maosuit (blog), August 29, 2011. http://maosuit.com/ industry-events/us-fashion-trade-shows-and- china/attachment/Fig. 4: “Group of striking women – shirtwaist workers. NYC.” img_4532/1909. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, GeorgeGrantham Bain Collection. JPEG file. NYC’s Fashion Industry Timeline References *Images referenced from left to rightFig. 5: “International Ladies Garment Workers Union: New YorkWorld’s Fair 1939-1940.” New York Public Library Digital Collection. Shultz, A.B. “Immigrants landing at Castle Garden.” Harper’s WeeklyJPEG file. 1880. : 341. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. JPEG file.Fig. 6: Lange, Dorothea. Seventh Avenue and West 28th Street, NewYork. Garment workers leave the factories for noon hour.” 1936. Fogerty, J.J. “A glimpse of New York’s dry goods district.” c.1886.Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Office of Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. JPEG file.War Information Photograph Collection. JPEG file. Rose, Ethel. “Green cloth street costume.” Harper’s Bazar 1899. NewFig. 7: Abbott, Berenice. “40th Street between Sixth and Seventh York Public Library Digital Collection. JPEG file.Avenue, looking southwest from 42nd Street, Manhattan.” 1935. NewYork Public Library Digital Collection. JPEG file. Hines, Lewis Wickes. “Mother and her two children finishing gar- ments.” 1912. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.Fig. 8: Vachon, John. “New York, New York. Trucks in the garment JPEG file.district.” 1943. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.JPEG file. Bain News Service. “Strike pickets.” 1910. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, George Grantham Bain Collection. JPEG file.Fig. 9: Speryr, Percy Loomis. “General view – Midtown Manhattan– Garment Center.” 1928. New York Public Library Digital Collection. “Shall we save New York?.” 1916, March 5. New York Times (1857-JPEG file. 1922), p. 5. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from ProQuest HistoricalFig. 10: “Advertisement for women’s blouses, 1910.” Ladies’ Home Newspapers.Journal. ([New York, etc.] [Downe Pub., etc.] 1883-). New York PublicLibrary Digital Collection. JPEG file. “The Garment Centre Capitol, 37th Street and Seventh Avenue, New York City.” 1921. New York Public Library Digital Collection. JPEG file.Fig. 11: Trustman. “Dress factory, garment center, NYC.” New YorkPublic Library Digital Collection. JPEG file. Collins, Marjory. “Garment workers in the N.M. dress shop which is now making uniforms for the Women’s Army Auxiliary CorpsFig 12: “Fashion designer Norman Norell (L) is assisting student (WAAC).” 1943. Library of Congress Prints and Photographsdesigner Deanna Cohen (R).” 1960. http://www.flickr.com/pho- Division. JPEG file.tos/53035820@N02/5340959483/in/set-72157625662855643/ “Norman Norell.” n.d. http://www.flickr.com/photos/53035820@Fig. 13: Priebe, Caroline Skelton. “Centers for the Advancement of N02/5341568854/Craft.” Ways to Own the Spaces Between (blog), November 12, 2009.http://pleasesavemefrommyself.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive. “Model wearing Norman Norell.” 1947. Vogue. http://www.html flickr.com/photos/53035820@N02/5340957601/in/set- 72157625662855643 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 69
  • REFERENCESClawson, Heather. “Eleanor Lambert: Still Here.” HabituallyChic (blog), September 11, 2011. http://habituallychic.blogspot.com/2011/09/chic-reads-eleanor-lambert-still-here.htmlde Evia, Edgar. “Photograph of Ralph Lauren taken in his office in 1978.”David McJonathan owns all rights to photographs and other intellectualproperty from the Estate of Edgar de Evia as executor and legatee. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RalphLauren.jpgAshford, Giles. Corner of 31st and Fashion Avenue in Manhattan’s gar-ment district. 2010. www.gilesashford.comPriebe, Caroline Skelton. “Centers for the Advancement of Craft.” Waysto Own the Spaces Between (blog), November 12, 2009. http://pleas-esavemefrommyself.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive.html MAS 2011 Garment District Report 70
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMunicipal Art Society of New York:Vin Cipolla, PresidentEugenie Birch, Chair MAS Program CommitteeHugh Hardy, Chair MAS Planning CommitteeKitty Hawks, MAS Board of DirectorsAnthony Kiser, MAS Board of DirectorsBrendan Sexton, Vice Chair MAS Planning CommitteeYeohlee Teng, MAS Board of DirectorsRonda Wist, Senior Vice President, Policy and AdvocacyRaju Mann, Director of PlanningJuan Camilo Osorio, Senior Planner / GIS AnalystSideya Sherman, Senior PlannerAileen Gorsuch, Associate PlannerKokutona Kaijage, Assistant GIS AnalystPaul Kelterborn, Project Manager, Public ProgramsJoel Kolkmann, Project Manager, Policy and AdvocacyHazel Balaban, Manager, Communications and MarketingTamara Coombs, Director of Tours and ProgramsFashioning the Future: NYC’s Garment District is an initiative of The Municipal Art Society of New York that grew out ofconversations with various stakeholders, whose dedication to the New York City fashion industry as it relates to the planning,preservation and economic development issues has laid the groundwork to envision a new future for the Garment District.This report is informed by the recommendations, advice and support of many people. We would like to specially thank thefollowing individuals, organizations and institutions, for their multiple contributions:Academy for Careers in Television & Film Manhattan Community Board 5Megan Canning Patrick MurphyCouncil of Fashion Designers of America New York City Department of City PlanningDepartment of Fashion Design, Pratt Institute New York City Economic Development CorporationDesign Trust for Public Space New York State Department of LaborBarry Dinerstein Summer Rayne OatesAndrew Dolkart Mark OrtizMark Engebretson Barbara RandallEngineered Garments, Nepenthes America Inc. Anthony RobinsShira Entis Andrew RosenFashion Institute of TechnologyJoseph Ferrara Robert SavageAdam Friedman School of Fashion, Parsons The New School For DesignThe William and Mary Greve Foundation Joerg SchwartzLeigh Harvey Jerry ScuppMike Kaback Louis SolanoBernard N. Kahn Anna SuiSteven Kolb Sarah WilliamsNanette Lepore Erica WolffAnthony Lilore Wood Tobe-Coburn SchoolLIM College MAS 2011 Garment District Report 71
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMAS would like to thank the panelists who joinedour 2010 public programs on the Garment District:Jerome ChouSimon CollinsSara CreanFred DustJoseph FerraraTim GunnEric GuralDeborah MartonMichael MeolaHarvey MolotchAndrew OshrinAndrew RosenYeohlee TengSarah WilliamsMadelyn WilsFinally, MAS extends its gratitude to the followingindividuals for supporting our international research:Alain CoblencePeter DoeringerMichael DunfordDidier GrumbachStuart GuyWendy HolderSimon LittlewoodMaria Grazia De MaglieEric MusgraveFrancesca PoleseGiulia PirovanoFrancesca R. RinaldiAlan J. ScottMartin StoneJudith Rosser-DaviesJan SingletonStella Vigoni MAS 2011 Garment District Report 72
  • The Municipal Art Society of New York t 212 935 3960 MAS.org111 West 57th Street f 212 753 1816New York, NY 10019 MAS 2011 Garment District Report 73