Appendix consultancy report. what companies want

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  • 1. Appendix for the Consultancy Report July 2010 “What Companies Want” Graduate education needs in a global labour market BIANCHI Paolo ANDERSEN Solveig GAGLIARDI Marcello GUERIN Julia VLEUGELS Jenneth
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Appendix 1: Strategic vision from director International MBA ____3 Appendix 2: Characteristics interviewees qualitative interviews ____4 Appendix 3: Interview guides (category 1 and 2) ____7 Appendix 4: Interview summaries ___12 Appendix 5: List of competencies mentioned by managers (from analysis qualitative research) __108 Appendix 6: List of managerial competencies created by innovation department EM Lyon __110 Appendix 7: Content web-survey __116 Appendix 8: Results from web-survey __119 Appendix 9: Main managerial competencies (qualitative and quantitative research) __123 Appendix 10: Direct recommendations from managers __124 Appendix 11: Brainstorming rules __126 Appendix 12: Result brainstorming session __127 Appendix 13: Selecting the recommendations (linking direct recommendations from managers and brainstorming results to competencies) __131 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 2
  • 3. Appendix 1: Strategic vision from director International MBA Impacts and implications of demography A greater number of older, more experienced students require relevant professional education to emphasize project and team-based contents and experiential learning. Curricula should become more flexible and degree programmes need to become shorter and be more effective in a fastchanging environment. Impacts and implications of technology Information and communication technologies pervade corporations and the communities of executives, managers, professionals, and consumers. Social networks and the emerging role of online communities have challenged the way companies successfully deliver value to the customer. Innovating the value proposition and the business model consequently constitutes one of the most recurrent quests to be dealt by executives. Impacts and implications of globalization The growth of cultural diversity in society and in business, as well as the widespread diffusion of multinational organizations and their operational models, require a superior appraisal of the critical role of cross-cultural content in teaching. Indeed, the requirements to form cross-cultural teams are managing global accounts, shaping operational models in a "think global – act local" mode, and creating global strategic alliances and partnerships. Impacts and implications of entrepreneurial thinking A new focus on linkages between technology and management must enhance the capability to produce entrepreneurial strategies and innovative business models even in large and established firms. The teaching of entrepreneurial and emerging business skills also requires to transfer knowhow and techniques proper of small and entrepreneurial companies to complex, global, and well structured corporations. Ethics and corporate social responsibility The fast pace of the economy, undertaken by some new players from developing countries requires new sustainable trajectories for growth. Energy consumptions and environmental issues must play a crucial role in the strategic thinking of a corporation, since they might soon become a long-lasting and hard to overcome obstacle for growth. Furthermore, accountability, transparency and equity must be taken as a cultural mindset and valuable behavioural habit. Ethics and social responsibility tend to become a core value embedded in the business and operational model. All of these issues are the main challenges for the development of a new class of executives and managers. Facing these challenges is at the core of the iMBA that wishes to provide an international and outstanding, educational experience enabling students to become global leaders of their future careers. Paolo Boccardelli, iMBA Director Source: http://www.mba.luiss.it/iMBA/ APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 3
  • 4. Appendix 2: Characteristics interviewees qualitative interviews Date: 06-05-2010 Name: Fabio Scognamiglio (male) (and Monica Stralek (female)) Company: British American Tobacco Position: Corporate and regulatory affairs Company industry: Tobacco Alumni: No Interview category: E Date: 06-05-2010 Name: Cesare Avenia (male) Company: Ericsson Position: CEO Company industry: Telecommunication Alumni: No Interview category: E Date: 17-05-2010 Name: Vito Varvaro (male) Company: Della Valle Group Position: Director of Operations and development Company industry: Luxury Alumni: No Interview category: 1 Date: 17-05-2010 Name: Luca Olivari (male) Company: AT Kearney Position: Principal Company industry: Consultancy Alumni: MBA Michigan university Interview category: 1 Date: 18-05-2010 Name: Alessandro Belli (male) Company: Pirelli Real Estate SpA Position: Head of acquisition Tourism Company industry: Real estate Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 1 Date: 19-05-2010 Name: Massimiliano Ferrante (male) Company: Unilever IT Position: Customer Finance manager Company industry: food and beverage Alumni: No Interview category: 1 Date: 24-05-2010 Name: Gianpaolo DiDio (male) Company: TL com Position: Senior advisor Company industry: venture capital and private equity industry Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 27-05-2010 Name: Marella Lanari (female) Company: Travelport Position: HR director (Southern Europe and Brazil) Company industry: Travel Alumni: Executive MBA LBS Interview category: 2 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 4
  • 5. Date: 27-05-2010 Name: Roberto Magnanelli Company: EDF Energies nouvelles Position: Project & finance manager Company industry: energy Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 28-05-2010 Name: Martin Brannigan Company: SKY Italy Position: Head op broadcast operations Company industry: Television Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 28-05-2010 Name: Vincenzo Montori Company: International Power Position: head of marketing and regulation Company industry: Oil & energy Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category:2 Date: 01-06-2010 Name: Alessandro Pansa Company: Finmeccanica Group Position: CFO Company industry: technology Alumni: MBA NY university Interview category:2 Date: 03-06-2010 Name: Alessandro Lorica Company: Glamoo Position: Chief operations officer Company industry: Internet services Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 03-06-2010 Name: Mauro Battochi Company: Enel Position: Head of international institutional affairs Company industry: Energy Alumni: No Interview category:2 Date: 03-06-2010 Name: Vito di Goia (male) and Joanna Dinolfo (female) Company: Federazione Italiana Giucco Calcio Position: Marketing & business development/ Project manager EURO 2016 Company industry: sports Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category:2 Date: 11-06-2010 Name: Robert Lucarini (male) Company: Engineering SpA Position: Technical Project manager Company industry: ICT Alumni: Executive MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 15-06-2010 Name: Fillipo Ghirelli Company: Genera Group/ Ghirelle Group holding SA Position: CEO/ Managing director Company industry: Construction/Finance Alumni: Executive MBA LBS Interview Category: 2 Date: 15-06-2010 Name: Danilo Zatta Company: Simon Kucher & partners Position: Senior Director Company industry: Strategy & marketing Consulting Alumni: other MBA Interview category: 2 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 5
  • 6. Date: 15-06-2010 Name: Fabio Menis Company: IBM Position: Marketing Consultant Company industry: Management consulting Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 17-06-2010 Name: Daniele Condurso Company: Agile Servizi SRL Position: Marketing manager Company industry: ICT Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 21-06-2010 Name: Matteo Tomjoalovich Company: SpA Birra Peroni Position: Sales & distribution business area manager Company industry: Food & Beverage Alumni: No Date: 21-06-2010 Name: Fabiola Ciaralli (female) Company: Acea Electrabel Trading SpA Position:Head of BU power trading & portfolio management Company industry: oil & energy Alumni: Executive MBA Interview category: 2 Date: 21-06-2010 Name: Alberto Cozzi Company: Abbot Italy Position: CEO Company industry: Pharmaceutical Alumni: MBA Durham Interview category: 2 Date: 22-06-2010 Name: Michele Tarditi Company: Deloitte Position: Manager strategy & operational excellence Company industry: Consultancy Alumni: MBA other Interview category: 2 Date: 23-06-2010 Name: Alfredo Imparato Company: Kombel Position: entrepreneur Company industry: Electric & electronic Systems Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 23-06-2010 Name: Claudio Bracie Company: Devoteam auSystem Position: Business Manager Company industry: Information systems Alumni: Executive MBA Interview category: 2 Date: 24-06-2010 Name: Luca benza Company: Gallazzi SpA Position: Production manager Company industry: plastics Alumni: MBA LBS Interview category: 2 Date: 25-06-2010 Name: Michele Pugliese Company: API Position: Head of finance and investor relations Company industry: Alumni: executive MBA LBS Interview category: 2 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 6
  • 7. Appendix 3: Interview guides (category 1 and 2) Category 1 CREATING A NEW MBA PROGRAM FOR LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL May-June 2010 INTERVIEW GUIDE Presentation of the project Considering the impact of the crisis and the changing global environment on companies, several Business Schools are re-thinking their MBA programs by making the effort to take into account the new competences required for the next generation of managers. In order to understand what these new required competencies are, LUISS Business School appointed a multicultural team of 5 Master students. Our objective is to gather knowledge on the topic using both academic research and managers’ insights. Objectives of the interview The objective of our interview with you is to understand what YOU consider as the new role of managers in the future and therefore what competences will be required to fulfil it. We would also be interested in identifying which, in your opinion, are the competences MBA students should develop during an MBA program. We will ensure that the collected information will be handled confidentially. Next step: the quantitative research The interview is the qualitative step of our research. We have planned to do a quantitative analysis as a second step. If you agree, we will send you an e-mail where you will be able to answer to an online questionnaire (5-10 minutes). Who are the team members? Solveig ANDERSEN, from Denmark, completing a Human Resource Management Master at Copenhagen Business School Paolo BIANCHI, from Italy, completing the LUISS Business School MBA program Marcelo GAGLIARDI, from Italy, completing the LUISS Business School MBA program Julia GUERIN, from France, completing a Master in Science of Management at EM Lyon Business School Jenneth VLEUGELS, from The Netherlands, completing a Strategic Human Resource Management Master at Radboud University (Nijmegen) Thank you very much for your time and availability! APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 7
  • 8. External impacts on companies 1. Could you name the most important external factor, out of the company´s control, that had a major impact on the organization, within the last three years? Economics 2. China and India may account for 50% of global GDP by 2050, and forecasts (Goldman Sachs) claim that China will overtake Europe by 2023. World economic dominance will be shared between the G-6 and the BRICs countries. Which competencies must present and future managers have in order to deal with this dominance? 3. In the years to come, growth rates will slow down in the G-6 countries, and consumers’ demand will be weak. This will cause a low-cost competition world-wide. What does this low-cost competition imply for managerial competencies? 4. The crisis of the “real” economy started from a Financial Crisis. The behaviour of top managers has been blamed worldwide. Considering this point of view, which characteristics should the next generation of managers have? 5. Governmental intervention has been essential to come out of the crisis. The role of the public sector will be prominent in the future. What competencies do next generation of managers have to develop in order to cope with this? Globalisation 6. As companies are becoming more and more global, managers are working in an intercultural environment. What competencies do they need to develop in order to adapt to this new intercultural environment? 7. How do you imagine the characteristics of the global leader, now and in five years? 8. Companies’ organizational structures are losing span on the vertical dimension (hierarchy) and getting flatter (horizontal teamwork is increasing): how does this impact managerial competencies? 9. What managerial competencies are needed for managing multicultural teams? 10. Information and Communication Technologies are reshaping the job design and working conditions, what are the impacts on competencies required from managers? Demography 11. The population and therefore employees are aging; in your company, what kind of solutions do you see for this challenge? APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 8
  • 9. 12. When a lot of employees in the company retire, what competencies are needed for managers in order to prevent critical knowledge from being lost? 13. Very different generations are now coexisting in the company. This may generate conflicts and misunderstandings. How does this diversity have an impact on managerial competences? Corporate Social Responsibility 14. Companies are experiencing increasing pressure from stakeholders to invest in CSR. What impact does this pressure have on managerial competencies needed? 15. What managerial competencies are needed in order to understand stakeholders requirements? 16. What managerial competencies are ensuring a good reputation for the company? 17. Former Prime Minister of the UK, Gordon Brown, claimed: ¨we will join a Green New Deal¨. President Obama promised to pump $150 billion into green technology over the next decade. Which competencies do managers need to develop to work in a world, where the so-called “green economy” will become extremely important? 18. It is becoming an issue for companies to encourage gender diversity. How does this gender issue have an impact on the managerial role and their expected competencies? 19. Do you see additional challenges for managers’ competencies regarding other forms of diversity? RESHAPING THE MBA 20. What competencies do you expect to be developed during an MBA program, ideally? 21. In your opinion, what are the main managerial competencies, needed in five years, and please tell us how to develop them? 22. Do you see any other competences that could be important? ADDITIONNAL QUESTIONS FOR ALUMNI 23. In your opinion, what MBA subjects were most useful for your professional career? 24. If you would attend the MBA again today, what subjects should be included, in your opinion? APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 9
