OFFICIAL NAME OF THE COUNTRY AND CAPITAL.The Republic of Finland, isa Nordic country situated innorthern Europe. It is borderedby Sweden to thewest, Norway to the northand Russia to the east,while Estonia lies to the southacross the Gulf of Finland.
FLAG OF FINLANDThe flag of Finland , dates from the beginning of the20th century. On a white background, it features ablue Nordic cross, which represents Christianity.The first known "Flag of Finland" was presented in 1848
COAT OF ARMS OFFINLANDThe coat of arms of Finland is a crowned lion on a red field,the right forepaw replaced with an armoured handbrandishing a sword, trampling on a saber with thehindpaws. The coat of arms was originally created aroundthe year 1580.The original design first appeared in the 1580s on themonument of Gustav Vasa in Uppsala cathedral.
CURRENCY OF FINLANDFinland introduced the currency of the Eurozone,the euro, in 2002.
ANTHEM OF FINLANDhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKRvD5i44Ko
TOTAL AREA AND POPULATION OF THE COUNTRYFinland has a total area of 338,145 sq km.Of thattotal area 303,815 sq km is land and 34,330 sqkm is waterFinland has a totalpopulation of 5,401,267inhabitants. It has adensity of 17 inhabitantsper sq kmhttps://www.google.es/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&met_y=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:FIN&dl=es&hl=es&q=poblacion%20de%20finla
FORM OF GOVERNMENTThe Finnish system is fundamentallysemiparliamentary, although the President hassome remarkable powers. The executive corerests on the State Council, headed by the PrimeMinister, elected by Parliament.
NATIONAL COALITION PARTYThe National Coalition Party is a liberal conservative politicalparty in Finland founded in 1918.The National Coalition Party is one of the four largest partiesin Finland, along with the Social Democratic Party, TheFinns Party and the Centre Party. The party bases itspolitics on "individual freedom and responsibility, equality,Western democracy and economic system, humaneprinciples and caring." The party is strongly pro-European and is a member of the European Peoples Party
Sauli Väinämö Niinistö is the 12th andcurrent President of Finland, in officesince 2012. A lawyer by education,Niinistö was Minister of Finance from1996 to 2003 and the National CoalitionParty candidate in the 2006 presidentialelection. He served as the Speaker ofthe Parliament of Finland from 2007 to2011 and has been the HonoraryPresident of the European Peoples
Jyrki Tapani Katainen isthe Prime Minister ofFinland and the chairmanof the National CoalitionParty.Logo of the Prime Minister
Eero Olavi Heinäluoma is thecurrent Speaker of theParliament of Finland. Aformer chairman of theFinnish Social DemocraticParty, he was replaced in thepartys leadership by JuttaUrpilainen in June 2008.Heinäluoma was electedChairman in June 2005,succeeding former PrimeMinister Paavo Lipponen. Hewas the Minister of Finance
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTExecutive branch: Finland has a parliamentary system. Mostexecutive power lies in the cabinet headed by the primeminister.President : Elected for a six-year termCouncil of State :The Council of State is made up of the primeminister and ministers for the various departments of thecentral government. Ministers are not obliged to bemembers of the Eduskunta (parliament) and need not beformally identified with any political party.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTJudicial branch: Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled tohave their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and withoutundue delay. This is achieved through the judicial system of Finland.The Finnish judicial system consists ofthe independent courts of law and administrative courtsthe prosecution servicethe enforcement authorities, who see to the enforcement ofjudgmentsthe prison service and the probation service, who see to theenforcement of custodial sentences, andthe Bar Association and the other avenues of legal aid.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTLegislative power: is vested in the Parliament of Finland, andthe government has limited rights to amend or extendlegislation. The president has the power of veto overparliamentary decisions although it can be overrun by theparliament.
TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION OF FINLANDFinland is divided into:19 regions.the regions are divided into 70 sub-regions.the sub-regions are divided into 320 municipalities.
