2013
Education at a Glance 2013
OECD indicators
Education at a Glance
2013
OECD indicators
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use
...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 3
Foreword
Governments are paying increasing attention to intern...
Foreword
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20134
The OECD will continue to address these challenges vig...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 5
Table of Contents
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20136
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 7
Number of
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20138
Number of
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2012 edition
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 9
Number of
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2012 edition
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201310
Number of
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2012 edition
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 11
Number of
the indicator
in the
2012 edition...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 13
Editorial
Learning their way out:
Youth, education and skills...
Editorial
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201314
Though many factors play a role in a country’s capac...
Editorial
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 15
Given the close relationship between education, emp...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 17
Introduction:
the Indicators and their Framework
  The organi...
Introduction
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201318
The following sections discuss the matrix dimensi...
Introduction
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 19
In addition to the dimensions mentioned above, t...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 21
Reader’s Guide
  Coverage of the statistics
Although a lack o...
Reader’s Guide
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201322
Both the OECD average and the OECD total can be...
Reader’s Guide
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 23
Post-secondary non-tertiary education
Internat...
Reader’s Guide
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201324
  Further resources
The website www.oecd.org/ed...
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 25
The Output of
Educational Institutions
and the Impact of Lear...
Indicator A1
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201326
To what level have adults studied?
•	The rate of ...
Indicator A1
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 27
rates than younger men in upper secondary and te...
chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning
A1
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators...
A1
To what level have adults studied? – Indicator A1 chapter A
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 2...
chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning
A1
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators...
A1
To what level have adults studied? – Indicator A1 chapter A
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 3...
chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning
A1
Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators...
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Education at a glance 2013 paises de la ocde 2013

  1. 1. 2013 Education at a Glance 2013 OECD indicators
  2. 2. Education at a Glance 2013 OECD indicators
  3. 3. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Photo credits: Stocklib Image Bank © Cathy Yeulet Fotolia.com © Feng Yu Getty Images © blue jean images © OECD 2013 You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgement of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.org. Requests for permission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at info@copyright.com or the Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) at contact@cfcopies.com. This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Please cite this publication as: OECD (2013), Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2013-en ISBN 978-92-64-20104-0 (print) ISBN 978-92-64-20105-7 (PDF)
  4. 4. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 3 Foreword Governments are paying increasing attention to international comparisons as they search for effective policies that enhance individuals’ social and economic prospects, provide incentives for greater efficiency in schooling, and help to mobilise resources to meet rising demands. As part of its response, the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills devotes a major effort to the development and analysis of the quantitative, internationally comparable indicators that it publishes annually in Education at a Glance. These indicators enable educational policy makers and practitioners alike to see their education systems in light of other countries’ performance and, together with the OECD country policy reviews, are designed to support and review the efforts that governments are making towards policy reform. Education at a Glance addresses the needs of a range of users, from governments seeking to learn policy lessons to academics requiring data for further analysis to the general public wanting to monitor how its country’s schools are progressing in producing world-class students. The publication examines the quality of learning outcomes, the policy levers and contextual factors that shape these outcomes, and the broader private and social returns that accrue to investments in education. Education at a Glance is the product of a long-standing, collaborative effort between OECD governments, the experts and institutions working within the framework of the OECD Indicators of Education Systems (INES) programme and the OECD Secretariat. The publication was prepared by the staff of the Innovation and Measuring Progress Division of the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills, under the responsibility of Dirk Van Damme and Corinne Heckmann and in co-operation with Etienne Albiser, Simone Bloem, Rodrigo Castaneda-Valle, Eric Charbonnier, Estelle Herbaut, Karinne Logez, Koji Miyamoto, Joris Ranchin, Cuauhtemoc Rebolledo-Gomez, Gara Rojas González, David Valenciano, and Jean Yip. Administrative support was provided by Rhodia Diallo, editing of the report was undertaken by Marilyn Achiron, and additional advice as well as analytical and editorial support were provided by Gwenaelle Barach, Marika Boiron, Célia  Braga‑Schich, Elizabeth  Del  Bourgo, Caroline Israël, Diane  Lalancette and Ignacio  Marin. The authoring team benefited from the analytical review of Sam Abrams, Francesco Avvisati, Tracey Burns, Sonia Guerriero, Hiroko Ikesako, David Istance, Marco Kools, Katarzyna Kubacka, Pauline Musset, Anna Pons, Miho Taguma, Willam Thorn, Juliana Zapata and Pablo Zoido. Production of the report was co‑ordinated by Elisabeth Villoutreix. The development of the publication was steered by member countries through the INES Working Party and facilitated by the INES Networks. The members of the various bodies as well as the individual experts who have contributed to this publication and to OECD INES more generally are listed at the end of the book. While much progress has been accomplished in recent years, member countries and the OECD continue to strive to strengthen the link between policy needs and the best available internationally comparable data. This presents various challenges and trade-offs. First, the indicators need to respond to educational issues that are high on national policy agendas, and where the international comparative perspective can offer important added value to what can be accomplished through national analysis and evaluation. Second, while the indicators should be as comparable as possible, they also need to be as country-specific as is necessary to allow for historical, systemic and cultural differences between countries. Third, the indicators need to be presented in as straightforward a manner as possible, while remaining sufficiently complex to reflect multi-faceted educational realities. Fourth, there is a general desire to keep the indicator set as small as possible, but it needs to be large enough to be useful to policy makers across countries that face different educational challenges.
  5. 5. Foreword Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20134 The OECD will continue to address these challenges vigorously and to pursue not just the development of indicators in areas where it is feasible and promising to develop data, but also to advance in areas where a considerable investment still needs to be made in conceptual work. The further development of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and its extension through the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), as well as the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), are major efforts to this end.