  • 10. Category 2 CREATING A NEW MBA PROGRAM FOR LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL May-June 2010 INTERVIEW GUIDE Presentation of the project Considering the impact of the crisis and the changing global environment on companies, several Business Schools are re-thinking their MBA programs by making the effort to take into account the new competencies required for the next generation of managers. In order to understand what these new required competencies are, LUISS Business School appointed us, a multicultural team of 5 students participating in the European Human Resources Program. This programme brings together students from six leading European business schools and universities, allowing the participants to develop both theoretical and practical knowledge in European Human Resources Management. In our project work at Luiss Business School, our final objective is to reshape the MBA program; in this perspective, we are gathering knowledge using both academic research and managers’ insights. Objectives of the interview The objective of our interview with you is to understand what YOU consider as the new role of managers in the future and therefore what competences will be required to fulfil it. We would also be interested in identifying which, in your opinion, are the competences MBA students should develop during an MBA program. We will ensure that the collected information will be handled confidentially. Next step: the quantitative research The interview is the qualitative step of our research. We have planned to do a quantitative analysis as a second step. If you agree, we will send you an e-mail where you will be able to answer to an online questionnaire (5-10 minutes). Who are the team members? Solveig ANDERSEN, from Denmark, completing a Human Resource Management Master at Copenhagen Business School Paolo BIANCHI, from Italy, completing the LUISS Business School MBA program Marcelo GAGLIARDI, from Italy, completing the LUISS Business School MBA program Julia GUERIN, from France, completing a Master in Science of Management at EM Lyon Business School Jenneth VLEUGELS, from The Netherlands, completing a Strategic Human Resource Management Master at Radboud University (Nijmegen) Thank you very much for your time and availability! APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 10
  • 11. A preliminary remark about our use of the word « competencies »: in our project we consider competencies as an individual's ability to use one’s knowledge, skills and attitudes. So we do not refer to the strategic core competencies of the whole organisation. External impacts on companies 1. Could you name the most important external factor, out of the company’s control, that had a major impact on the organization, within the last three years? Economics 2. In the next decades, world economic dominance will be shared between the G-6 and the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Which competencies must present and future managers have in order to deal with this dominance? How to develop these competences? 3. The crisis of the “real” economy started from a financial crisis. The behaviour of top managers has been blamed worldwide. In this context, which attitude should the next generation of managers develop? 4. Governmental intervention has been essential to come out of the crisis. The role of the public sector will be prominent in the future. What competencies do the next generation of managers has to develop in order to cope with this? 5. In advanced economies, middle classes are losing purchasing power. New business models are being invented worldwide in order to keep prices low. What competencies should a manager have to perform in a market where the customers ask for lower prices? Globalisation 6. As companies are becoming more and more global, managers are exposed to an intercultural environment. What competencies do they need to develop in order to fit in this new intercultural environment? 7. Companies’ organizational structures are losing span on the vertical dimension (hierarchy) and getting flatter (horizontal teamwork is increasing): what new competencies do managers need? How could an MBA program help to develop these competencies? 8. In your view, what managerial competencies are needed for managing multicultural teams? 9. Information and Communication Technologies are reshaping the job design and working conditions. How should an MBA program train students so that they get prepared? Organizational demography 10. Regarding employee turnover, what competencies are needed for managers in order to prevent critical knowledge from being lost? APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 11
  • 12. 11. Very different generations are now coexisting in the company. This may generate conflicts and misunderstandings. According to you, how could an MBA program prepare managers to this challenge? Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Companies are experiencing increasing pressure from stakeholders to invest in CSR. What competencies and attitude do you expect from managers in this field? How should an MBA program contribute? 13. Ensuring a good reputation for the company has become crucial. How can MBA students develop the competencies needed? 14. Former Prime Minister of the UK, Gordon Brown, claimed: ¨we will join a Green New Deal¨. President Obama promised to pump $150 billion into green technology over the next decade. What competencies do managers need to deal with the increased importance of the “green economy”? How should an MBA program contribute to develop these competencies? 15. It is becoming an issue for companies to encourage gender diversity. What mindset and behaviour do you expect from the next generation of managers concerning this issue? 16. Do you see additional challenges for managers’ competencies regarding other forms of diversity? RESHAPING THE MBA 17. To summarize, which 3 main competencies do you expect to be developed during an MBA program, ideally? 18. If you were an occasional teacher in an MBA program, what subjects would you teach and how? 19. What pedagogical methods would you consider as most efficient during an MBA program? ADDITIONNAL QUESTIONS FOR ALUMNI 20. What was the best that you gained from your MBA? 21. In your opinion, what MBA subjects were most useful for your professional career? 22. If your company sent a junior manager to an MBA today, what topics should be included? 23. In your opinion, what crucial experiences should a student go through during an MBA? Thank you very much! APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 12
  • 13. Appendix 4: Interview summaries Interview summary Category (E) Fabio SCOGNAMIGLIO May 6th, 2010 Corporate and Regulatory Affairs at British American Tobacco Tobacco Industry (With the participation of Monica Stralek, part of the High potential program of American Tobacco Part A competencies According to M. SCOGNAMIGLIO, the most important skills for new hired young graduates are related to soft skills. They must be able to adapt to different contexts, to adapt to different attitudes, to different people and countries. Because now, managers are working with people coming from all around the world. Therefore, it is important to have the right cultural skills in order to manage complex environments. Monica is invited to give her opinion. She underlines that what matters is to be able to talk to many people from different backgrounds, to be visible in a multinational company. When we ask her to be more precise about this idea of being visible, she explains that it means “to talk to different people, not to be afraid to ask questions, to be open and proactive”. M. SCOGNAMILIO adds that the more experience you have, more important become the relationships you build within your company. In the beginning, it is important to be visible and have contact with many people. After a while, you have to be credible. He coins a motto: « First to be visible, then to be credible ». Then he explains that working is not just about « doing your work », « executing your activities ». Indeed, 50% is about relationships and interactions with other people, functions, and departments. He mentions that this is very important in the second stage of a career. The first step is to create and strengthen one’s network, and the second step there is a need to be more focused on the quality of the network. When we ask for examples of soft skills, he speaks about a professional experience he had in Germany, with other colleagues coming from all around Europe. “When you work in international environments, sometimes it is difficult and sensible (sensitive1) to have the right relationship with your colleagues, when they have different cultures, different attitudes, different personal history”. M. SCOGNAMILIO proposes Monica to give her opinion. She explains that all hard skills (good university degree, a lot of interships…), is something normal and “given”. “If you want to start in a big company, you have to work on your softskills”. For example, “you have to be proactive, to search for situations where you can try to show yourself to the company”. You also need someone who pushes you. She highlights that young hired need someone more senior to talk with and ask advises from. 1 Julia’s input (mistake detected concerning meaning of « sensible » VS « sensitive ») APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 13
  • 14. As M. SCOGNAMILIO states, “it is a daily improvement”. Part B Recommendations for the MBA When we ask about him about the expectations he has in mind from an MBA program, he mentions hard skills “of course”, and then a social attitude, that is to say an ability to interact with other people, understand different situations, and complex environments. To conclude, it is important from a new hired person to be proactive, and be able to do marketing for oneself within the company. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 14
  • 15. Interview summary Category (E) Cesare AVENIA May 6th, 2010 CEO at Ericsson Telecomunicazioni Telecommunication industry Not an alumni Part A competencies Leading skills and soft skills have to be strongly present in the managers, If they are not present naturally they can be learned but it is very difficult Communication skills are important as well Managers first have to be leaders. A person can be a manager and “manage” things but it is not enough. The leader has the same organizational and analytical skills (the hard skills are given for granted) but has strong human skills, so he must: - Be inspirational, inspire the team Be a good team worker, and be able to accept to be leaded Be charismatic Be able to balance the potential and the pros/cons of his human resources (be a bit HR) Have communication skills with the team and have “autocommunication” Be empathetic, able to feel the same feelings of the teammates and act consequently Push creativity, recognize it and boost it Understand real needs inside the social matrix and the social changes (feel the spirit of the era) Why now it is more important for a manager to have such leading skills? Answer: the complexity of the cross functional team organization often puzzles the employees who don’t know exactly “who’s my boss?”. So the leader has to be able to drive this complexity, have charisma and be inspirational in order to be a reference point. The HR managers have to be able to recognize this leading and charisma potential in a candidate. What about narcissism? An MBAer should be ambitious because he has to be conscious that he acquired many instruments and skills, but has to know his or her limit and be “balanced ambitious” and not overambitious. Companies that have great performance but boost narcissism among the management risk to crumble suddenly when a crisis appears, because everybody will think about him or herself and not about how to save the company. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 15
  • 16. Interview summary Category (1) Massimiliano FERRANTE May 19th 2010 Customer Finance Manager At Unilever Italia Not an alumni Comment: Mr Ferrante did not follow the structure of the interview guidelines. This was based on his idea that the effects of the events happening in the environment cannot be separated from the competencies needed. Therefore both aspects needed to be analyzed together. Part A external factors The most important impact of the external factor is the economic crisis. In addition to this he talks about the fact that the influence is not so dramatic as we should think because Unilever is an actor in its environment but also an active player, which refers to the possibility to influence the environment by itself (Unilever). As a response to this, Unilever will reshape its strategy in order to be sustainable, cohesiveness of organizational structure and strategy is needed. For reshaping this strategy, Unilever needs to be aware of the impact it will have on their people and the contribution to its business goals. Part B competencies To deliver results a specific leadership style needs to be present. Leaders need to have a strong bias to act quickly, be able to work in teams and needs the capability to manage growth. Furthermore, besides all the general capabilities a manager must have in the future, they will need the following competencies: an analytic approach, capability to evaluate trade-offs, being able to make SWOT-analyses, capability to deliver, being robust in assessing, horizontal approach. Importance of competences in decision-making. This process needs to be faster and the manager needs to have an ´action oriented approach`2. To accomplish ideas about strategy (see first category), a manager needs to be: external oriented, equipped to be a high performer. He or she also needs to understand the language of the stakeholders, be open-minded, have a strong look at its consumers. CSR: it is important to perceive how different companies have different attitudes towards CSR. 2 (Being the opposite of a bias for action (as stated by Mr. Ferrante). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 16
  • 17. Part C Recommendations for the MBA The competencies that need to be created in an MBA are: an external orientation, social abilities. Self-awareness about one’s career path and insights about your personal strengths and weaknesses is important (for a manager) and can be enhanced by an MBA. Some subjects that are important to put in an MBA: practical insights about strategy (while creating the link to the market), Insights in corporate demand, insights about leadership, learning about the dynamics of the market. ´Those subjects should be taught in a way that students can make a comparison of extremes`. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 17
