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Mario perez y pablo lopez Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 4: CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BY: PABLO LÓPEZ & MARIO PÉREZ
  • 2. INDEX
    • INTRODUCTION
    • 3. STONE
    • 4. CEMENT AND PRODUCTION OF IT
    • 5. MORTAR
    • 6. CONCRETE AND HOW IS REINFORCED
    • 7. PLASTER AND HOW IS USED
    • 8. CERAMICS
    • 9. USE OF BRICKS
    • 10. PHASES OF CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE
  • 11. INTRODUCTION
    • In the ancient times the people used different materials for construction. F.E.: stone, mortar, concrete, cement, ceramics, etc.
    • 12. Each materials have different properties. F.E.:
    • 13. Wood is good to make beams because it is very resistant.
    • 14. Stone was used by the romans in the arched bridges.
    • 15. Aluminium is used today to make the squares of the windows.
  • 16. STONE
    • Stone is also called rock. Is a naturally occuring solid aggregate of minerals and mineraloids
    • 17. The stone can be shaped into blocks to construct buildings.
  • 18. USES OF STONE
    • Building and decorative purpose-stone is used for its resistance to weather or its aesthetic appeal – walls and decorative purposes. Buildings, walls...
    • 19. Aggregates– stone used for its strong physical properties – crushed and sorted into various sizes for use in concrete.
    • 20. Industrial purpose-limestone can be used for its chemical properties as calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
    • 21. Cement-if limestone is mixed with clay or sandstone before firing, it can produce Portland cement
  • 22. CEMENT
    • In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans.
  • 23. PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
    • Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate), with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln, in a process known as calcination.
  • 24. MORTAR
    • Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure. Modern mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry when the original mortar has washed away.
  • 25. PRODUCTION OF MORTAR
    • The first mortars were made of mud and clay. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for mortar.
    • 26. Portland cement mortar (often known simply as cement mortar) is created by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with sand and water.
  • 27. CONCRETE
    • Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures. In the photo we can see a roman concrete construction .
  • 28. HOW IS CONCRETE REINFORCED
    • Concrete is strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail. Reinforced concrete solves these problems by adding either steel reinforcing bars, steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads.
  • 29. PLASTER
    • The term plaster refer to gypsum plaster, lime plaster or cement plaster.
    • 30. Gypsum plaster is a type of building materials based on calcium sulphate.
    • 31. Lime plaster is a mixture of calcium hydroxide and sand.
    • 32. Cement plaster is a mixture of suitable plaster, sand, portland cement and water which is normally used in masonry.
  • 33. USES OF PLASTER
      We can use plaster in:
    • Architecture
    • 34. Art
    • 35. Medicine
    • 36. Fire protection
    • 37. Illegal uses: this material is used by professional boxers to hardened his hands.
  • 38. CERAMICS
    • A ceramic is an inorganic,non metal solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling.ceramic materials may have a crystaline or partly crystaline structure,or may be amorphous
    • 39. The earliest ceramics were pottery objects made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials, hardened in fire. Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create a colored, smooth surface
  • 40. USES OF CERAMICS
    • Ceramics are used in the manufacture of knives
    • 41. Ceramics are increasingly used in motor sports
    • 42. Ceramics such as alumina and boron carbide have been used in ballistic armored vests to repel large-calibre rifle fire
    • 43. Ceramic balls can be used to replace steel in ball bearings
  • 44. BRICKS
    • A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar.
    • 45. Bricks are used for building and pavement, bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces.
    • 46. In the United Kingdom, bricks have been used in construction for centuries. Until recently, almost all houses were built almost entirely from bricks.
  • 47.
      PHASES OF CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE
    PHASE 1 : "The Paperwork" The Hardest part of any project is getting started, "The Paperwork" can be very time consuming and taxing, but just like buying a car, it is a necessary evil. PHASE 2 : “Taking shape” Before any building can take place, the lot must be prepared. Having a firm foundation is the key to building a solid structure
  • 48. PHASES OF CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE
    • Phase 3 : “Interior Selections”
    • 49. This is the turning point, as a structure becomes a home. During this phase, all of the small interior details and personal touches get set into motion.
  • 50. PHASES OF CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE
    • Phase 4 : “Nearly Complete”
    • 51. As your house becomes a home, there are a few more major projects that must be completed:
    • 52. a. Insulating your walls followed by drywall
    • 53. b Texture spray and interior paint
    • 54. c. Cabinets installed and stained
    • 55. d. Tile work
  • 56. PHASES OF CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE
    • Phase 5 : “Finishing Touches”
    • 57. Your almost home free, the dream is about to become reality. All of the pieces of the puzzle are almost together and yet there is still more to do:
    • 58. a. Concrete flat work
    • 59. b. Driveway
    • 60. c. Stucco
    • 61. d. Finalizing electrical and plumbing
    • 62. e. Carpet installation
  • 63.