  6. 6. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 5 Table of Contents Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Editorial ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Reader’s Guide..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Chapter A The output of Educational institutions and the impact of learning................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 Indicator A1 To what level have adults studied?.................................................................................................................................... 26 Table A1.1a Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds (2011).........................................................................................35 Table A1.2a Percentage of the population that has attained at least upper secondary education, by age group (2011)....................................................................................................................................................36 Table A1.3a Percentage of the population that has attained tertiary education, by type of programme and age group (2011)...........................................................................................................37 Table A1.4a Trends in educational attainment, by age group, and average annual growth rate (2000-11)..............................................................................................................................................................................38 Table A1.5a Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds, by programme orientation and gender (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................40 Indicator A2 How many students are expected to complete upper secondary education?........ 42 Table A2.1a Upper secondary graduation rates and average ages (2011)..............................................................50 Table A2.1b Upper secondary graduation rates for students under 25 (2011)...................................................51 Table A2.2a Trends in first-time graduation rates at upper secondary level (1995-2011)..................52 Table A2.3a Distribution of upper secondary vocational graduates, by field of education and gender (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................53 Indicator A3 How many students are expected to complete tertiary education?............................... 54 Table A3.1a Tertiary graduation rates and average ages (2011)..........................................................................................61 Table A3.1b Tertiary graduation rates among students under the typical age at graduation (2011)...................................................................................................................................................................................62 Table A3.2a Trends in tertiary graduation rates (1995-2011)...............................................................................................63 Indicator A4 How many students complete tertiary education?.................................................................................. 64 Table A4.1 Completion rates in tertiary education (2011)......................................................................................................71 Table A4.2 Completion rates in tertiary-type A education, by status of enrolment (2011)....................................................................................................................................................................................72 Indicator A5 How does educational attainment affect participation in the labour market? .......................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Table A5.1a Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................86 A1 A2 A3 A7
  7. 7. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20136 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Table A5.1b Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment and gender (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................87 Table A5.2a Unemployment rates among 25-64 year olds, by educational attainment (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................89 Table A5.2b Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment and gender (2011)..........................................................................................................................................................................................90 Table A5.3a Employment rates, by educational attainment and age group (2000, 2005, 2008 and 2011).........................................................................................................................................................92 Table A5.4a Unemployment rates, by educational attainment and age group (2000, 2005, 2008 and 2011).........................................................................................................................................................94 Table A5.5a Labour market status among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2011).......................................................................................................................................96 Table A5.6 Proportion of full-time, full-year earners among all earners, by educational attainment and age group (2011).............................................................................................................................................97 Indicator A6 What are the earnings premiums from education?.............................................................................100 Table A6.1 Relative earnings of adults with income from employment, by educational attainment, gender and age group (2011)...................................................................................................................111 Table A6.2a Trends in relative earnings of 25-64 year-olds with income from employment, by educational attainment (2000-11).............................................................................................................................113 Table A6.2b Trends in relative earnings of 25-64 year-old men with income from employment, by educational attainment (2000-11).............................................................................................................................115 Table A6.2c Trends in relative earnings of 25-64 year-old women with income from employment, by educational attainment (2000-11).................................................................117 Table A6.3a Differences in earnings between women and men, by educational attainment and age group (2011)..............................................................................................................................................................................119 Table A6.3b Trends in the differences in earnings between 25-64 year-old women and men, by educational attainment (2000-11).............................................................................................................................120 Table A6.5a Relative earnings of 15-24 year-old students, by educational attainment and gender (2011)......................................................................................................................................................................................122 Table A6.5b Share of young adults with income from employment among all young adults, by gender, age group and student status (2011).............................................................................................124 Indicator A7 What are the incentives to invest in education?......................................................................................126 Table A7.1a Private costs and benefits for a man attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2009)...................................................................................................................................................140 Table A7.1b Private costs and benefits for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2009)........................................................................................141 Table A7.2a Public costs and benefits for a man attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2009)....................................................................................................................................................142 Table A7.2b Public costs and benefits for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2009)..........................................................................................143 Table A7.3a Private costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2009)..................144 A9 A8
  8. 8. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 7 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Table A7.3b Private costs and benefits for a woman attaining tertiary education (2009).........145 Table A7.4a Public costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2009).....................146 Table A7.4b Public costs and benefits for a woman attaining tertiary education (2009)............147 Indicator A8 What are the social outcomes of education?..................................................................................................148 Table A8.1 Proportion of obese adults, by level of educational attainment and gender (2011)......................................................................................................................................................................................154 Table A8.2 Proportion of adults who smoke, by level of educational attainment and gender (2011)......................................................................................................................................................................................155 Table A8.3 Percentage-point differences in the “likelihood of being obese” associated with an increase in the level of educational attainment (2011)................................................156 Table A8.4 Percentage-point differences in the “likelihood of smoking” associated with an increase in the level of educational attainment (2011)................................................157 Chapter B Financial and Human Resources Invested in Education...............159 Indicator B1 How much is spent per student?......................................................................................................................................162 Table B1.1a Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services (2010).............................................................................................................................................................................174 Table B1.2 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for core services, ancillary services and R&D (2010)......................................................................................................................................175 Table B1.3a Cumulative expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services over the average duration of tertiary studies (2010)................................................................................176 Table B1.4 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, relative to GDP per capita (2010).........................................................................................................................................177 Table B1.5a Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, relative to different factors, at the primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels of education (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010)............................................................178 Table B1.5b Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, relative to different factors, at the tertiary level of education (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010)................................................................................................................................................................179 Table B1.6 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by type of programme, at the secondary level (2010)..............................................................................180 Indicator B2 What proportion of national wealth is spent on education?................................................182 Table B2.1 Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by level of education (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010)...............................................................................................191 Table B2.2 Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by level of education (2010).........................................................................................................................................................192 Table B2.3 Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by source of fund and level of education (2010)..............................................................................................193 Table B2.4 Expenditure on educational institutions, by service category, as a percentage of GDP (2010)..................................................................................................................................................194 Table B2.5 Change in public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2008, 2009, 2010)............................................................................................................................................................195 B1 A11 B2
  9. 9. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 20138 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Indicator B3 How much public and private investment in education is there?.................................196 Table B3.1 Relative proportions of public and private expenditure on educational institutions for all levels of education (2000, 2010)..................................................................................205 Table B3.2a Relative proportions of public and private expenditure on educational institutions, by level of education (2000, 2010)..............................................................................................206 Table B3.2b Relative proportions of public and private expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education (2000, 2010)..........................................................................................207 Table B3.3 Trends in relative proportions of public expenditure on educational institutions and index of change between 1995 and 2010, for tertiary education..............................208 Table B3.4 Annual public expenditure on educational institutions per student, by type of institution (2010).......................................................................................................................................................209 Indicator B4 What is the total public spending on education?....................................................................................210 Table B4.1 Total public expenditure on education (2010)...................................................................................................218 Table B4.2 Total public expenditure on education (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010).............................219 Table B4.3 Sources of public educational funds, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, by level of government (2010).......................................................................220 Indicator B5 How much do tertiary students pay and what public support do they receive?...........................................................................................................................................................................................222 Table B5.1 Estimated annual average tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A educational institution for national students (2011)....................................................................................................................232 Table B5.2 Distribution of financial aid to students compared to amount of tuition fees charged in tertiary-type A education, national students and first degree programmes (2011)..................................................................................................................................................................................234 Table B5.3 Average tuition fees charged by institutions, by field of education (2011)...............235 Table B5.4 Public support for households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on education and GDP, for tertiary education (2010) ................236 Indicator B6 On what resources and services is education funding spent?.............................................238 Indicator B7 Which factors influence the level of expenditure on education?...................................240 Table B7.1 Salary cost of teachers per student, by level of education (2011)...........................................250 Table B7.2a Factors used to compute the salary cost of teachers per student, in primary education (2000, 2005 and 2011).....................................................................................................251 Table B7.2b Factors used to compute the salary cost of teachers per student, in lower secondary education (2000, 2005, 2011).......................................................................................253 Table B7.3 Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in primary education (2000, 2005 and 2011).....................................................................................................255 Table B7.4a Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2011)............................................................................256 Table B7.5a Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2011).............................................................................................................................257 B4 B3 B5 B6 B7 Web
