2. A means of enhancing fluency. Based on the idea that as students repeatedly read text, they become fluent and confident in their reading. Students have the opportunity to practice identifying unknown words while relying on their memory of the language flow to assist them. Consists of rereading short meaningful passages several times until a satisfactory level of fluency is reached.
3. Repeated Reading is an empirically based practice that has improved the rate of reading in elementary students with reading difficulties. Effective because it gives the student lots of reading practice. Empirical evidence suggests that repeated reading procedure positively affects reading rate and word recognition accuracy from the first to the last reading of the same passage. There is evidence the fluency gains within passages also carry over to new passages.
4. Student reads a passage, repeatedly, silently or aloud, and receives help with reading errors. Teacher sits with the student in a quiet location without too many distractions. Position the book selected for the reading session so that both you and the student can easily follow the text. Select a passage in the book about 100 to 200 words in length.
5. Have the student read the passage through either silently or aloud. If the student is reading aloud and misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, read the word aloud and have the student repeat the word correctly before continuing through the passage. If the student asks for help with any word, read the word aloud. If the student requests a definition, give the definition. When the student completes the passage have the student read passage again. Read the passage repeatedly a total of four times or until the student reads the passage at the rate of least 85 to 100 words per minute.
6. Students › Select topics › Engage in prewriting activities › Begin writing final drafts Focus is to provide students time and opportunities to use the writing process to create written text. Main components include: › Writing › Conferencing › Sharing
7. The most popular approach to writing instruction in the primary grades. Reported to be the best instructional method to implement the writing process for emergent writers. The writing process approach is validated by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English. Mandated as the standard writing instructional approach in many states.
8. Each student writes on a self-selected topic, negotiating the text with a focus on sharing personal experiences in a meaningful way. Students assume ownership of their writing and work at their own pace. Students are often encouraged to use invented spellings. Mistakes are not corrected, but share as an indicator of student knowledge and progress. Created text is shared with the teacher and other students through: › Conferencing › Publishing › Sharing times May include short teacher-directed mini lessons about: › Writing procedures › Writers craft › Writing strategies
9. Vaughn, S. & Bos, C. (2012). Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning and Behavioral Problems (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. Jones, C.D., Reutzel, D. R., & Fargo, J. D. (2010).Comparing Two Methods of Writing Instruction: Effects on Kindergarten Students Reading Skills. Journal of Educational Research. 103(5) 327-341 Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406. Herman, P.A. (1985). The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-565 Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188. Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.