  • 18. Interview summary Category (1) Luca OLIVARI Prinicipal At AT KEARNEY Management consulting Industry Alumni: MBA University of Michigan Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Fear for crisis, client stop buying. Other idea: clients are now able to provide services internally, they have created their internal consulting firms. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Need of real quality and transparency. So competencies needed are the ability to communicate quality, to prove transparency. 3. Low-cost competition This low-cost trend -> value for money is becoming more transparent. Instead of a problem of low cost, it is more the idea of “providing the right cost for customers”. “Managers will need to understand in different parts of the world what is the trade-off between quality and price Customer want”. 4. Blamed managers Importance of credibility, track record, transparency. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 18
  • 19. 5. Governmental intervention Need ability to adapt to the governmental way of thinking. Need to understand the way the government is acting to make advantage of it. It is a matter of speaking the same language as the government. Try to associate goals of government and goal of company. Other problem: lack of information about available funds for companies. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment «I thought I was international because I spent more than 5 years of my career outside Italy ». Being international, global, has nothing to do with spending time abroad. It has nothing to do with speaking languages. The main issue is to understand that in different countries things are handled differently. The only way to bypass this issue is working together among different cultures. MBA exchanges are only useful if you go far, Paris or Madrid too close cultures so not so useful. 7. Characteristics global leader Matter of cultural understanding. The point of view should not be driven by the product/services you are selling, but by the client’s need. “Listen to your counterpart and listen to the market”. 8. Flatter organizational structure “Now you really have to prove your leadership to have someone that follows you”. You have to prove that you have something to teach. Listening. Conflict management = making decisions quickly while taking into consideration conflicting opinions. Control process. Efficiency of decision-making. Leadership is not about understanding all the details, but about understanding sufficiently to make the best decision. 9. Manage multicultural teams The “managers will need to “feel” the messages through voice or computer, and it is not that easy”. It is a challenge to understand properly. It also has an impact on the way you organize your work. Most of the work can now be managed remotely, and the companies are spread out in different geo areas. Change the way you intercept and use the messages, because messages are less clear than in the past. The rules in the past are no longer valid. 10. Information and Communication Technologies Treat different clusters of age in different ways. People of different age: adds different values to the company. Understand what are the values of the old generation and the young generation and where do they meet each other. How can they work together. Organizational Demography 11. Solutions ageing population 12. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Shadow management to pass the competencies: 2 managers together, one transmitting the knowledge, during a needed time. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 19
  • 20. 13. Different generations: impact diversity Treat different clusters of age in different ways. People of different age: adds different values to the company. Understand what are the values of the old generation and the young generation and where do they meet each other, how they can work together. Corporate Social Responsibility 14. Pressure from stakeholders 15. Understanding stakeholder requirements It is important to have the right connections to get signals from stakeholders. Understand that when you make a lot of profit you need to invest some of this profit in a nice way. 16. Reputation Good communication is needed. 17. Green Economy Understand and influence. Be proactive, you will have an advantage and be ahead in time compared to competitors. Creating standards in the green economy. Thinking out of the box, making very good business out of the green approach. In the future green will not be second priority. 18. Gender diversity Completely nonsense. The market will push managers to consider competences and not the gender of a candidate. 19. Other forms of diversity Important to a manager to create representativeness of the target group. 21. Managerial competencies in five years Team-work, ability to get to conclusions, creating inter-functional teams where there is no hierarchy. Ability to communicate internally and externally in a more simple way. Need to face complexity. 22. Other important competencies Part C Recommendations for the MBA 20. Competencies developed in MBA Alumni 23. Most useful for professional career None. Access to managers. 24. MBA today, what topics Including psychology might be useful. Less macro economy. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 20
  • 21. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) In the MBA, too limited interaction with companies. You should interact with different industries through internships on a dedicated project. Short internships more frequently ( 3 times 1-2 months). Involved in a suitable project, timeframe. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 21
  • 22. Interview summary Category (1) Vito VARVARO May 17th, 2010 Director of Operations and Development at Gruppo Della Valle Luxury Industry Not an alumni Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor When asked what external factor had a major impact on the organization, within the last three years, Vito VARVARO immediately mentions the globalisation of business. According to him, this creates a need to rethink how the company is organized, in order to be able to send its products in many countries. He mentioned that Italian companies are still operating with a lot of “power to the centre”: operations all around the world are rather an “execution of what is decided at the centre”. Therefore companies need people who know different cultures, who “know the world”. Then he thinks of another external factor: the “value for money perception” of the consumers, which has changed after the crisis. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Answering to the question concerning the new economic dominance, M. VARVARO expresses that companies have to put in place an organization that is able to understand differences among the different countries in order to operate in different environments This will bring the need to have managers that are able to cope with these differences and to report to the HQ what are the needs of the different countries. He gives an example concerning China: “Tod’s need people that go there, get to know china and its consumers”. 3. Low-cost competition Concerning the future low-cost competition, M. VARVARO says that nowadays brands are extremely important and “companies need to communicate to consumers that there is value behind the name”. In his view, a low-cost competition will not bring long-term result. “Long-term winning is about value around your branding”. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 22
  • 23. 4. Blamed managers We now tackle the issue of managers blamed for bearing the responsibility of the financial crisis. In M. VARVARO’s opinion, this is linked to the problematic idea of “making a lot of money on a shortterm” basis. He believes that in the future, there will be a strong importance given to industrial values, and to the idea of building companies that last on the long-term. He insists on the idea that long-term view is much more important than short-term one, and he underlines that this perspective is already changing in the marketplace. As a conclusion, he states: “we have to have managers looking at generating value for the longterm”. 5. Governmental intervention About the increasing weight of the government, M. VARVARO thinks that managers should not think that the government will help. “The economy should be able to find its own solutions. Managers should be focused on their business.” Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Then we focus on the global company generating the need for managers to adapt to an intercultural environment. As Vito VARVARO says, “the big word here is diversity, being able to understand diversity”. It is particularly important for Italian culture. Managers have to understand that there are different behaviours, different ways of looking at things. He quotes the example of the Japanese: “even if they are not shouting around the table, they are giving their point of view, they do it in their own very respectful style”. Italians would say, “they are sleeping, they are not strong enough”. Indeed understanding diversity is the most difficult thing. He concludes: “in fact, the new generation has to travel a lot.” 7. Characteristics global leader When we ask M. VARVARO how he imagines the global leader now and in 5 years, he explains that it is someone who has been working in many places. Someone who has an experience of different cultures. “The more you look at the future, the more intercultural experience is needed”. He says that now there are global leaders but that not all of them have global experience. Then he gives an example: “in Tod’s I am pushing for a program where many people are travelling in different regions. In five years, they are going to be better managers.” 8. Flatter organizational structure About the flat organization, Vito VARVARO expresses that teamwork is indeed becoming more and more important. And again, it means working with different cultures. He underlines: “I believe that globalization is creating more power at the centre”, so companies will need very strong leadership at the centre. He believes that the company is evolving with two phenomenon’s: first, the need for global managers with a lot of power at HQ, and second, good team work people spread all around the world. 9. Manage multicultural teams APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 23
  • 24. When it comes to managing multicultural teams, M. VARVARO emphasizes the ability to listen, to understand the communication and the way this communication is done. He repeats that listening is a big competence that managers have to learn, as there is a risk: when they have successful careers, some managers tend to believe they know everything. 10. Information and Communication Technologies As far as the increasing importance of ICT is concerned, M. VARVARO thinks that managers in the future of course have to know new technologies and tools. However, as there is a lot more communication, he warns, “managers have to cope with it, have to find the right balance”. Managers in the future will have to change the way they work everyday. They have to use these tools in a way they “don’t become trapped”, as it should not take too much of their time. Organizational Demography 11. Solutions ageing population Concerning knowledge management, M. VARVARO says that organizations have to prepare the new generations for taking over; he gives an example from his own experience: “the day I left Procter and Gamble, I had prepared a lot of managers that knew all they needed to take over”. Organizations have to make sure there is a good flow of information. They also have to “put the younger people below the more senior people”; of course, a structure with a lot of delegation is needed, to make sure that not only top managers know what to do. 12. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost When we tackle the issue of conflicting generations, Vito VARVARO expresses that it is important to listen to the new generation. “It is important that senior people have an attitude of favouring change and let the younger generation lead the change”. He underlines that “the company evolves in the way the thinking of the new generation evolves”, and it is crucial to keep the company keep as young as you can. 13. Different generations: impact diversity Corporate Social Responsibility 14. Pressure from stakeholders Considering the increasing pressure for CSR and its impact on managerial competencies required, M. VARVARO expresses that “CSR is very important”, “you have to have the sensitivity” for it. He explains that the competencies to build are more “a sensitivity, an attitude”; being aware of it is important. In this perspective, he thinks that the new generations are essential for bringing this thinking to the company. He believes it is a strong advantage to have people taking care of CSR in their daily activities (what leather for shoes for instance). It is about building a new culture that comes from the younger generations. 15. Understanding stakeholder requirements Focusing on competencies needed to understand stakeholders, M. VARVARO expresses that “managers should not live only inside of the company, but also be part of outside the company”. “A manager has to go out and meet people”. A manager has to “be attentive to the outside world”. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 24
  • 25. 16. Reputation In M. VARVARO’s view, ensuring reputation is related to communication skills: “image and reputation comes from what managers communicate”. “Managers need to go out and talk”. 17. Green Economy When it comes to green economy, M. VARVARO underlines that again, this is about “understanding the external world”; understand this external world is important “to be a social responsible manager”. It is a matter of being aware of the need to think about sustainable development. So what is needed is to build a “sensibility”3. Then he explains that while in the US green concern it is already very developed, in Italy it is developing only right now. 18. Gender diversity According to M. VARVARO, this is a question of culture inside the company. “Managers have to understand these needs.” Of course, “companies also have to define their priorities”. It comes again to the idea of “listening to the outside world”; managers have to “understand what is important and why”. He specifies, “Italy is still a male society”. Gender issue will become a serious concern only when companies “understand that this will made them more successful”; managers have to believe that first. 19. Other forms of diversity When asked about other challenges regarding diversity, M. VARVARO mentions that there are still a lot of prejudices in companies. 21. Managerial competencies in five years - to operate on a global basis to cope with different cultures and structure organizations to work in team with different cultures to decide fast (“one of the characteristics that make u win is to be a fast decision-maker”) 22. Other important competencies Lastly, we ask M. VARVARO if he has ideas about other competencies. He summarizes previous ideas and repeats that an MBA should “show different real experiences of managers from different companies”. When the interviewee asks him about topics, he mentions organization, and business. Students should “have the global picture”, have an overview of a “total business plan”. “The best thing would be to tell a story that covers all the aspects”. Vito VARVARO also states that “sharing best practice could be a good idea to prepare people”. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 20. Competencies developed in MBA Speaking about competencies to be developed during an MBA program, Vito VARVARO suggests that students should be exposed to managers describing what happens in real life. He believes that an 3 According to Julia, M. VARVARO refered to ‘sensitivity’ instead of « sensibility » APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 25