  10. 10. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 9 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Chapter C Access to Education, participation and progression........................259 Indicator C1 Who participates in education?.........................................................................................................................................260 Table C1.1a Enrolment rates, by age (2011)................................................................................................................................................269 Table C1.2 Trends in enrolment rates (1995-2011)......................................................................................................................270 Table C1.3 Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary enrolment patterns (2011).......271 Table C1.4 Students in primary and secondary education, by percent share in type of institution or mode of enrolment (2010)..........................................................................................................272 Table C1.5 Students in tertiary education, by percent share in type of institution or mode of enrolment (2011).....................................................................................................................................................273 Table C1.6a Expected years in education from age 5 through age 39 (2011)...............................................274 Indicator C2 How do early childhood education systems differ around the world?...................276 Table C2.1 Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education, by age (2005, 2011).......................................................................................................................................................................................................286 Table C2.2 Characteristics of early childhood education programmes (2010, 2011)....................287 Table C2.3 Characteristics of education-only and integrated early childhood education programmes (2011)..................................................................................................................................................................................288 Indicator C3 How many students are expected to enter tertiary education?.......................................290 Table C3.1a Entry rates into tertiary education and average age of new entrants (2011)....................299 Table C3.1b Entry rates into tertiary education of students under the typical age of entry (2011)....................................................................................................................................................................................300 Table C3.2a Trends in entry rates at the tertiary level (1995-2011)........................................................................301 Table C3.3a Distribution of tertiary new entrants, by field of education (2011)...................................302 Indicator C4 Who studies abroad and where?........................................................................................................................................304 Table C4.1 International student mobility and foreign students in tertiary education (2005, 2011)........................................................................................................................................................................................................317 Table C4.2 Distribution of international and foreign students enrolled in tertiary programmes, by field of education (2011)...............................................................................................................318 Table C4.3 Distribution of international and foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin (2011)..............................................................................................................................................................319 Table C4.4 Citizens studying abroad in tertiary education, by country of destination (2011)......321 Table C4.5 Mobility patterns of foreign and international students (2011).............................................323 Table C4.6 Trends in the number of foreign students enrolled in tertiary education, by region of destination and origin (2000 to 2011)...................................................................................324 Indicator C5 Transition from school to work: Where are the 15-29 year-olds?................................326 Table C5.1a Expected years in education and not in education for 15-29 year-olds, by work status (2011).............................................................................................................................................................................337 Table C5.2a Percentage of 15-29 year-olds in education and not in education, by work status, including duration of unemployment (2011)......................................................................................................338 Table C5.3a Percentage of 15-29 year-olds in education and not in education, by work status, including part-time workers (2011).................................................................................339 C2 C3 C1 C5 C4
  11. 11. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201310 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Table C5.4a Trends in the percentage of young people in education and not in education, employed or not, by 5-year age group (1997-2011)...................................................................................340 Table C5.5a Percentage of 15-29 year-olds in education and not in education, by educational attainment and work status, including duration of unemployment (2011)............343 Table C5.6 Percentage of 15-29 year-olds in education and not in education, by educational attainment and work status, including part-time (PT) workers (2011).........................346 Table C5.7 Trends in the percentage of 15-29 year-old part-time (PT) and full-time (FT) workers in education and not in education (2006-11)...........................................................................349 Chapter D The Learning Environment and Organisation of Schools..........351 Indicator D1 How much time do students spend in the classroom?....................................................................352 Table D1.1 Compulsory and intended instruction time in public institutions (2011).................360 Table D1.2a Instruction time per subject in primary education (2011)...............................................................361 Table D1.2b Instruction time per subject in lower secondary education (2011)......................................362 Indicator D2 What is the student-teacher ratio and how big are classes?..................................................364 Table D2.1 Average class size, by type of institution and level of education (2011).......................374 Table D2.2 Ratio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions (2011)...........................375 Table D2.3 Ratio of students to teaching staff by type of institution (2011)...........................................376 Indicator D3 How much are teachers paid?................................................................................................................................................378 Table D3.1 Teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in their careers (2011)..........................388 Table D3.2 Comparison of teachers’ salaries (2011).....................................................................................................................390 Table D3.3 Average actual teachers’ salaries (2011)......................................................................................................................391 Table D3.4 Trends in teachers’ salaries between 2000 and 2011...............................................................................392 Indicator D4 How much time do teachers spend teaching?..............................................................................................394 Table D4.1 Organisation of teachers’ working time (2011)................................................................................................401 Table D4.2 Number of teaching hours per year (2000 and 2005-11)...................................................................402 Indicator D5 Who are the teachers?......................................................................................................................................................................404 Annex 1 Characteristics of education systems.................................................................................407 Table X1.1a Upper secondary graduation rate: Typical graduation ages and method used to calculate graduation rates (2011).................................................................................................................408 Table X1.1b Post-secondary non-tertiary graduation rates: Typical graduation ages and method used to calculate graduation rates (2011)..........................................................................410 Table X1.1c Tertiary graduation rate: Typical graduation ages and method used to calculate graduation rates (2011).................................................................................................................................411 Table X1.1d Tertiary entry rate: Typical age of entry and method used to calculate entry rates (2011).......................................................................................................................................................................................413 Table X1.2a School year and financial year used for the calculation of indicators, OECD countries.............................................................................................................................................................................................414 Table X1.2b School year and financial year used for the calculation of indicators, other G20 countries.................................................................................................................................................................................415 D2 D1 D3 D4 D5Web
  12. 12. Table of Contents Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 11 Number of the indicator in the 2012 edition Annex 2 Reference statistics...........................................................................................................................................................417 Table X2.1 Overview of the economic context using basic variables (reference period: calendar year 2010, 2010 current prices).........................................................418 Table X2.2a Basic reference statistics (reference period: calendar year 2010, 2010 current prices)................................................................................................................................................................................419 Table X2.2b Basic reference statistics (reference period: calendar year 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010)..........................................................................................................................................................................................................420 Table X2.3a Teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in their careers (2011)..........................421 Table X2.3b Trends in teachers’ salaries, between 2000 and 2011.............................................................................423 Table X2.3c Reference statistics used in calculating teachers’ salaries (2000, 2005-11)..............425 Annex 3 Sources, methods and technical notes...............................................................................427 Contributors to this publication.........................................................................................................................................................................................429 Related OECD publications..........................................................................................................................................................................................................435 This book has... StatLinks 2 A service that delivers Excel ® files   from the printed page! Look for the StatLinks at the bottom left-hand corner of the tables or graphs in this book. To download the matching Excel®  spreadsheet, just type the link into your Internet browser, starting with the http://dx.doi.org prefix. If you’re reading the PDF e-book edition, and your PC is connected to the Internet, simply click on the link. You’ll find StatLinks appearing in more OECD books.
  13. 13. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 13 Editorial Learning their way out: Youth, education and skills in the midst of the crisis This edition of Education at a Glance comes at a time when youth unemployment keeps policy makers awake at night. Between 2008 and 2011 – the years to which most data in this volume refer – unemployment rates climbed steeply in most countries and have remained high ever since. Young people have been particularly hard-hit by un- and underemployment as a result of the global recession. In 2011, the average proportion of 15-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET) across OECD countries was 16%; among 25-29 year-olds, 20% were NEET. (Among this latter group, 40% were unemployed, more than half of them for more than six months; the rest did not participate in the labour market at all.) In some countries the figures are much higher, with more than one in three people between the ages of 25 and 29 neither in education nor in work. These young people are forced to pay a very high price for a crisis that was not of their making, with long-lasting consequences for their skills, work morale and social integration. The demoralising short‑term effects for individuals, families and communities demand urgent policy responses, while the longer- term ramifications, in terms of skills loss, scarring effects and de-motivation, are real and affect countries’ potential for sustainable recovery. The distribution of unemployment within the younger generation sheds light on some of the factors that may increase the risk of joblessness, which, in turn, offers insights for policy responses. Most notably, educational attainment has a huge impact on employability, and the crisis has strengthened this impact even further. On average across OECD countries, 4.8% of individuals with a tertiary degree were unemployed in 2011, while 12.6% of those lacking a secondary education were. Between 2008 and 2011 the unemployment gap between those with low levels of education and those with high levels of education widened: across all age groups, the unemployment rate for low-educated individuals increased by almost 3.8 percentage points, while it increased by only 1.5 percentage points for highly educated individuals. Without the foundation skills provided by a minimum level of education, people find themselves particularly vulnerable in an insecure labour market. The crisis has also produced ample evidence that a good education provides valuable insurance against a lack of work experience: the impact of educational attainment on unemployment is much greater for younger people than it is for older adults. Across OECD countries, an average of 18.1% of 25-34 year-olds without secondary education were unemployed in 2011, compared with 8.8% of 55-64 year-olds. Among 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary qualification, an average of 6.8% were unemployed, compared with 4.0% of 55-64 year-olds with a similar level of education. Nevertheless, that fact that these troubling trends are far from universal indicates that they are not inevitable. There are large differences between countries in the way the recession has shaped the social reality for young people. The steep increases in youth unemployment between 2008 and 2011, especially among low-educated young people, in countries such as Estonia (a 17.6 percentage-point increase in unemployment among 25‑34 year‑olds without a secondary education), Greece (15.0 percentage-point increase), Ireland (21.5 percentage-point increase) and Spain (16.0 percentage-point increase) are well-known. Less known is that, during the same period, some countries saw drops in unemployment among low-skilled youth, including Austria (-3.3 percentage points), Chile (-3.6 percentage points), Germany (-2.1 percentage points), Israel (-0.9 percentage point), Korea (-1.6 percentage points), Luxembourg (-1.0 percentage point) and Turkey (-1.7 percentage points). Several other countries were able to contain the increases within more or less tolerable levels.