LANGUAGE/S SPOKENFinnish and Swedish are the official languages ofFinland. Finnish predominates nationwide whileSwedish is spoken in some coastal areas in thewest and south and in the autonomous regionof Åland. The Sami language is an official languagein northern Lapland. Also FinnishRomani and Finnish Sign Language are recognizedin the constitution. The Nordic languagesand Karelian are also specially treated in somecontexts.The native language of 90% of the population isFinnish, which is part of the Finnic subgroup ofthe Uralic languages.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARS.The USSR attacked Finland on Nov. 30, 1939, after Finlandrefused to give in to Soviet territorial demands. TheFinns staged a strong defense for three months beforebeing forced to cede to the Soviets 16,000 sq mi.Under German pressure, the Finns joined the Nazisagainst Russia in 1941, but they were defeated againand forced to cede the Petsamo area to the USSR.In 1948, a treaty of friendship and mutual assistance wassigned by the two nations. Finland continued to pursuea foreign policy of nonalignment throughout the cold-war era.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSTo revitalize the economy, Martti Ahtisaari, a Social Democrat,won the countrys first direct presidential election in arunoff in Feb. 1994.Previously, presidents had been chosen by electors.Finland became a member of the European Union in Jan.1995.On Jan. 1, 1999, Finland, along with ten other Europeancountries, adopted the euro as its currency.In 2000, Tarja Halonen, who had been Finlands foreignminister, became its first woman president.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30YEARSSince 1998, Finland was judged to be the worlds least corruptcountryIn April 2003, Finland appointed its first female prime minister,making it the only country in Europe with both a femalepresident and prime minister. But Prime MinisterJaatteenmaki resigned after only two months in office when itwas revealed that she had used leaked classified informationagainst her rival in the election.In June, Defense Minister Matti Vanhanen was selected byparliament to replace her. In Jan. 2006, President Halonen wasreelected. Vanhanens Centre Party narrowly wonparliamentary elections in March 2007, and he was reelectedto a second term.
ECONOMIC SECTORS AND IMPORTANCE.The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%,followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. Primaryproduction is 2.9%. With respect to foreign trade, the keyeconomic sector is manufacturing. The largest industriesare electronics (22%), machinery, vehicles and otherengineered metal products (21.1%), forest industry (13%)and chemicals (11%).GPD growth of Finland
DATE OF INCORPORATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION.It incorporates to the EU in Jan. 1995
OFFICIAL NAME OF THE COUNTRY AND CAPITALEstonia officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state inthe Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is borderedto the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west bythe Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, and to theeast by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). Acrossthe Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the westand Finland in the north.
FLAG OF ESTONIAThe Estonian flag was officially adopted on May 8, 1990.The color blue represents loyalty, and the countrysbeautiful blue skies, seas and lakes; black is symbolic ofpast oppression and the fertile soil, and white representsvirtue, winter snows, and Estonias long struggle forfreedom and independence.
COAT OF ARMS OF ESTONIAEstonias coat of arms is a golden shield, surrounded by oakbranches, with three blue lions stacked on top of each other.The first of the three lions symbolizes the courage in the fight forfreedom during ancient times, the second for courage in theuprisings in Harjumaa, and the third for courage in the fight forfreedom during modern times. The oak branches representperseverance and strength.
CURRENCY OF ESTONIAThe currency of Estonia is the Euro
ANTHEM OF ESTONIAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZmJDmPGBdI
TOTAL AREA AND POPULATION OF THE COUNTRYEstonia has a totalpopulation of 1,286,540inhabitants. It has adensity of 29inhabitants per sq kmhttps://www.google.es/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&met_y=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:EST&dl=es&hl=es&q=poblacion%20estoniaThe total area of Estonia is 45,228 sq km.of that totalarea 42,338 is land and 2,480 is water.
FORM OF GOVERNMENTEstonia is a parliamentary representativedemocratic republic in which the Prime Ministerof Estonia is the head of government and whichincludes a multi-party system.
ESTONIAN REFORM PARTYThe Estonian Reform Party is a liberal pro-freemarket political party in Estonia. The party is led bycurrent Prime Minister of Estonia Andrus Ansip, andhas 33 members in the 101-member Riigikogu,making it the largest party in the legislature. TheReform Party has participated in the government ofEstonia for all but three years since its foundation in1994.The party was founded by then-President of the Bankof Estonia Siim Kallas as a split from NationalCoalition Party Pro Patria.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves is the fourthPresident of Estonia, in office since2006. He was the leader of the SocialDemocratic Party in the 1990s. Heserved in the government asMinister of Foreign Affairs from 1996to 1998 and again from 1999 to 2002.Later, he was a Member of theEuropean Parliament from 2004 to2006. He was elected as President ofEstonia by an electoral college on 23September 2006.