  • 26. MBA has to be very pragmatic. In his view, MBA programs should propose “broad specialization by sector”. He thinks that each sector needs a specific kind of training. In his view an MBA should be the transmission of competencies from managers to students. Students “have to meet managers from different companies”. They have to “hear people running companies sharing their experience”. He gives an example: on a topic like “how to work on a global basis”, students meet 3 managers from different backgrounds, industries, realities, who come to share their knowledge and experience. And then the professor may link all theses experiences, having the umbrella overall vision. Alumni 23. Most useful for professional career 24. MBA today, what topics Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) When asked about what will make a difference during a recruitment interview at Procter and Gamble, he underlines that this company looks for “people ready to travel around the world”, so as to create global managers. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 26
  • 27. Interview summary Category (1) Alessandro BELLI May 18th 2010 Head of Acquisition Tourism At Pirelli Real Estate SpA Real Estate Industry Alumni : LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Financial crisis, the impact on real estate market was dramatic, everything stopped. Globalization: Real estate markets are now open New markets (China, Russia…) Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Need to create international mind people. International experience (academic exchanges, internships abroad). Need for an international approach. International mindset? Something that comes from experience outside of Italy. To be ready to move, ready to speak with people that have other mentalities, in another language. You have to be flexible and to understand the other cultures (especially China for ex: “I have to learn to be Chinese, otherwise I cannot sell anything”). To adapt yourself and to learn from other people. 3. Low-cost competition Managers have to be ready in the “cost-selling approach”, that is to say to be efficient: “don’t loose time, don’t loose money”. They have to be ready to work more, have more responsibilities. Be more open. Job organization. Be more focused on your core business. 4. Blamed managers Need a new approach: professional, transparent, clean way of doing business. Not too risky attitude. Strength in analysing risk. Only go for secure opportunities. Transparent and independent approach. You need to be trusted to win, to build trust so as to develop strong partnerships. Guarantee an ethic way of doing business. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 27
  • 28. 5. Governmental intervention Need to be patient. Understand bureaucracy, long and risky timing. You have to push them (but in a proper way) and make them follow you, to communicate the benefit that you can bring to the public counterpart. Need to have a “commercial approach”. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Improve proportion of international students in the MBA program. The professors should come from international Business Schools. Courses should be in English. Need to be in an international environment from the beginning. 7. Characteristics global leader International mentality. Fast in understanding business situation and making decisions. Managers have to read newspapers, to be aware of what is happening at a broad international level. The language: Italy is lagging behind on that. 8. Flatter organizational structure Be ready to work in teams with different people and approaches. Business planning. In the MBA, include games and simulation. Mix nationalities and background in teams. Learn to deal with different people. 9. Manage multicultural teams Be patient. Understand this multiculturalism is a value. Understand who is in front of you (profile, culture), to make the best from each team player. MBA students should not decide what team they are in. And often change team. 10. Information and Communication Technologies The new manager has use tools in a proper way, be ready to discover new tools, be ready to learn. But be careful because “technology can run over you”. It can be very time-consuming. During the MBA the ICT courses were too theoretic, not practical enough. For example, using some tools in group work would be interesting. Deal with systems you will deal with once you are in the company. Organizational Demography 11. Solutions ageing population Managers have to understand that they cannot ask 65 years old employees to do the same tasks as 30 years old employees. Adapt approach. Be patient. Use their asset, which is their experience. Understand the competencies of everyone. 12. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Managers need to be open and ready to learn from experience of others, and by doing yourself. And adapt to a different language. Need to be humble. 13. Different generations: impact diversity It is a question of mentality. Need to be open-minded. Humility. Be ready to learn. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 28
  • 29. Corporate Social Responsibility 14. Pressure from stakeholders Need to be professional, open/”clean” and transparent. Give a good image of yourself and of your company. 15. Understanding stakeholder requirements 16. Reputation Understand you have to defend the reputation of your company. Again, transparency and professional approach. 17. Green Economy Managers will deal with green economy more than in the past. It is a good chance to do something social, and do it for business. It is connected to the reputation of the company, providing it a clean, green image. It is mainly a matter of personal sensitivity. If you don’t have it, it is important to understand the potential, the benefit on the image of the company. Be ready to study about something that is quite new, and have a business approach about it. It will be very important in the future as a business opportunity but also in term of reputation. 18. Gender diversity Real estate= male sector. No special competencies needed. Just to understand people, understand who is in front of you. 19. Other forms of diversity 21. Managerial competencies in five years Create opportunity to learn to deal with professional real situations. Working in teams. International courses, international teachers. Simulation of business situations. Work under pressure. Quick decision-making. Games. Projects in teams. Also competition, but in a good way. “During my MBA we had this international team competition game with L’Oreal, on internet, about marketing development of new product, playing against 1000 teams around the world. It was really fun. It was exciting”. Simulate real business situations. More practical approach. International approach. 22. Other important competencies Project management. Practical tools. Team management. Learn to help people to grow. A manager should understand that if he wants to grow, he has to let and help his team members to grow. Simulations of managing teams (one in the team is the manager). Business development, business planning Dealing with numbers. In marketing, use games. ITC: have practical training HR: specific training on leadership, on how to manage different people. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 29
  • 30. International exchange. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 20. Competencies developed in MBA Business development, business planning. Dealing with numbers. In marketing, use games. ITC: have practical training. HR: specific training on leadership, on how to manage different people. International exchange. Alumni 23. Most useful for professional career 24. MBA today, what topics More practice less theory and more international experience. More team working and groups and games. Dealing with numbers. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) Question by one of the interviewers about the composition of faculty: what % of scholars and professors and professionals should there be in the faculty? The best are professors who also do business as they have the two perspectives. “We had some of them at Luiss, they were very good teachers”. Then teachers coming from companies are very important, especially to stimulate business situations. According to him 50% professionals and 50% professors and among professors 75% who also do business. Importance of case study, more exciting for students. When he teaches he always uses case studies. Ask students to do presentations in front of the class. And then debate in the class. MBA students have to be “in the move” (in movement). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 30
  • 31. Interview summary Category (2) Alberto COLZI June 21st 2010 General Manager Abott Italy Pharmaceutical Industry MBA at Durham (UK) Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Financial crisis. IT revolution (access to information). Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Managers must be “international managers”. They must have a “culture of flexibility”. Understand immediately the key information to understand a situation. How to develop this? Students should be exposed to many different experiences, to people coming from different part of the world. 3. Blamed managers Ethics is very important. In an MBA, explain the basics of ethics, how companies build their ethical approach, showing the long-term dimension of ethics. Work on soft skills. Present models to students (managers testifying). Using an emotional approach. Be in contact with examples and successes of ethics in the company. 4. Governmental intervention Companies have to participate to governmental decisions, as they are crucial for the market. Influence and lobby. But it is experts who do this job. Competencies that you need: understand the world of government/politicians and politics. MBA students could have a lecture about it. Providing an understanding of the rules regulating your market. 5. Low-cost competition Be able to properly assess the value proposition of your offer. Communicate this value. Keep the right price. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 31
  • 32. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Cultural flexibility. Understand most important features of each market. During an MBA, introduce as a soft topic “how to deal with different cultures?”. Case study, for example pretend you are an Austrian manager who has to manage a Brazilian team. Learning how to involve people. 7. Flatter organizational structure New style of leadership needed, not anymore about command and control, but ability to drive the organization towards objectives; “idea-based leadership” (your position as a leader is not based anymore on your hierarchical position but on your ideas and the way you communicate them). Ability to involve everybody. Teamwork. In an MBA, explain to students the evolution that brought this new horizontal approach. Organizational design. Study innovative ideas in companies. 8. Manage multicultural teams This question was not asked. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Explain to the students how the information era has changed the company. Give tangible examples. Explain the fact that you loose the control on information and how to deal with that. Learn about the available tools today, using real life examples. Refer to this ICT topic in other fields, obliging students to consider it when focusing on marketing plans. Including ICT to other subjects. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Willingness to transfer knowledge. Enhance the value each single person. Anticipation. 11. Different generations Understanding the value of diversity (gender, opinion, generation). Learn that innovation and success come from putting different people (opinions, backgrounds…) together. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Part of being a good citizens as a company. Give something back to the world, if you have success. Reputation is influenced by CSR and is important. Sensibility to going beyond just achieving, understand how you can contribute to the world. Responsibility is essential. In the MBA it should be explained why CSR is important. Companies are not isolated, therefore there should be more visibility. Give examples that show what CSR is. It is not like marketing with a direct result. Many implications, can for instance attract talents. 13. Reputation This question was skipped. 14. Green Economy Managers need to be responsible! No possibility to recover. Sensitive topic. Key competitive point. In the MBA it should be taught why CSR is important, both with bad and good examples (cases). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 32
  • 33. 15. Gender diversity 16. Other forms of diversity Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Cultural flexibility, leadership based on ideas, diversity leverage. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Impact of IT revolution on the business. The history and the change of companies. Give examples where IT has turned around the business. How industries are approaching this and come up with good ideas. 19. Pedagogical methods A mix. Old style (theory) and involve real people and business cases to practice what was learned. HBR case studies are good. Alumni 20. Best you gained An overview of the economy and how it works in the world. The possibility to interact with people and stay in contact. That is critical! 21. Most useful for professional career Understanding economy. 22. MBA today, what topics Innovation in terms of how to drive it and why it is important. Plus different models of innovation. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Real contact with company (internship). The business school should have good partnership with companies. Ability to translate theory into practice. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) Leadership based on ideas: Informal style of leadership. Build on real strength. Create an environment where people are willing to participate. Rigorous financial approach. Understand where to invest, anticipation. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 33