  14. 14. Editorial Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201314 Though many factors play a role in a country’s capacity to contain the rise in youth unemployment in times of crisis, the way institutional arrangements between education and work facilitate transitions into employment is perhaps one of the most important. This year’s Education at a Glance provides more detailed data on programme orientation (general versus vocational) in secondary and tertiary education. Countries with relatively high numbers of 25-34 year-old graduates from vocationally oriented programmes succeeded in reducing the risk of unemployment among young people with upper secondary education as their highest level of attainment. Countries that have a higher-than-average (32%) proportion of graduates from vocational programmes, such as Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Luxembourg, were all able to keep the increases in unemployment rates among this age group to below 8 percentage points. Conversely, countries such as Greece, Ireland and Spain, where less than 25% of young adults graduate from vocational upper secondary education, saw increases in unemployment rates of 12 percentage points or more among 25-34 year-olds with only secondary education. For young people who do not continue into tertiary education, vocational education clearly offers better prospects for their employability than general, more academically oriented upper secondary education. Vocational education and training (VET) systems thus play a critical role in strengthening countries’ capacity to deal with rapidly changing labour-market conditions. Several OECD countries have developed policies to improve and expand VET programmes at the upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels in order to equip young people with the skills the labour market demands. These programmes often include intensive workplace training and are based on extensive partnerships between schools and enterprises. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of students graduating from upper secondary vocational programmes increased by an average of 4.3 percentage points across OECD countries. In several countries, notably Austria, Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and Spain, this increase exceeded 10 percentage points. We can further improve our understanding of how qualifications are related to labour-market outcomes by delving into the actual content of qualifications, rather than simply classifying them by level. This year’s edition explores some data on graduates’ field of study. While data from only a limited number of countries are examined, these data show a wide variation in unemployment rates among tertiary graduates in different fields of study. Interestingly, this variation does not fully reflect the segmentation in labour demand and wages found more broadly in the economy and in the labour market. For example, in the United States, the unemployment rate for graduates from the high-paying field of computer and information systems (5.3%) was higher than the unemployment rate for graduates of relatively low-paying secondary teaching programmes (2.4%), which had one of the lowest unemployment figures of any programme. The relationship between students’ career choices, skill development in a particular field of study, and actual employability is more complex than often assumed. Educational attainment not only affects employability, as Education at a Glance shows, but also has an impact on income from employment. On average, the relative earnings of tertiary-educated adults is over 1.5 times that of adults with upper secondary education, while individuals without an upper secondary education earn 25% less, on average, than their peers who have attained that level of education. The crisis has widened this wage gap: the average difference between earnings from employment between low-educated and highly educated individuals was 75 percentage points across OECD countries in 2008, increasing to 90 percentage points in 2011. Individuals lacking the foundation skills provided by a complete secondary education cannot expect their incomes to rise substantially as they grow older. Indeed, the wage gap between those with low and high levels of education tends to increase with age. Without a secondary education, 25-34 year-olds earn 80% of what their colleagues with a secondary education earn, on average, but 55-64 year-olds earn only 72% of what their more-educated peers earn. The wage premium for higher education increases with age. A 25-34 year-old with a tertiary education earns 40% more, on average, than an adult of the same age who has only a secondary education, while a 55-64 year-old earns 73% more. Educational attainment – besides a successful start in employment – thus has long-lasting and mutually reinforcing effects over a lifetime. A higher education degree clearly pays off in the long run.
  15. 15. Editorial Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 15 Given the close relationship between education, employment and earnings, young people develop strategies to improve their life chances by investing in education. In recent years, they literally learned their way out of the crisis. When opportunity costs declined and it seemed better to postpone entry into an insecure labour market, many young adults opted to equip themselves with more competitive skills before trying to enter the world of work. In most countries, increased demand for post-compulsory education more than compensated for the demographic decline in these age groups. In 2011, the OECD average for 15-19 year‑olds enrolled in education was 85%; and the proportion of 20-29 year-olds in education climbed from 22% in 2000 to 29% in 2011. As a consequence, the proportion of adults with tertiary-level qualifications rose by more than 10 percentage points between 2000 and 2011, while the share of adults without a secondary education qualification dropped by the same rate. Across OECD countries, 39% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary qualification in 2011. The changes in enrolment rates, employment rates and investment in education observed in the first years of the recession indicate how education and skills determine the way individuals, families and societies as a whole fared during the most challenging economic and social crisis in recent history. Highly educated young people from fields of study in high demand found a job easily, ending up in a “high skills – high wage” equilibrium, and could envisage a prosperous life ahead of them. For others, a tertiary qualification did not bring the expected rewards, either because the labour market was contracting too much – often protecting older generations at the expense of the youngest generation of workers – or because their chosen field of study was already saturated or not aligned with the needs of the labour market. Over-schooling and under-employment then resulted in frustration. Young adults with an upper secondary qualification were able to survive the jobs crisis if they were the beneficiaries of programmes that prepared them well for work. Those who hadn’t attained a complete secondary education, and so lacked the foundation skills needed to survive in a complex economy, often found themselves at the wrong end of the skills-based polarisation, stuck in a “low skills – low wage” equilibrium or in long-term unemployment with very little prospects for improvement. High youth unemployment is not inevitable, even during an economic crisis; it is the product of the interaction between the economic context and particular policies. And, as the data collected during the early years of this crisis show, the amount of public spending on education has little to do with a country’s success or failure in containing youth unemployment: nearly all governments maintained more or less their level of investment in education throughout the crisis. What matters more are the choices countries make in how to allocate that spending and the policies they design to improve the efficiency and relevance of the education they provide. Data and policy experiences in countries show which kinds of policies are effective in boosting young people’s employability: ensuring that all young people achieve both a good level of foundation skills and “soft” skills, such as teamwork, communication and negotiation, that will give them the resilience they need to succeed in an ever-changing labour market; reducing school dropout rates and making sure that as many young people as possible complete at least an upper secondary education (if necessary, through second-chance education opportunities); making secondary education relevant to the skill needs of the labour market; developing vocational education and training, and bridging education to the world of work by including work-based learning; securing flexible pathways into tertiary education; and providing good study and career guidance services so that young people can make sound, informed career decisions. These are exactly the policies that the OECD Youth Action Plan, adopted at the OECD Ministerial Meeting in May 2013, is advocating to improve the prospects for young people and for societies as a whole. Angel Gurría OECD Secretary-General
  16. 16. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 17 Introduction: the Indicators and their Framework   The organising framework Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators offers a rich, comparable and up-to-date array of indicators that reflects a consensus among professionals on how to measure the current state of education internationally. The indicators provide information on the human and financial resources invested in education, how education and learning systems operate and evolve, and the returns to educational investments. The indicators are organised thematically, and each is accompanied by information on the policy context and the interpretation of the data. The education indicators are presented within an organising framework that: • distinguishes between the actors in education systems: individual learners and teachers, instructional settings and learning environments, educational service providers, and the education system as a whole; • groups the indicators according to whether they address learning outcomes for individuals or countries, policy levers or circumstances that shape these outcomes, or to antecedents or constraints that set policy choices into context; and • identifies the policy issues to which the indicators relate, with three major categories distinguishing between the quality of educational outcomes and educational provision, issues of equity in educational outcomes and educational opportunities, and the adequacy and effectiveness of resource management. The following matrix describes the first two dimensions: 1. Education and learning outputs and outcomes 2. Policy levers and contexts shaping educational outcomes 3. Antecedents or constraints that contextualise policy I. Individual participants in education and learning 1.I. The quality and distribution of individual educational outcomes 2.I. Individual attitudes, engagement, and behaviour to teaching and learning 3.I. Background characteristics of the individual learners and teachers II. Instructional settings 1.II. The quality of instructional delivery 2.II. Pedagogy, learning practices and classroom climate 3.II. Student learning conditions and teacher working conditions III. Providers of educational services 1.III. The output of educational institutions and institutional performance 2.III. School environment and organisation 3.III. Characteristics of the service providers and their communities IV. The education system as a whole 1.IV. The overall performance of the education system 2.IV. System-wide institutional settings, resource allocations, and policies 3.IV. The national educational, social, economic, and demographic contexts