Andrus Ansip isan Estonian politician whohas been Prime Minister ofEstonia since 2005. He ischairman of the marketliberal Estonian ReformParty
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTExecutive branch:The Prime Minister of Estonia isthe head of government of the Republic ofEstonia. The prime minister is chosen bythe President and conferred by Parliament. This isusually the leader of the largest party or coalitionin the Parliament. The activity of the governmentis directed by the Prime Minister. He does nothead any specific ministry, but is, in accordancewith the constitution, the supervisor of the work ofthe government.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTJudicial branch:The supreme judiciary court is theNational Court or Riigikohus, with 19 justiceswhose chairman is appointed by the parliamentfor life on nomination by the president.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTLegislative branch:The State Council has 101members, elected for a four-year termby proportional representation. Only Estoniancitizens may participate in parliamentaryelections.Internet voting was first used in the 2005 localelections and it has since then been used inelecting Riigikogu and the European Parliamentas well.
TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION OF FINLANDThe Republic of Estonia is divided into fifteen counties,which are the administrative subdivisions of the country.The first documented mentioning of Estonian political andadministrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle ofHenry of Livonia, written in the 13th century duringthe Northern Crusades.A county is the biggest administrative subdivision. Thecounty government of each county is led by a countygovernor who represents the national government at theregional level. Governors are appointed by the Governmentof Estonia for a term of five years
LANGUAGE/S SPOKENThe official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branchof the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related toFinnish, spoken on the other side of the Gulf of Finland,and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not ofan Indo-European origin.Russian is still spoken as a secondary language by forty- toseventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian wasthe unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from 1944 to1991 and taught as a compulsory second language duringthe Soviet era.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSEstonia declared independence from the Soviet Union inMarch 1990. Soviet resistance ensued, but afterrecognition by European and other countries, the SovietUnion acknowledged Estonian nationhood on Sept. 6,1991. UN membership followed on Sept. 17.The newly independent nation embraced free-market reforms.Fueled by foreign investments, economic advancescontinued.In 2004, Estonia became a member of the European Union aswell as of NATO.In Sept. 2006, Toomas Hendrik Ilves was elected president,defeating incumbent Arnold Rüütel.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSIn March 2007, Estonia allowed Internet voting forParliamentary elections, becoming the first country to doso. Prime Minister Andrus Ansips Reform Party narrowlywon the election, taking 31 out of 101 seats, just two morethan the Centre Party.Violent protests erupted in April when Estonian officialsmoved a controversial bronze statue of a Soviet soldierfrom a park in Tallinn and placed in it a military cemetery.One person died in the protests and dozens were injured.
DATE OF INCORPORATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION.They incorporated to the European Union in 2004
OFFICIAL NAME OF THE COUNTRY AND CAPITALRepublic of Latvia is a country in the Balticregion of Northern Europe. It is bordered to thenorth by Estonia to the south by Lithuania , to theeast by Russia, and to the southeastby Belarus and it shares a maritime border to thewest with Sweden. The most populated cities areLiepaja and Daugavpils
FLAG OF LATVIALatvias flag was officially adopted on February 27, 1990.Long a part of the former Soviet Union, the modern flag issymbolic of a revered time-honored legend. It is told thatthe deep red color is representative of the blood shed by awounded Latvian leader, and the white represents the clothused to wrap his wounds.
COAT OF ARMS OF LATVIAThe Latvian coat of arms was created in 1918, and combinessymbols of the statehood and ancient historical districts ofLatvia.The sun in the middle of the piece symbolizes nationalstatehood, and has 17 rays symbolizing the 17 Latvian-inhabited districts. The 3 stars are an inclusion of thehistorical districts. Western and southwestern Latvia arerepresented by the red lion, while Northeastern andsoutheastern Latvia are represented by the silver.
CURRENCY OF LATVIAThe currency of Latvia is the Latvian Lats
ANTHEM OF LATVIAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKITbBjO4nE
TOTAL AREA AND POPULATION OF THE COUNTRYLatvia has a totalpopulation of 2,027,000inhabitants. It has adensity of 34,3inhabitants per sq kmThe total area of Latvia is 64,589 sq km.Of that totalarea all is composed of landhttps://www.google.es/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&met_y=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:LVA&dl=es&hl=es&q=poblacion%20letonia
FORM OF GOVERNMENTThe Government of Latvia is the centralgovernment of the Republic of Latvia.The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) outlinesthe nation as a parliamentaryrepublic represented bya unicameral parliament (Saeima) and theCabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia,which form the executive branch of theGovernment of Latvia.