  • 34. Interview summary Category (2) Alessandro LORICA June 3rd 2010 Chief Operations Officier At Glamoo Internet Services Industry Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Competition that always changes. Economic crisis. Credit crunch and spending reduction Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Grow up with different mindsets, go abroad, manage teams, interaction with people from different countries. MBA : international program outside of Europe 3. Blamed managers Business ethics. Difficulty to stay ethical. Everybody needs to agree to change model to a more ethical one. It is not a person alone who can change this. 4. Governmental intervention The public sector should remain outside the market. Negotiation. Companies should be independent and should not ask the government for help. 5. Low-cost competition Ability to interpret and scan what happens in the environment, to create new business models. Creativity is important. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Again, think globally, and for that you need to grow up globally. Do internships abroad. Young people can change the global mindset. Language skills. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 34
  • 35. 7. Flatter organizational structure Process-based management. Crossing all functions in the company, interacting with all departments. Importance of soft skills. Focus on team work during an MBA. Less hours of classic lectures, more project work. Students should not decide about groups composition. Changing teams each time to work with as many people as possible. 8. Manage multicultural team Mindset. International. More travelling and more interaction with different people. Cannot be learnt from books, experience is very important. There should be international students in an MBA class. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Update the program with advanced technologies. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Knowledge must be made persistent so put 2 people on one topic. Monitor critical resources through results, motivation and satisfaction. 11. Different generations Conflict management training. Learning soft skills through relationships. You need the proper mindset. To be accommodative, flexible, able to change approaches. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Related to business ethics. The whole system needs to change. Managers need to be energetic and motivating. Students should learn about ISO 26000 standard. The role of an MBA is to make students believe that CSR is the right direction and show them its impact on their own wallet. They have to believe in what they say. 13. Reputation Being ethical in whatever you do. Grow up ethically and act ethically. There is knowledge, and then there is the need to apply. MBA have to learn that behaviours that go against CSR has a reputation impact. 14. Green Economy Be green: should be in all you do. It is a matter of mindset, of sensitivity. You learn it through education. Eg: if 60 MBA students use e-books instead of normal books, you save a lot of paper! 15. Gender diversity Gender should not be a matter of interest. When you hire you do not look at gender but at competencies 16. Other forms of diversity It is a matter of mindset. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 35
  • 36. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Manage complex relationships Learn how to apply lateral thinking (solving problems in a creative way using a broad perspective) Mindset and flexibility 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Strategic marketing. Invent a business model to satisfy a need. Creative problem-solving. How? Through simulations, case study. Learn to identify problems. 19. Pedagogical methods Learning and applying in situations. There should be a balance between theory and practice. Alumni 20. Best you gained 360° view of the company 21. Most useful for professional career Strategy, marketing, finance 22. MBA today, what topics More emphasis on new technologies and innovation 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Real team working. Intercultural relationships. Time management, stress management. Emotional intelligence. Result management (being result oriented). Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 36
  • 37. Interview summary Category (2) Alessandro PANSA June 1st, 2010 CFO Finmeccanica Group Alumni: New York University Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Financial crisis. Spreading out of technology all around the world. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Capability to understand different ways of doing business, different cultures, understand the expectations of these developing countries. Adapt. Cultural business relationships. Curiosity. Read books, newspapers, meet people, be open. Be able to be genuinely interested. 3. Blamed managers Focus on long-term interest of shareholders and stakeholders. Understand that collective goods (forest…) are crucial because they do not create conflict between rich and poor. Importance of environment. Managers should not focus on the old concept of GDP growth. It is not an indicator of well-being. More focus on quality than quantity. MBA should help students to focus on the fact that wealth can be created in many ways. 4. Governmental intervention Managers have to learn how to deal with government. Be able to influence initiatives, business opportunities. Understand the way public officials work and think. In an MBA, increase relationships between Business School and public officials. Provide lectures, testimonies. Increase number of courses about the way public administration work. 5. Low-cost competition Understand how to increase productivity of the company. Technology. Create a balance between remuneration of shareholders and low costs. In an MBA, increase the focus on productivity and delocalization. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 37
  • 38. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Languages. Travelling. Spend time in other countries. Open to new cultures. 7. Flatter organizational structure Have the power for responsibility. Transparency in decision-making. Be clear, simplicity. Communication. 8. Manage multicultural teams (already answered according to interviewee) 9. Information and Communication Technologies Exploit the best of the technologies, but also control its impact on our work. Not forget to use the brain. And “read, read, read”. Think. Information processing/selecting. Quick understanding of problems. Business School should teach that: in business cases for example. Find 4 crucial elements in broad information. Explain on what elements decisions are made. Theoretical frameworks are useful to help the thinking structure. Models are needed. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Capability to transmit knowledge and culture to other employees. Disseminate knowledge. Will to prepare those who come after you. Transfer relationships. Respect for experience. 11. Different generations Managers have to understand that building knowledge and competencies are an ever-lasting process. Managers have to “create a mix between innovation and the save of what is good in tradition”. Invite people with more experience or more experience to discuss about what can be kept and should not be kept. Understand that modern/new does not mean better. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Keep well segregated shareholders and stakeholders. Managers have to understand that CSR is maximizing shareholders value in a way it is compatible with stakeholders interests. In an MBA, teach students the concept of business ethics. Managing the conflict of interest for example in a corporate governance lecture. 13. Reputation Transparency. Correctness (correct behavior considering a situation where there are no rules). Responsibility. An MBA should teach this to students, through business ethics. 14. Green Economy Not focusing only on growth, focus on sustainability. Compatibility with environment. Understand that the welfare of people is connected with respect of the environment. Mentality. “Managers should not push the model of absolute success at any cost”. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 38
  • 39. 15. Gender diversity Tolerance. Not really an issue. 16. Other forms of diversity Understand different models and the idea that there is no superiority. Diversity is a must. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Problem-solving, understanding people capability, having a proper framework to interpret the world. How do you learn understanding people capacity? Dealing with people, understanding them. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Economic history, the best way to understand the present. Help the students to understand the longterm drivers of events. 19. Pedagogical methods Provide many different sources and points of view. Develop critical thinking. And make students discuss. Alumni 20. Best you gained Mixture of techniques (finance), cap to understand prob 21. Most useful for professional career Finance. Mixture between techniques (finance, accounting, business administration) and more cultural topics (economics, political sciences, international relationships) 22. MBA today, what topics (no answer) 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Discovering a new country. Do the MBA abroad and live fully within a new culture. Learn languages. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 39
  • 40. Interview summary Category (2) Claudio BRACCI June 23rd 2010 Business Manager At Devoteam auSystem Information Systems Industry Alumni: executive MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Competitors coming from the oriental market. The most important factor nowadays are these kind of competitors since low-cost competition is hard for the company. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries The first related competency are English skills; being able to know languages. Second, a new openminded vision (on people) is necessary. Having a cultural approach; understanding and sharing a culture. ¨Italy is very identified as a nation¨. A way to develop this open minded vision is training devoted to a multicultural context (what are we doing). Being within this multicultural context, but not in Europe because these cultures ar too similar (students should go to countries like India and China). 3. Blamed managers This has to do with the financial attitudes. Managers are evaluated on KPI´s, measured in a shortterm, long-term evaluation is needed. Managers need a wider point of view (not only focused on short-term financial consequences). Managers need to share the interest in the company with the owner. It is not something you can teach, it has to do with a common vision within the MBA. 4. Governmental intervention This has to do with a cultural point of view. Politicians need to understand what private companies are doing (especially in the crisis). There is need of a common vision between politician and manager. Therefore managers need the capacity to explain to the politician, how to communicate what the company is doing to someone less experienced. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 40
  • 41. 5. Low-cost competition The interviewee does not agree with this statement. Life in Europe and its economics are different from the low-cost countries, the standards of living are higher. But within these kinds of pressures, managers need to know how to motivate people. They need to be able to make the employees understand the big picture of what is happening within and outside of the company. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Managers need an open mindset; the capacity to motivate people on different cultural levels. Within the class there should be attention for understanding people´s different mindsets (within the different cultures). It is also about seeing that the own national way of doing things is no longer appropriate. Managers need to know the cultural approaches to working. An example how to teach this is a training made from different HR directors form different countries. 7. Flatter organizational structure Increasingly important is the ability to delegate and to motivate people. This caused by the increasingly flatter organizations. A manager should be able to empower and delegate control to the right people and the right tasks. 8. Manage multicultural teams This answer is related to the answer on question 6. Understand other cultures and how people are educated. 9. Information and Communication Technologies The first limit is that managers don´t understand what ICT can do for them, the tools available and the way in which ICT can validate some processes within the company. Managers should not be deeply educated with these tools but just what they can do with the services. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost This is about redundancy of information. The must be possibilities to share knowledge. Therefore knowledge management is important. It is about the communicating ability between people. The need of sharing knowledge is easy to understand as a student. Once they are working this interest is lost, collaboration is not emphasized. 11. Different generations This is a hard situation in Italy: the old generation has a different attitude. They think they deserve positions based on experience, this is not the case anymore. Young managers need to understand this mindset, but this cannot be taught. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 41
  • 42. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes In all technical topics taught in the MBA, show the impact on society and provide insight about “the right way of doing things”. Has to be part of all subjects. Testimonies is also a good way to teach about CSR. 13. Reputation About behavior and awareness. It is also about brand awareness and can be underlined during a marketing course. 14. Green Economy “Green is fashion at the moment”. The green approach has to be implemented really/deeply, it should not be just declarations. It is the respect of sustainability. It has to be taught. For example, it can be the intervention of an environment engineer explaining the impact on environment. 15. Gender diversity There is no need to consider women like men. Women can be good in their own way, they do not have to be like men, to behave like men to be good managers. Link with people’s management. Testimony of women managers. Show the complementarity. Brings diversity. 16. Other forms of diversity No. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Intercultural approach. Global vision of the company. Motivation of people. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how How hard it is to motivate people when in times of crisis. Telling my story. 19. Pedagogical methods Typical classroom teaching. Listening to managers’ experiences. Going inside companies, and making projects there (internship). Alumni 20. Best you gained Global vision of the company. So as to understand what people do in other departments. 21. Most useful for professional career Marketing and strategy. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 42
  • 43. 22. MBA today, what topics Finance, people management, marketing, organization, accounting. Multicultural approach. Testimonies. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Team building. Through team projects. Experience abroad. Internship. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 43