  17. 17. Introduction Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201318 The following sections discuss the matrix dimensions in more detail:   Actors in education systems The OECD Indicators of Education Systems (INES) programme seeks to gauge the performance of national education systems as a whole, rather than to compare individual institutional or other sub-national entities. However, there is increasing recognition that many important features of the development, functioning and impact of education systems can only be assessed through an understanding of learning outcomes and their relationships to inputs and processes at the level of individuals and institutions. To account for this, the indicator framework distinguishes between a macro level, two meso-levels and a micro-level of education systems. These relate to: • the education system as a whole; • the educational institutions and providers of educational services; • the instructional setting and the learning environment within the institutions; and • the individual participants in education and learning. To some extent, these levels correspond to the entities from which data are being collected, but their importance mainly centres on the fact that many features of the education system play out quite differently at different levels of the system, which needs to be taken into account when interpreting the indicators. For example, at the level of students within a classroom, the relationship between student achievement and class size may be negative, if students in small classes benefit from improved contact with teachers. At the class or school level, however, students are often intentionally grouped such that weaker or disadvantaged students are placed in smaller classes so that they receive more individual attention. At the school level, therefore, the observed relationship between class size and student achievement is often positive (suggesting that students in larger classes perform better than students in smaller classes). At higher aggregated levels of education systems, the relationship between student achievement and class size is further confounded, e.g. by the socio-economic intake of schools or by factors relating to the learning culture in different countries. Therefore, past analyses that have relied on macro-level data alone have sometimes led to misleading conclusions.   Outcomes, policy levers and antecedents The second dimension in the organising framework further groups the indicators at each of the above levels: • indicators on observed outputs of education systems, as well as indicators related to the impact of knowledge and skills for individuals, societies and economies, are grouped under the sub-heading output and outcomes of education and learning; • the sub-heading policy levers and contexts groups activities seeking information on the policy levers or circumstances which shape the outputs and outcomes at each level; and • these policy levers and contexts typically have antecedents – factors that define or constrain policy. These are represented by the sub-heading antecedents and constraints. It should be noted that the antecedents or constraints are usually specific for a given level of the education system and that antecedents at a lower level of the system may well be policy levers at a higher level. For teachers and students in a school, for example, teacher qualifications are a given constraint while, at the level of the education system, professional development of teachers is a key policy lever.   Policy issues Each of the resulting cells in the framework can then be used to address a variety of issues from different policy perspectives. For the purpose of this framework, policy perspectives are grouped into three classes that constitute the third dimension in the organising framework for INES: • quality of educational outcomes and educational provision; • equality of educational outcomes and equity in educational opportunities; and • adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of resource management.
  18. 18. Introduction Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 19 In addition to the dimensions mentioned above, the time perspective as an additional dimension in the framework allows dynamic aspects in the development of education systems to be modelled as well. The indicators that are published in Education at a Glance 2013 fit within this framework, though often they speak to more than one cell. Most of the indicators in Chapter A, The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning, relate to the first column of the matrix describing outputs and outcomes of education. Even so, indicators in Chapter A measuring educational attainment for different generations, for instance, not only provide a measure of the output of the education system, but also provide context for current educational policies, helping to shape polices on, for example, lifelong learning. Chapter B, Financial and human resources invested in education, provides indicators that are either policy levers or antecedents to policy, or sometimes both. For example, expenditure per student is a key policy measure that most directly affects the individual learner, as it acts as a constraint on the learning environment in schools and learning conditions in the classroom. Chapter C, Access to education, participation and progression, provides indicators that are a mixture of outcome indicators, policy levers and context indicators. Internationalisation of education and progression rates are, for instance, outcomes measures to the extent that they indicate the results of policies and practices at the classroom, school and system levels. But they can also provide contexts for establishing policy by identifying areas where policy intervention is necessary to, for instance, address issues of inequity. Chapter D, The learning environment and organisation of schools, provides indicators on instruction time, teachers’ working time and teachers’ salaries that not only represent policy levers which can be manipulated but also provide contexts for the quality of instruction in instructional settings and for the outcomes of individual learners. It also presents data on the profile of teachers, the levels of government at which decisions in education systems are taken, and pathways and gateways to gain access to secondary and tertiary education. The reader should note that this edition of Education at a Glance covers a significant amount of data from non- OECD G20 countries (please refer to the Reader’s Guide for details).
  19. 19. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 21 Reader’s Guide   Coverage of the statistics Although a lack of data still limits the scope of the indicators in many countries, the coverage extends, in principle, to the entire national education system (within the national territory), regardless of who owns or sponsors the institutions concerned and regardless of how education is delivered. With one exception (described below), all types of students and all age groups are included: children (including students with special needs), adults, nationals, foreigners, and students in open-distance learning, in special education programmes or in educational programmes organised by ministries other than the Ministry of Education, provided that the main aim of the programme is to broaden or deepen an individual’s knowledge. However, children below the age of three are only included if they participate in programmes that typically cater to children who are at least three years old. Vocational and technical training in the workplace, with the exception of combined school- and work-based programmes that are explicitly deemed to be part of the education system, is not included in the basic education expenditure and enrolment data. Educational activities classified as “adult” or “non-regular” are covered, provided that the activities involve the same or similar content as “regular” education studies, or that the programmes of which they are a part lead to qualifications similar to those awarded in regular educational programmes. Courses for adults that are primarily for general interest, personal enrichment, leisure or recreation are excluded.   Country coverage This publication features data on education from the 34 OECD member countries, two non-OECD countries that participate in the OECD Indicators of Education Systems programme (INES), namely Brazil and the Russian Federation, and the other G20 countries that do not participate in INES (Argentina, China, India, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and South Africa). When data for these latter six countries are available, data sources are specified below the tables and charts. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.   Calculation of international means For many indicators, an OECD average is presented; for some, an OECD total is shown. The OECD average is calculated as the unweighted mean of the data values of all OECD countries for which data are available or can be estimated. The OECD average therefore refers to an average of data values at the level of the national systems and can be used to answer the question of how an indicator value for a given country compares with the value for a typical or average country. It does not take into account the absolute size of the education system in each country. The OECD total is calculated as the weighted mean of the data values of all OECD countries for which data are available or can be estimated. It reflects the value for a given indicator when the OECD area is considered as a whole. This approach is taken for the purpose of comparing, for example, expenditure charts for individual countries with those of the entire OECD area for which valid data are available, with this area considered as a single entity.