UNITYUnity is a liberal-conservative politicalparty in Latvia, founded as an electoralalliance of the New Era Party, Civic Union, andthe Society for Other Politics on 6 March 2010.
Andris Bērziņš isa Latvian businessman andpolitician. He is the President ofLatvia, having won the presidentialelection held on 2 June 2011.From1993 to 2004, Bērziņš was thePresident of Unibanka.
Valdis Dombrovskis isa Latvian politician whohas been Prime Minister ofLatvia since 2009. Heserved as Minister ofFinance from 2002 to 2004and was a Member of theEuropean Parliament forthe New Era Party.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTExecutive branch:The Prime Minister is appointed bythe President. The Prime Minister then choosesthe Council of Ministers (Cabinet) which has to beaccepted by the Parliament. The Parliament canremove the Prime Minister and Cabinet by meansof a vote of no-confidence (Constitution of Latvia,Article 59).
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTJudicial branch: Judges appointments areconfirmed by Parliament and are irrevocable,except on the decision of the JudicialDisciplinary Board or on the judgment of acriminal court. There is a special ConstitutionalCourt, with the authority to rule on theconstitutionality of laws, whose members mustbe confirmed by an absolute majority vote ofParliament, by secret ballot.
BRANCHES OF THE GOVERMENTLegislative branch:The unicameral Parliament(Saeima) has 100 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation with a5% threshold. The parliamentary elections areheld on the first Saturday of October. Locally,Latvia elects municipal councils, consisting of 7to 60 members, depending on the size of themunicipality, also by proportionalrepresentation for a four-year term.
TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION OF LATVIALatvia is a unitary state, currently divided into 110 one-level municipalities and 9 republican cities with their owncity council and administration.There are four historicaland cultural regions inLatvia Courland, Latgale, Vidzeme, Zemgale, which arerecognised in Constitution of Latvia. Selonia, a part ofZemgale, is sometimes considered culturaly distinctregion, but it is not part of any formal division.
LANGUAGE/S SPOKENThe sole official language of Latvia is Latvian, which belongs tothe Baltic language group of the Indo-European languagefamily. Another notable language of Latvia is the nearlyextinct Livonian language of the Finnic branch of the Uraliclanguage family.On February 18, 2012 Latvia held a constitutional referendum onwhether to adopt Russian as a second official language.According to the Central Election Commission, 74,8% votedagainst, 24.88% voted for and the voter turnout was 71.11%.However, a large part of Latvias Russian speaking communitycould not vote in this referendum because they hold non-citizen status and thus have no right to vote.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSLatvia was one of the most economically well-off andindustrialized parts of the Soviet Union. When a coupagainst Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev failed in 1991,the Baltic nations saw an opportunity to free themselvesfrom Soviet domination and, following the actions ofLithuania and Estonia, Latvia declared its independence onAug. 21, 1991.Most other nations quickly recognized their independence, inSept. 2, 1991, President Bush announced full diplomaticrecognition for Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. The SovietUnion recognized Latvias independence on Sept. 6, andUN membership followed in Sept. 17, 1991.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSIn June 2003, President Vike-Freiberga easily won reelection.In Dec. 2004, Aigars Kalvitis became prime minister,forming the twelfth government since Latviasindependence from Russia. The nation became a memberof both the EU and NATO in 2004.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSPrime Minister Kalvitis resigned in Dec. 2007, following aseries of widespread protests over his attempts to fire anticorruption investigator Aleksejs Loskutovs.A series of riots sparked by political grievances and aworsening economy broke out in the capital, Riga, duringJan. 2009.Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis resigned in Feb. 2009, whenthe Latvian economy began to shrink at an alarming rate, aresult of the global financial crisis. His government hadbecome unpopular in 2008, when it was forced to increasetaxes and cut public spending after the countrys bankingsystem collapsed.
HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY IN THE LAST 30 YEARSLatvia sunk deeper into a financial morass in 2009, withsoaring unemployment that reached 22.3% in Novemberthe highest rate in the EU and heavy debt that promptedthe government to implement steep budget cuts and turnto the IMF and the EU for a bailout. Dombrovskis lost hismajority in parliament in March 2010 when his largestcoalition partner bolted from the government in protest ofthe austerity measures. He resumed a majority after hiscoalition won 58.6% of the vote in October 2010 elections.His Unity party took 33 out of 100 seats, and his coalitionpartner, the Greens and Farmers Union, earned 22 seats.