  • 44. Interview summary Category (2) Daniele CONDURSO June 17th, 2010 Marketing manager Agile Servizi SRL ICT Industry LBS alumni Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor The crisis. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries To understand other cultures (Indian and Chinese). Stop being ethnocentric. To develop this, study from another point of view. 3. Blamed managers Understand the market. 4. Governmental intervention (No relevant answer) 5. Low-cost competition To be ready to change. Soft skills. Autonomy. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment The problem is that we have prejudices about other cultures. Understand that all cultures are at the same level. During the MBA, travel to very different countries (1 week in Varanasi, India). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 44
  • 45. 7. Flatter organizational structure Managers should be a model and give the example. Be careful in the use of words, not giving instructions but rather opening possibilities and encouraging. (Empowerment4). Be able to motivate (courses about how to motivate people). Theatre classes teach you how to interact better with people. Communication skills. 8. Manage multicultural teams Speak languages. Organize trips abroad. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Increase courses in ICT. Speak the language of ICT. And understand how it works. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost (No relevant answer) 11. Different generations Adapt the language to the person. Communication is important. Be proactive. Be a model. Corporate Social Responsibility 14. Green Economy There is an economical opportunity for investing in CSR, but this has no influence on the competencies needed from managers. ¨Managers don´t need to care for green economy¨. They just need the ability to see its opportunities. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally All the courses that give the opportunity to create businesses. A manager needs to understand the drivers of the organization. Technical skills and regulatory (law) skills are needed. An MBA gives too much importance to economics. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how The interviewee has been an occasional teacher in 2003. The interviewee likes creating debates and discussion about different ideas in order for students to understand different viewpoints. 19. Pedagogical methods Business cases are very important because a good understanding of business is needed. After being in the university you understand something particular therefore a more broad overview is needed; in this way managers are becoming more flexible. This is needed to analyze the business and manager all different points of view. 4 Interpretation by Julia. The interviewee did not pronounce this word. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 45
  • 46. Alumni 20. Best you gained The studying of law ´civil codes`(because the interviewee did not have experience on this level before) 21. Most useful for professional career Courses about communication and law: the regulatory boundaries within each country are often forgotten. Understanding these boundaries can provide opportunities. 22. MBA today, what topics Topics about marketing in order to understand the market also besides the network. How the MBA of Luiss looks like is quit influenced by the companies within the network, the requirements should not be changes according to their wishes. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA An internship is a crucial experience. To put the real business cases in practice. It is also an opportunity to get a job. Within the MBA more of these opportunities should be created, also within smaller and medium sized companies. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) How could you define your qualities as a manager? Having good relationships with team members and other people. This is not really developed or a consequence of experience either. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 46
  • 47. Interview summary Category (2) Daniele Zatta June 16th 2010 Senior director Simon- Kucher & partners Strategy & marketing consulting Industry Alumni: other MBA Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor The economic crisis which leaded to a decline in demand of the clients and this also had an impact on service companies. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries For this topic it is important to be skilled on an international level. This means having international experience and a sense of ¨international agility¨5. A suggestion for an MBA in regarding this topic is to include an exchange experience and international internships. 3. Blamed managers The manager of the future needs to be more humble, having a humble attitude. A suggestion to develop this attitude is to include topics about ethics in the MBA. Though this does not have to be a whole course, an introduction would be sufficient. 4. Governmental intervention One main competency is a social one. It has to do with communication. Dealing with the government is more a task for specific managers such as the one responsible for public relations. Therefore devoting special attention to this topic is not very important or relevant within an MBA. 5. Low-cost competition These topics are typically taught within the field of Marketing. But since, issues regarding pricing also gives an reflection of the company, this also should be taught in a strategic way. Managers needs to 5 In vivo: term used by interviewee APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 47
  • 48. be intelligent about the value segments the company is targeting to. The pricing topic is often neglected , therefore a clear understanding of the consequences of pricing is necessary. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment ¨It is all about soft skills¨. Further, managers needs to be sensibilized for the intercultural environment. This means knowing how to deal with people from other cultures, how not to offend them, how to negotiate etc. Therefore, offering organizational behavior as a course might be helpful, to give them insight into these topics. 7. Flatter organizational structure Knowing how to manage a team is important. But this is something that needs to be learned on the job. 8. Manage multicultural teams This is linked to the answer to question 6. Internships abroad would help. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Managers should know how to offer perspective to the employees. Perspective about the future (security). Managers should be able to assign responsibility and clear tasks to employees in order to motivate them. In short, it is about competencies to design a career path and to motivate employees. To share knowledge collaboration is very important. Managers need to set the right settings for making knowledge sharing happening. 11. Different generations Soft skills are needed. Managers need to be able to solve problems, conflicts and be sensible to the generation topic. For this last point having case-studies could be usefull in order to analyse some actual conflicts (it´s causes and solutions). Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Sensibility to this the importance of CSR is crucial. The MBA experience should be opened for this. 13. Reputation The company needs to transmit this as a whole. Therefore, an MBA would not help. Though there is an indirect relationship with the behavior of managers. Good soft skills  better organizational performance  reputation. 14. Green Economy Managers need to be aware of the opportunities that are here. They should have a clear insight in the different industries and its opportunities on the dimension of green economy. So they need strategic competencies and the right analytical skills to judge its potential. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 48
  • 49. 15. Gender diversity Many companies are giving importance to this, because the ¨big mass¨ (customers) place a value on this topic. Managers need to be sensibilized about diversity and what it means. 16. Other forms of diversity There is a strong need for managers to see diversity as an asset for the future. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 9. Information and Communication Technologies In the MBA students should be forced to to use these technologies. Some ¨macro´s¨ would also be useful in just one course. 17. Three main competencies ideally Hard competencies are still very important (economics, calculation etc.) Soft competencies that gain in importance are linked to the ability to be versatile in an international environment. To learn this, practical experience or an internship is useful. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how The interviewee would teach strategic subjects, marketing change and pricing. It should be done by combining theory and practice. ¨Putting the essentials in practice¨. The balance should be 50%- 50%. 19. Pedagogical methods Theory; by using books and articles, include case-studies and teamwork: this could increase the soft skills (teamwork is according to the interviewee lacking at Luiss). The teams should be predefined based on diversity, homogeneity should be avoided in teams. This could increase the opportunity to exchange world views. Alumni 20. Best you gained The network of people, and the multiple possibilities to meet new people to get information about new jobs new opportunities. 21. Most useful for professional career This depends on the career path you choose. The entrepreneurial topics and marketing. 22. MBA today, what topics Strategy, marketing, sales and finance. Soft skills, how to deal with cultures and mindsets. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Time management this was inherent in the tasks and projects. These forces you to work in a team and to work under pressure. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 49
  • 50. Interview summary Category (2) Vito DI GIOIA and Joanna DINOLFO June 14th 2010 Marketing and Business Development (V. DI GIOIA) Project Manager EURO 2016 (J. DINOLFO) At Federazione Italiana Giucco Calcio Sports industry Alumni: MBA LBS (J. DINOLFO) Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Government and public sector in general, economic situation, and results of the national soccer team. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Managers need to be able to discuss and interact with these new evolving countries. Also called an ¨international attitude¨. Managers have to be more international, used to work together with different people (improve international attitude). 3. Blamed managers 4. Governmental intervention Managers need to have a 360 degrees vision of the business, deep understanding of the national and international situation, negotiation skills, diplomatic attitudes, relationships to work with externals typical for the public sector. Intangible aspects of competencies, personal skills to enter relationships are much more important. This is very difficult to improve in an MBA, the concept of an international MBA becomes very important. Because in fact you are already studying in an diverse context which means that you are forced to have these relationships. 5. Low-cost competition APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 50
  • 51. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment 7. Flatter organizational structure Attitude to work with other people, capability to work with them. Teamwork. In an MBA, sports can be included ( in terms of teambuilding). 8. Manage multicultural teams 9. Information and Communication Technologies These matters need to be studied more deeply in an MBA for a longer period. If it can be seen as distribution of knowledge this has to be studied more deeply. MBA should be focussed and updated about the new technologies. ICT issues and updates need to be linked to the subject of the courses itself. And the course has to be rich of practical insights (case-studies). Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Manager have to be able to train, teach and prepare another person to take over. To be positive to share knowledge with others. 11. Different generations Younger generation should be able to understand the different generations and the roots of the company. Some young people think that they can do everything. They have to be more humble towards the organization, because experience is very difficult to learn from outside. Internship is very important to prepare the student for the future in the company. They can get an insight into the existing generations within the company (ms. D) Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes The impacts of the events are very important in the local environment. Managers need more horizontal competencies. 360 degree understanding of the organizations and its impacts. They recognize the organization by its events has a big impact on the¨ local moods¨. Therefore wide competencies are needed. Developed in an MBA: organization of a city, city management, all the impacts of an event on the city in many different terms. 13. Reputation Competencies have to be good communication which is very transparent and coherent, external communication is becoming important for CSR. How to teach these communication skills (Ms. D): direct experiences in work, multicultural classrooms. Pro activity is very important; this means in her opinion collaboration and having a good communication. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 51
  • 52. 14. Green Economy Study the different business models with different perspectives under the perspective of green economy. Case-studies of particular sectors and direct examples. 15. Gender diversity Understanding the diversity. Understand the different ways of working and his or her problems due to gender. Managers need to be able to understand the people in terms of character, diversity, skills, capability in order to get the best out of the people. 16. Other forms of diversity Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Information and communication competencies, communication, building (multicultural) relationships. Good level in IT and its new opportunities for business. CSR mindset 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Impact of activities on the people, social impacts (market activity). Linked to CSR. Legacy of the events is interesting to tell (Ms. D). Efficient way to teach: Talk about own experience, 19. Pedagogical methods Start from the real case, experience of the actual manager, to understand the different points of views of the managers have. Concrete cases are valuable. Alumni 20. Best you gained Experience in the classroom with colleges from different backgrounds, different previous work experience. 21. Most useful for professional career All subjects were useful to get 360 degree overview. Marketing was important. 22. MBA today, what topics Communication, CSR, more ICT 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Internship, the organization of the MBA courses (in terms of workload) cause it is similar to the actual working life, the rhythm and group-work is important. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 52