  20. 20. Reader’s Guide Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201322 Both the OECD average and the OECD total can be significantly affected by missing data. Given the relatively small number of countries surveyed, no statistical methods are used to compensate for this. In cases where a category is not applicable (code “a”) in a country, or where the data value is negligible (code “n”) for the corresponding calculation, the value zero is imputed for the purpose of calculating OECD averages. In cases where both the numerator and the denominator of a ratio are not applicable (code “a”) for a certain country, this country is not included in the OECD average. For financial tables using 1995, 2000 and 2005 data, both the OECD average and OECD total are calculated for countries providing 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2009 data. This allows for a comparison of the OECD average and OECD total over time with no distortion due to the exclusion of certain countries in the different years. For many indicators, an EU21 average is also presented. It is calculated as the unweighted mean of the data values of the 21 countries that are members of both the European Union and the OECD for which data are available or can be estimated. These 21 countries are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. For some indicators, a G20 average is presented. The G20 average is calculated as the unweighted mean of the data values of all G20 countries for which data are available or can be estimated (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States; the European Union is the 20th member of the G20 but is not included in the calculation). The G20 average is computed if data for either China or India, or both, are available.   Classification of levels of education The classification of the levels of education is based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997). ISCED 1997 is an instrument for compiling statistics on education internationally and distinguishes among six levels of education. ISCED 1997 was recently revised, and the new International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011) was formally adopted in November 2011. This new classification will be implemented in the data collection in May 2014. Term used in this publication ISCED classification (and subcategories) Pre-primary education The first stage of organised instruction designed to introduce very young children to the school atmosphere. Minimum entry age of 3. ISCED 0 Primary education Designed to provide a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics and a basic understanding of some other subjects. Entry age: between 5 and 7. Duration: 6 years. ISCED 1 Lower secondary education Completes provision of basic education, usually in a more subject oriented way with more specialist teachers. Entry follows 6 years of primary education; duration is 3 years. In some countries, the end of this level marks the end of compulsory education. ISCED 2 (subcategories: 2A prepares students for continuing academic education, leading to 3A; 2B has stronger vocational focus, leading to 3B; 2C offers preparation of entering workforce) Upper secondary education Stronger subject specialisation than at lower secondary level, with teachers usually more qualified. Students typically expected to have completed 9 years of education or lower secondary schooling before entry and are generally 15 or 16 years old. ISCED 3 ISCED 3 (subcategories: 3A prepares students for university-level education at level 5A; 3B for entry to vocationally oriented tertiary education at level 5B; 3C prepares students for workforce or for post-secondary non-tertiary education at level ISCED 4)
  21. 21. Reader’s Guide Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 23 Post-secondary non-tertiary education Internationally, this level straddles the boundary between upper secondary and post-secondary education, even though it might be considered upper secondary or post-secondary in a national context. Programme content may not be significantly more advanced than that in upper secondary, but is not as advanced as that in tertiary programmes. Duration usually the equivalent of between 6 months and 2 years of full-time study. Students tend to be older than those enrolled in upper secondary education. ISCED 4 ISCED 4 (subcategories: 4A may prepare students for entry to tertiary education, both university level and vocationally oriented; 4B typically prepares students to enter the workforce) Tertiary education ISCED 5 (subcategories: 5A and 5B; see below) Tertiary-type A education Largely theory-based programmes designed to provide sufficient qualifications for entry to advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements, such as medicine, dentistry or architecture. Duration at least 3 years full-time, though usually 4 or more years. These programmes are not exclusively offered at universities; and not all programmes nationally recognised as university programmes fulfil the criteria to be classified as tertiary-type A. Tertiary-type A programmes include second-degree programmes, such as the American master’s degree. ISCED 5A Tertiary-type B education Programmes are typically shorter than those of tertiary-type A and focus on practical, technical or occupational skills for direct entry into the labour market, although some theoretical foundations may be covered in the respective programmes. They have a minimum duration of two years full-time equivalent at the tertiary level. ISCED 5B Advanced research programmes Programmes that lead directly to the award of an advanced research qualification, e.g. Ph.D. The theoretical duration of these programmes is 3 years, full-time, in most countries (for a cumulative total of at least 7 years full-time equivalent at the tertiary level), although the actual enrolment time is typically longer. Programmes are devoted to advanced study and original research. ISCED 6 The glossary available at www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm also describes these levels of education in detail, and Annex 1 shows the typical age of graduates of the main educational programmes, by ISCED level.   Symbols for missing data and abbreviations These symbols and abbreviations are used in the tables and charts: a Data is not applicable because the category does not apply. c There are too few observations to provide reliable estimates (e.g. in PISA, there are fewer than 30 students or fewer than five schools with valid data). However, these statistics were included in the calculation of cross-country averages. m Data is not available. n Magnitude is either negligible or zero. r Values are below a certain reliability threshold and should be interpreted with caution (see Annex 3 for country-specific definitions). w Data has been withdrawn at the request of the country concerned. x Data included in another category or column of the table (e.g. x(2) means that data are included in column 2 of the table). ~ Average is not comparable with other levels of education.
  22. 22. Reader’s Guide Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201324   Further resources The website www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm is a rich source of information on the methods used to calculate the indicators, on the interpretation of the indicators in the respective national contexts, and on the data sources involved. The website also provides access to the data underlying the indicators and to a comprehensive glossary for technical terms used in this publication. All post-production changes to this publication are listed at www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm. Education at a Glance uses the OECD StatLinks service. Below each table and chart in Education at a Glance 2013 is a URL that leads to a corresponding Excel workbook containing the underlying data for the indicator. These URLs are stable and will remain unchanged over time. In addition, readers of the Education at a Glance e-book will be able to click directly on these links and the workbook will open in a separate window.   Codes used for territorial entities These codes are used in certain charts. Country or territorial entity names are used in the text. Note that throughout the publication, the Flemish Community of Belgium and the French Community of Belgium may be referred to as “Belgium (Fl.)” and “Belgium (Fr.)”, respectively. ARG Argentina LUX Luxembourg AUS Australia MEX Mexico AUT Austria NLD Netherlands BEL Belgium NOR Norway BFL Belgium (Flemish Community) NZL New Zealand BFR Belgium (French Community) POL Poland BRA Brazil PRT Portugal CAN Canada RUS Russian Federation CHE Switzerland SAU Saudi Arabia CHL Chile SCO Scotland CHN China SVK Slovak Republic CZE Czech Republic SVN Slovenia DEU Germany SWE Sweden DNK Denmark TUR Turkey ENG England UKM United Kingdom ESP Spain USA United States EST Estonia ZAF South Africa FIN Finland FRA France GRC Greece HUN Hungary IDN Indonesia IND India IRL Ireland ISL Iceland ISR Israel ITA Italy JPN Japan KOR Korea
  23. 23. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 25 The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning A Chapter Indicator A1  To what level have adults studied? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932847982 Indicator A2  How many students are expected to complete upper secondary education? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932848191 Indicator A3  How many students are expected to complete tertiary education? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932848343 Indicator A4  How many students complete tertiary education?   1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932848476 Indicator A5  How does educational attainment affect participation in the labour market? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932848533 Indicator A6  What are the earnings premiums from education? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932848856 Indicator A7  What are the incentives to invest in education? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932849084 Indicator A8  What are the social outcomes of education? 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932849255