  • 53. Interview summary Category (2) Fabio MENIS June 15th, 2010 Marketing consultant at IBM Business Consulting Services Management Consulting LBS MBA alumni Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Recession. Decrease of the business. Focus on where to create value, innovating. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Capable of interacting with someone that does not speak your language, understand different approaches. Think globally. During an MBA, bring people abroad, give opportunity to live in a very different place. Have an experience out of Italy. This way you learn how to manage diversity. 3. Blamed managers Integrity and ethics. How to make money respecting people. To develop these qualities, CSR could be an item of study in an MBA. Understand how company act ethically, having external positive outcomes to the society. Studying real examples supported by theory. It is a sensibility, awareness. 4. Governmental intervention Institutional relationships. Create a link with public sector. Get more visibility in what they do. Dealing with complexity. To be able to build trust and win-win relationship. In an MBA, talk about how the public sector is important for the society, how it needs to modernize he system and how a private company can develop a trust relationship with the public sector. 5. Low-cost competition It means lower internal costs. So efficiency. Use properly and accurately resources to deliver quality to the client. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 53
  • 54. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Listening, try to understand others. Understand why someone goes in a certain direction, has a certain behavior in a certain situation. “Try to be open”. It is hard to teach, you can increase sensitivity and awareness to this behavior. 7. Flatter organizational structure Empowerment, entrepreneurial attitude, managing your work as if it was your own company. Managing resources and taking risks. An MBA program naturally supports this mindset. 8. Manage multicultural teams Capability of solving conflicts. Putting together different views in order to shift the multicultural items from an issue to an opportunity. This is taught in an MBA. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Be prepared/ready/eager to learn everyday something new. Will. Be open in learning as much as possible. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Be capable of understanding and identifying what is the critical knowledge. Then retention measures. Formal and structured performance management system. Make jobs appealing, understand the psychology and wishes of employees. Managerial development. Well taught during an MBA. 11. Different generations Young managers must recognize the value of experience. Complementarity of energy and knowledge: managers need to learn how to be match these two. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Integrity. Respect of guiding principles: not only achieve business benefits but also social values. Moral code/ ethical code to follow. MBA can give guideline, tools to manage a lot of situations, deal with complex issues. 13. Reputation Organizational behavior. Having a critical look on one’s company. Look for feedback, especially directions for improvement. Communication skills. Be rational and lucid. 14. Green Economy Being aware and knowledgeable about what is green economy. Could be taught in an MBA, explaining how an economy becomes green with facts. Informing a lot. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 54
  • 55. 15. Gender diversity Be capable of managing the different issues that different categories have (ex: pregnant woman). Each manager should be sensitive to this. So sensibility, understanding. Flexibility. 16. Other forms of diversity Black and white, sexual diversity. Ex: in Italy not full acceptance of homosexuality. Diversity could be an interesting topic. Testimony from somebody living the diversity. Vision of diversity as an opportunity. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Problem solving. Identifying the most important information to make decisions. Identifying priorities. Good technical abilities are always useful. Knowing about technical details to understand what the team is doing. In an MBA, bring a broad knowledge of many topics. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Workload analysis, organizational design. HR processes and change management. Managing people’s expectations. Performance management. Communication. Theory and exercises. Testimonies of change management and impact on management. 19. Pedagogical methods Real exercise after transfer of theory. Balance practice theory: 25-30% basic theory, and the rest applying with exercises. Alumni 20. Best you gained Self-confidence in many kind of situations. Ability to understand many situations. 21. Most useful for professional career Topics related to managing people. Organization design, interact effectively in professional environments. Analyzing finance. Managerial development. 22. MBA today, what topics Managing people. Project work. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Internship, “a bridge between the classroom and the company”. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 55
  • 56. Interview summary Category (2) Fabiola CIARALLI June 21st 2010 Head of BU Power Trading & Portfolio Management at AceaElectrabel Trading S.p.A. Oil and energy Industry Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor This is the movement in prices of the commodities of energy and all the fuels. And second, the energy market in Italy. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries People should be able to understand the economics of these kind of countries. This is necessary in order to foresee the future market and recognize points to develop and have insights in differences between markets. A suggestion how to develop this is to read the news. Macro-economic competencies are also very important, of these measured countries. 3. Blamed managers Every company has a big financial impact. Managers should have an idea of the financial impact of the company: ¨they should have an overview¨. Looking more at the attitudes they should have, in Italy there is a big difference between managers dealing with finance or other managers. Operational managers don´t know much about finance. In order for them to cooperate with CFO and to avoid big conflicts, it is better if they have knowledge about finance. 4. Governmental intervention Negotiation skills are very important. Especially in Italy all the rules are influenced by the government. The government influences the market. Managers need the capability to explain the problem and to cooperate with the government. Communication, negotiation and lobbying is important for this. In an MBA this is developed by having relationships. It should not be a course of study, but the possibility to network. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 56
  • 57. 5. Low-cost competition Both insights into operational and financial sides are necessary in order to reduce costs and to be efficient as a company. A complete understanding of the company is needed. A course about operation or process development could help. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Managers should be able to speak write and listen to the English language. The whole MBA should be in English. In Italy the penetration of English is not so deep. In this way managers can distinguish themselves. Managers should also know other markets (e.g., politic science). They know too less of other countries (e.g., the way they work, the laws etcetera). Students should go on a cultural exchange, this should be obligatory if you want them to be able to lead in other countries. 7. Flatter organizational structure Everyone is used to having a boss. Teamwork is very difficult. For this student can attend courses of people management and learn general courses (e.g., tutorial coaching). 8. Manage multicultural teams There are no special need regarding managerial competencies. Being sensitive to the cultures and some knowledge about the cultures is needed. This doesn´t have to be put in the courses of an MBA. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Everyone is familiar with all these things. It might be important to understand (either within a course) the influence of ICT on the business development and how it helps the business. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Create a group of people that have the competencies. Don´t leave all the knowledge within one person. Therefore it is helpful for managers to have people management competencies, in order to avoid the problem of lost knowledge. It can be involved in courses of organization. Managers need to know how to develop a structure for saving the knowledge (e.g., share knowledge within BU´s or between divisions). 11. Different generations It is difficult to develop this capability. Managers need to know how young people can be integrated to old people and vice versa. You need to prepare the young for the relationships and make them aware for the experience of the older people. But how to teach respect? This cannot be taught, meetings with these people might be helpful. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 57
  • 58. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Young managers should learn what is CSR, who are the shareholders, how important it is, how companies can do to increase their CSR activities. Specific courses about CSR. Create a project to be done by students, where they have to work with companies on CSR. 13. Reputation Good communication capacity. People management. Awareness about stakeholders. Ethics. Create responsible people, but people responsible deep inside (it is not easy). Teach the importance to do the right thing. 14. Green Economy Know what green technology means. Overview about how to save energy, reduce the impact of the company on the environment, reduce the use of energy. Meeting people who can explain how they reduce the impact on the environment of their company. 15. Gender diversity More flexibility (e.g, working from home). Change the mindset, which is impossible to do in an MBA. 16. Other forms of diversity Make people aware of the idea that disable people can work as well as others. So increase awareness. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Flexibility, i.e. capacity to pass over different problems People management Global view of markets (Italian and foreign) 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Energies, Green technologies, the way to save energy. Show to people what are the new technologies. Short overview over these new technologies. The new ways to save energy. Some projects were you show the reduction of consumption in energy. 19. Pedagogical methods Lessons with a teacher should be the same for each subject. Workgroups are very important in order to create participation between students. Exams are important otherwise the students don´t study. Project work in company and outside. They learn how to learn together and to put the competencies in practice. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 58
  • 59. Alumni 20. Best you gained Thing learned are different from a fulltime MBA because all the people already worked. The way to work with other people. The subject are less important. Reach a target together with other people, project work with other people, leading a team. 21. Most useful for professional career More or less every subject. Marketing, innovation from each subject something is taken into her backpack. 22. MBA today, what topics Finance, marketing (in everything there is marketing, proposals, presentation, not the specific topics; the way to analyze a problem) and strategy (overview of the important things of the companies and different things that can influence your business), people management (people should know how to manage other people), organization (project working), innovation (creativity). 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Most difficult is the project work, very crucial. Project, work with target, limited time, you have to coordinate people, you have to share work with people with different competencies. It is the most formative experience that a student can have. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 59
  • 60. Interview summary Category (2) Filippo GHIRELLI The 15th of June CEO at Genera Group and Managing Director at Ghirelli Group Holding S.A. Construction industry and financial industry Alumni: Executive MBA at Luiss Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Financial crisis, because they work a lot with banks, so the credit crunch was terrible, and there were not many resources for growth. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Profound modesty of the BRIC countries. Especially India and China are very modest and good in technical matters but poor in management/leadership. Leadership is important. Managers need to deal with people. Coaching activities are also important as well as dealing with responsibility. Managers need to concentrate and be very responsible, also when things go wrong. The board of directors needs to get the managers to focus on the responsibility. 3. Blamed managers Less creativity in terms of finance. Managers must be chosen as if they were clients. When they are in (hired) they should treat the other managers as clients. They should be responsible and creative with the resources they have. Respecting the law does not make you good, that is level zero. 4. Governmental intervention No competencies regarding governments. It is not building competencies but deconstructing them, when governments come to rescue companies, because they do not learn to take responsibility. It is like giving drugs to a market, and it is not good. 99.9 % of companies do not have governmental help. 5. Low-cost competition Has to do with quality. Low price tendency is not happening right now. The internal value chain is important, but some companies need to out-source, and then it is difficult. Faster approach to cost APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 60