  24. 24. Indicator A1 Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201326 To what level have adults studied? • The rate of tertiary education attainment among adults in OECD countries has increased by almost 10 percentage points since 2000. • In most OECD countries, 25-34 year-olds have the highest rate of tertiary attainment among all adults by an average of 7 percentage points. • Gender gaps in educational attainment are not only narrowing, in some cases, they are reversing. 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932846215  Context Educational attainment is frequently used as a measure of human capital and the level of an individual’s skills, in other words, a measure of the skills available in the population and the labour force. The level of educational attainment is the percentage of a population that has reached a certain level of education. Higher levels of educational attainment are strongly associated with higher employment rates and are perceived as a gateway to better labour opportunities and earnings premiums. Individuals have strong incentives to pursue more education, and governments have incentives to build on the skills of the population through education, particularly as national economies continue to shift from mass production to knowledge economies. Overthepastdecades,almostallOECDcountrieshaveseensignificantincreasesintheeducational attainment of their populations. Tertiary education has expanded markedly, and in most OECD countries, an upper secondary qualification (ISCED 3) has become the most common education level attained by young people. Some countries have introduced policy initiatives to more closely align the development of particular skills with the needs of the labour market through vocational education and training (VET) programmes. These policies seem to have had a major impact on educational attainment in several OECD countries where upper secondary VET qualifications are the most common qualifications held among adults. Indicators in this volume show that gender differences persist in educational attainment, employment rates and earnings. In OECD countries, younger women have higher attainment 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % Korea Japan Canada RussianFederation Ireland UnitedKingdom Norway Luxembourg NewZealand Israel Australia UnitedStates France Sweden Belgium Chile Switzerland Netherlands Finland Iceland Poland Spain Estonia OECDaverage Denmark Slovenia Greece Hungary Germany Portugal SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Mexico Austria Italy Turkey Brazil Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of 25-34 year-olds who have attained tertiary education. Source: OECD. Table A1.3a. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm). 25-34 year-olds 25-64 year-olds Chart A1.1. Population that has attained tertiary education (2011) Percentage, by age group
  25. 25. Indicator A1 Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 27 rates than younger men in upper secondary and tertiary education. Nonetheless, overall, adult men have higher attainment rates than adult women in upper secondary education. Despite the fact that a larger proportion of women than men now have a tertiary education, women’s employment rates and wages are lower than those of tertiary-educated men (see Indicators A5 and A6). The relationship between education and demand for skills is explored further in labour-market indicators on employment and unemployment (see Indicator A5), earnings (see Indicator A6), incentives to invest in education (see Indicator A7) and transitions from school to work (see Indicator C5).   Other findings • The proportion of adults with no upper secondary education shrank by about 10 percentage points over the past decade. • Even if tertiary attainment rates have increased in recent years, less than 35% of both men and women attain tertiary education. • Among 30-34 year-olds, more than 40% of women have a tertiary education – surpassing the rate of men with that level of education by about 8 percentage points.  Trends Since 2000, tertiary attainment rates have been increasing in both OECD and non-OECD G20  countries; upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment levels have remained stable; and the proportion of people with below upper secondary education decreased in most OECD countries. Between 2000 and 2011 the proportion of adults with below upper secondary education shrank by almost 10 percentage points while tertiary attainment increased by about the same degree. However, changes in attainment rates vary greatly between age groups. The differences in tertiary attainment rates between 25-34 year-olds and 55-64 year-olds can range from over 50 percentage points in Korea to the inverse (i.e. fewer younger adults than older adults with tertiary attainment) in Israel.  Note In this publication, different indicators show the level of education among individuals, groups and countries. Indicator A1 shows the level of attainment, i.e. the percentage of a population that has successfully completed a given level of education. Graduation rates in Indicators A2 and A3 measure the estimated percentage of younger adults who are expected to graduate from a particular level of education during their lifetimes. Completion rates from tertiary programmes in Indicator A4 estimate the proportion of students who enter a programme and complete it successfully within a certain period of time.
  26. 26. chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning A1 Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201328 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Poland Austria Hungary Slovenia Germany2 Japan3 Estonia Sweden4 UnitedStates3 OECDaverage Luxembourg Finland Denmark Switzerland Norway Chile3 France Italy NewZealand Greece Korea3 RussianFederation3 Netherlands Iceland Canada UnitedKingdom3 Ireland Belgium Israel Australia Brazil3 Spain Mexico3 Turkey Portugal3 1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes. 2. Persons with ISCED 4A attainment in Germany have successfully completed both a general and a vocational programme. In this chart they have been allocated to vocational. 3. Countries for which no information about programme orientation is available. 4. Figures for Sweden include about 10% of 25-64 year-olds who have attained ISCED 3 or 4 in programmes that cannot be allocated by orientation. Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment (ISCED 3/4) regardless of the orientation of the programmes. Source: OECD. Table A1.5a. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm). Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with general orientation Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with vocational orientation Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with no distinction by orientation Chart A1.2. Population whose highest level of attainment is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011)1 Percentage of 25-64 year-olds who have attained ISCED level 3 or 4 as the highest level, and programme orientation Analysis Attainment levels in OECD countries Upper secondary attainment and the weight of vocational education and training (VET) Moreadults(25-64year-olds)haveattaineduppersecondaryeducation(includingpost-secondarynon-tertiary education, but excluding upper secondary short programmes, i.e. ISCED levels 3A, 3B, 3C long and 4; see the Reader’s Guide for definitions of ISCED levels) than have attained any other level of education across OECD countries. More than a third of the population in most OECD countries, and more than half the population in Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Poland, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Sweden have attained an upper secondary education as the highest level of attainment (Table A1.4a). Only in Mexico, Portugal and Turkey, less than 20% of the population attained upper secondary education as the highest level of education; and these countries, together with Italy and Spain, are the sole countries in which the proportion of people with below upper secondary education is larger than the proportion of adults with upper secondary education or with tertiary attainment (Table A1.4a). 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932846234 Chart A1.2 shows that the difference in upper secondary attainment rates between adults in vocational and general tracks is substantial in many OECD countries. In Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, at least half the population has attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary VET qualifications as the highest level of attainment; however in these countries, people tend to leave education after attaining upper secondary qualifications (Table A1.5a).
  27. 27. A1 To what level have adults studied? – Indicator A1 chapter A Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 29 Box A1.1.  Public-private partnership in VET In some countries, such as Austria, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland, public-private partnerships in vocational education and training (VET) are a longstanding tradition and play an important role in preparing students for the labour market. Their importance is reflected in the high levels of upper secondary attainment, graduation and enrolment in these countries (Tables A1.1a, A1.5a and Indicators A2 and C1). Also known as “dual” or “co-operative” systems of vocational education and training, these partnerships are characterised by: • their links between work- and school-based learning to prepare apprentices for a successful transition to full-time employment; • the high degree of engagement on the part of employers and other social partners; • the opportunity for governments to share education costs with the private sector; • the opportunity for enterprises to acquire a young, employable workforce and reduce advertising, hiring and induction costs; and • the opportunity for trainees to benefit from highly motivating earning and learning situations, to take responsibility, and to develop personally and professionally. One of the strengths of dual VET systems is that several stakeholders, including experts from workplace practice and from VET schools, employers and trade unions, are involved in developing vocational training regulations and curricular frameworks. While the private sector generally assumes responsibility for practical training, the vocational school inculcates the theoretical knowledge necessary for practicing a profession. This partnership ensures that the needs of both companies and employees are met. The binding requirements of the training regulations and the curricular framework guarantee a national standard while giving companies the flexibility to agree a training plan with trainees. This is largely why the transition from education to first employment is notably smooth (Table C5.2a, Tables C5.2b, c and d [available on line]) and the youth unemployment rate is below the OECD average across these countries. Nevertheless, labour-market initiatives and systemic measures are needed to balance the effects of economic downturns and to support particular sub-groups, such as migrants and students with special needs. In Austria, for example, graduates of compulsory schooling who do not have a place at an upper secondary school or cannot find a place in a company-based apprenticeship programme are given the opportunity to learn an apprenticeship trade at a supra-company training institution financed by Public Employment Service Austria (Arbeitsmarktservice, AMS). Thesesystemsshowthatobtaininganacademicqualificationisnottheonlywayforindividualstogainthe skills needed in today’s labour market. Upgraded training for higher positions provides a real alternative to a degree in higher education, and is highly regarded both by individuals and society in general. In Germany and Switzerland, qualifications obtained through advanced vocational training and from trade and technical schools lead to recognised occupational certificates and titles, providing a means of career advancement without a university degree. Advanced vocational training builds on initial training and leads to qualifications such as “master craftsman” that are regarded as equivalent to academic degrees. To emphasise the equivalence of general and vocational education, new pathways to tertiary education have been opened for VET graduates. However, despite the similarities of systems in Austria, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland, the international diversity of VET systems is large. The OECD has carried out extensive work in the assessment of the challenges of VET systems throughout OECD countries in the reviews Learning for Jobs (OECD, 2010) and Skills beyond School (OECD, 2013).
  28. 28. chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning A1 Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201330 Through upper secondary VET programmes, students can acquire the skills, knowledge and practical experience relevant to specialised occupations, and young people can prepare for entry into the labour market (see Box A1.1, which provides details on the VET systems in Austria, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland). However, reliable data on these systems is scarce and international comparisons are difficult to establish, especially for tertiary programmes. Not only do VET systems vary greatly among countries, but even when VET education is an important part of an education system, as it is in several countries, it is usually eclipsed in prestige by general education (OECD, 2010 and 2013) (see Table A1.5a and Table A1.5b, available on line). Tertiary attainment Over the past decade, tertiary attainment (including advanced research programmes, i.e. ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6) has increased by almost 10 percentage points across OECD countries. On average, 33% of adult women and 30% of adult men have attained tertiary education (Table A1.3b, available on line). In most OECD countries, younger adults have a higher rate of tertiary attainment than all adults by an average of 7 percentage points. In 15 countries, this difference is larger than the OECD average, and is larger than 10 percentage points in Chile, France, Japan, Korea and Poland (Chart A1.1). Despite this increase, only in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom are attainment rates for tertiary education higher than those for upper secondary education. In Korea, rates for both upper secondary and tertiary education are almost equal. Spain is the only country in this group where there are more adults with below upper secondary education than adults who have attained a tertiary education (Table A1.4a). There is an important difference between upper secondary and tertiary education attainment. Data show that high upper secondary attainment rates do not necessarily imply high tertiary education attainment rates. This is particularly true for countries with strong upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED levels 3 and 4) VET systems. One reason for this are the strong links between upper secondary attainment and the labour market, links that are likely to have an effect on an individual’s decision to continue in education. This disparity may also reflect the difficulties encountered when switching between programme tracks in the transition to tertiary level, the dissuasive effects of tuition fees and related loans, or the feeling that studies beyond compulsory or VET education will delay entry into the labour market and wage-earning. Trends in attainment levels in OECD countries Evolution of educational attainment Nowadays there are more people participating in education than ever before. Differences between generations in educational attainment and growth in tertiary and secondary attainment are reflected in the trends in attainment rates. On average, since 2000 the proportion of people with no upper secondary education decreased and the proportion of people with tertiary education grew in most OECD countries. Upper secondary and post- secondary non-tertiary attainment levels have remained stable in most OECD countries during the same period. Australia, Canada, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Poland, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have reported a growth in tertiary attainment rates of more than 10 percentage points between 2000 and 2011. As shown in Chart A1.3, countries in the upper right quadrant not only have already-high attainment levels but the difference between generations is considerable: attainment rates among younger adults (25-34 year- olds) are higher than those among older adults (55-64 year-olds). In Japan, Poland and most notably Korea, the gap between the two age groups in tertiary attainment is larger than 25 percentage points. In contrast, there is less than a 10 percentage-point difference between the two age groups in Austria, Brazil, Estonia, Finland, the Russian Federation and Turkey. In Germany and the United States, the difference in attainment rates between the two age groups is slightly more than 1 percentage point, while in Israel, the proportion of older adults with tertiary education is slightly larger than that of younger adults. The lower left quadrant shows countries where tertiary attainment rates are below the OECD average and where rates have not increased much from one generation to the next (Chart A1.3).
  29. 29. A1 To what level have adults studied? – Indicator A1 chapter A Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 2013 31 Between 2000 and 2011, in Australia, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom, the share of adults who have only a below upper secondary education decreased by more than 10 percentage points. At the opposite extreme, the share of people in Denmark and Norway without an upper secondary education grew by about 3 percentage points in the same period (Table A1.4a). Generational differences and gender In most OECD countries, younger adults (25-34 year-olds) have attained higher levels of education than older adults (55-64 year-olds). On average, 82% of younger adults have attained at least upper secondary education compared to 64% of older adults (Table A1.2a). Younger adults also have higher tertiary attainment rates than older adults by about 15 percentage points. In some countries, the difference between generations is significant. In Korea, for example, there is a 51 percentage-point gap between these two age groups in tertiary attainment levels. Belgium, Chile, France, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom also have above-average differences in attainment rates between the two age groups. By contrast, in Germany and the United States, differences between age groups are very small; and in Israel, the proportion of younger adults with a tertiary education is slightly smaller than the proportion of older adults with that level of education (Table A1.3a). Austria Belgium Canada Chile Estonia Germany Greece Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Mexico Poland Portugal Turkey Brazil Hungary Sweden Slovenia Denmark Russian Federation United States France Czech Republic Slovak Republic Netherlands Luxembourg Switzerland New Zealand Norway Finland United Kingdom OECD average Spain Iceland OECDaverage OECD average Australia 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Difference between the populations of 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education (percentage points) Source: OECD. Table A1.3a. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education (%) Chart A1.3. Proportion of population with tertiary education and difference in attainment between 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds (2011) 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932846253
  30. 30. chapter A The Output of Educational Institutions and the Impact of Learning A1 Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators   © OECD 201332 Chart A1.4, which focuses on the population with at least upper secondary education, i.e. those individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education or tertiary education, shows how attainment levels vary between men and women across countries and generations. Generational differences are particularly striking among women. On average, there is a 24 percentage-point difference in attainment rates in upper secondary and tertiary education between younger (84%) and older (60%) women. This gap suggests that there has been strong growth in upper secondary and tertiary education attainment rates among the younger generations of women in most OECD countries (Chart A1.4, and Table A1.3b, available on line). Generational differences in attainment rates among men are similar to those among women but less pronounced. Across almost all OECD countries, except Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Norway and the United States, the proportion of younger men who have attained at least upper secondary education is equal to or larger than the proportion of older men with the same attainment level (Chart A1.4). 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % Korea Slovenia Poland RussianFederation SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Canada Finland Sweden Israel UnitedStates Estonia Switzerland Chile Ireland Hungary Austria Germany Australia Norway France UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Netherlands OECDaverage Denmark Greece Belgium NewZealand Iceland Italy Spain Portugal Brazil Mexico Turkey 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % Korea Slovenia Poland RussianFederation SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Canada Finland Sweden Israel UnitedStates Estonia Switzerland Chile Ireland Hungary Austria Germany Australia Norway France UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Netherlands OECDaverage Denmark Greece Belgium NewZealand Iceland Italy Spain Portugal Brazil Mexico Turkey Note: These calculations exclude ISCED 3C short programmes. Countries are ranked in descending order of the attainment rates of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education. Source: OECD. Table A1.2b, available on line. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm). 55-64 year-olds25-34 year-olds Men Women Chart A1.4. Population that has attained at least upper secondary education (2011) Percentage, by age group and gender 1 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932846272

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