  • 61. reduction is important. E.g. considering start-ups the managers need to understand what the problem is, economies of scale and to know in advance where the weak link is. That means they need to have a 360 degrees understanding, know where to put money first and make priorities. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Managers must accept an intercultural environment, understand different minds and other markets. It is important to accept a fusion of different cultures and different approaches to new markets. It is important to have the right approach and to be able to corporate with people from a new market. Managers have to be capable of working in an international environment. Companies are based on leadership. You start from the hardcore base. Def. of good leadership : Interpret what the client want, including employees and other managers. Concentrate on employees’ personality. Interpret how a new business plan or project impact the organization. Key words are: experience, opportunity to face such problems by using case studies. Personal examples: in Africa you need to deal with mess and chaos. 7. Flatter organizational structure Hierarchy needs to be there, but it should not be a tool to extent power. When you are a good manager you should make other understand that hierarchy is important but not so important. In the MBA you should focus on the fact that companies are smaller nowadays, and soft skills are more important than hard skills. It would be a mistake only to deal with extremely big companies. Right now there are great opportunities in founding a company in the western world but not in countries with growth. 8. Manage multicultural teams Same as question 6. 9. Information and Communication Technologies MBA programs are not to train students in ICT. It should only be considered as a tool to make life easier. Something you learn by doing. Students should know that there are many tools you can use to make employees feel comfortable. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost This is one of the biggest dilemmas. Money is the beginning but also the end. When managers are giving more money to employees when they are working hard, it is not the true reason. Managers should make people feel that the organization is dependent on them. When employees are underperforming but have great potential, managers should invest in them. When employees have a high performance but low potential, managers should not concentrate so much on them. Managers should put press on the young guy to make him explore his potential. Good managers need to recognize a talent and how changes impact the different employees. Teambuilding is good. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 61
  • 62. 11. Different generations No idea! Not a problem in his company. But you have to be delicate. It is stupid to make big changes to 60’s people, they have to be good teachers. Tolerance is good. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes In the company, employees should be involved in CSR actions. Managers have to understand that they have an impact on the society, should they behave well or bad. An MBA program should insist on NGOs: presentation of companies, case studies… 13. Reputation Communication skills. Coherence between what one does and says. Focus on quality. Sometimes there is a need to reduce profit a bit for quality and therefore reputation. An MBA should teach that it is a social responsibility to produce quality. An MBA student needs to understand the importance of quality. 14. Green Economy Respecting the environment is something very basic: it is respecting the law. A good MBA should make people understand how to differentiate between fanatism and good green investment. Be aware of strengths and limits. 15. Gender diversity The mindset needs to be changed. Gender diversity as a richness. But future managers have a different mindset. 16. Other forms of diversity Handicap. Managers have to recognize that this kind of diversity exists, and they have to deal with it in the best way they can. In an MBA, the awareness of students on that topic can be increased through knowing about NGOs working with disable people. Could be included in a course concerning CSR. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Leadership. Decision making (be fair even if it is hard). “Learn to be useless” that is to say accept to share your knowledge when you are advanced in your career. (humility). 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Project management. Teaching the base concepts and then case study. And studying not only companies that were successful. Examples. 19. Pedagogical methods Individual participation during the lesson. Then ask students to apply the knowledge. Always divide people in small groups, in odd numbers. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 62
  • 63. Alumni 20. Best you gained Leadership class. Learning how to deal with people. 21. Most useful for professional career People management. Corporate finance. Marketing. 22. MBA today, what topics Insist on soft skills. A very good experience during the MBA was the theatre week-end, “acting was the best”. Face things you could face in real life. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Profound knowledge of oneself. An MBA should always be done after some professional experience, because then you have faced problems. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 63
  • 64. Interview summary Category (2) Gianpaolo DI DIO 24th of May Senior advisor At TL Com Venture Capital and Private Equity Industry Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor The most impact is the financial crisis and the changes in global demand. This made relocation of manufacturing very important (to countries like China and Asia). Furthermore the credit crunch made it very hard for organizations to get a loan. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries One of the main skills a manager needs to have is a broader world view. He or she needs to be able to act as a manager with global perspectives. He or she also needs to be able to understand the different impacts of this dominance on: cost-structures, price schemes and cultures. This global thinking ´skill´ (The use of the word skill by Mr. D might implicate that he uses the words competences and skills interchangeable) can be developed and encouraged by hand-on projects and sending managers to internships on a stage in countries like India or China. 3. Blamed managers In the past the predominance of ethics was lacking. The first objective of companies was to maximize shareholders value. Nowadays it is very important to create value for other stakeholders as well. Ethics should be a major important topic to be studied in an MBA. Fairness in dealing with the client became more and more important. (The interviewer made a suggestion about the link to transparency and the interviewee agreed) Furthermore, ´it becomes crucial that a company acts in a way that is consistent with the health profile of the customers`(´In Vivo`) . The company needs to focus more on social responsibility and the hidden costs of doing business. This means focussing on the effect doing business has on the customers or clients. Implementing this in an MBA should be done in all the different subjects of an MBA. A specialized course on ethics would not be enough. Ethics should be reflected in all the courses (e.g., in finance and marketing). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 64
  • 65. 4. Governmental intervention According to mr. D a lot of decisions cannot be taken without the involvement of the public sector. Dealing with the public sector is key in business nowadays. Regarding to this the skills needed from managers are the following: the ability to establish relationships with politicians, understanding of how the public sector works, understanding of the people working within the public sector. 5. Low-cost competition ¨The impact of the price competition can kill the way how organizations work¨ (Mr. D). This has two implications: first, providing value is the only way to compete. The managers must understand the value of service associated with the product. Second, innovation is becoming more important, the continuous adaptation of products and it´s features. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Thinking global involves understanding different needs, cultures of customers, and employees. In order to do this as a managers need to travel, need to go abroad and be flexible have a flexible mindset. In an MBA this flexible, global mindset can be created by team playing and hands on projects. 7. Flatter organizational structure Flatter organizations need higher levels of delegation. Therefore, companies need to delegate also the accountability for the results for the parts on which the managers are responsible. The success factor for this is appreciating and understanding other people´s success beside only your success as a manager. To create this attitude among managers, in an MBA, team playing is very important and also actually learning how to delegate. 8. Manage multicultural teams Understanding different cultures is different. Managers need to be able to think critical, give everybody within the organisation the power to speak, and give space to different people. One way to contribute to this is studying abroad. 9. Information and Communication Technologies ICT has provided the acces to a larger amount of information. Therefore, managers sometimes have acces to too much information. They need the competences to focus and prioritize and the ability to understand important information. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost It is nowadays impossible to prevent that knowledge passes the borders of the organization. Therefore, job rotation is important. Than the dependency on people decreases with regards to knowledge. A managerial skill that became very important with regards to ICT and job rotation is communication. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 65
  • 66. 11. Different generations The former tradition was more based on the idea that experience within the company was very important. Different generations working together have to compromise a lot. Therefore, job rotation and team playing became more important to make people understanding the work of other people. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Need to maximize the value for all shareholders. There is a need for symmetry of information for customers and employees. Need to understand societal cost associated to your business (child labour, countries where there is no freedom of speech, renewable energy); being aware of this contributes to improve the value of the company in the long-term. Taking care of these topics is a real objective for managers, while 10 years ago it was only maximizing shareholders’ profit. “Think of the company as a piece of worldlife”. 13. Reputation MBA students should learn how to build the company performance, taking into account the impact of the business on the society. Cost of pollution, energy consumption. Managers in the past were only focused on increasing margins. Now they need to take into account externalities. There need to be internal and external communication about the company taking care about CSR. 14. Green Economy No answer 15. Gender diversity It is a cultural issue. It will be solved by the next generation of managers. The new generations don’t make differences about diversity, in 10-20 years it will be solved. 16. Other forms of diversity There should be time during an MBA to make people more sensitive to diversity. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally The thing missing when I attended my MBA and which is a key matter today is change management. Need to have the ability to make quick decisions. Internationalization and global thinking. Ethics/externalities of business. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how No answer 19. Pedagogical methods A lot of business cases, role playing, taking real company situations to make decisions. Harvard cases are interesting to apply what you learnt, but real managers animating case may be more helpful. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 66
  • 67. Alumni 20. Best you gained Flexibility. A big mix of competencies. Team playing, group working. The most important: entrepreneurship abilities to become the driver of one’s professional life. That is to say, really understand what you want to do and how to achieve your objective. Strategy. International business. The whole MBA is an experience. It helps you to grow as an individual. Team playing. The most crucial experience is working with people on projects. 21. Most useful for professional career Strategy, international business. 22. MBA today, what topics Importance of change management. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) Mr Didio starts to talk about his background: he started as a financial analyst at ABBOT(?). After this the attended an MBA at Luiss. After that he worked as a consultant. Then TL com was launched. This is a venture capital fund (investment fund). So mr di Dio fulfilled several roles and functions as being a consultant, manager and investor. Today managers need to make a lot of decisions very quickly with a lot of pressure. Need to have an helicopter view. What about getting lessons about self-knowledge? Yes very helpful. Get feedback from teachers and peers. Feed-back (from up and down) is very useful in professional life, as you get to know yourself better. It is the best way to improve as a manager. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 67
  • 68. Interview summary Category (2) Luca BENZA June 24th, 2010 Production manager At Gallazzi spa Plastics Industry Alumni : MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Fragmentation of references, I mean of codes of production. It changes from few codes with low added value to many codes with high added value, keeping equal the total volumes, therefore with a much higher complexity. Moreover, because the customer is more focused on delivery time and costs than earlier. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Know many languages, have international experience (to interact with different people so polite) and a mix of core competencies and economic and financial knowledge. 3. Blamed managers There are already skills and knowledge: we can say that, before of now the world would not see some things… Everyone knows that the U.S. consumes more than they earn and China is doing the contrary and everyone knows other things like that, now there is only the showdown. Important for the future: the cost of goods and services must be inclusive of environmental consequences 4. Governmental intervention What have governments done? Injections of capital, cuts ... The damage has been produced in recent decades: the wrong thing is the logic of debt as something obvious and unimportant, the logic of the will any more than you can afford. A country which is managed by the method of the family’s father has little or no debt, and does not depend too much from other countries. In my opinion, what APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 68
  • 69. weighed heavily is good economic management: when you switch to the financial / monetary management it is too late and what remain are just only the strong action (violent action). There are rules about, but no one respects them, including the G8 countries. A manager must look ahead (look forward) and solve the problems today, don’t deliver (give) them to who will come after. 5. Low-cost competition Lower prices, so what? If that means eliminate the wastes, lower prices are right, if it means a distorted economy without respect for work and environment I don’t absolutely agree. Short chain, energy efficiency, reduce supply chain ... this is the future, the lower price is welcome if it is obtained by eliminating non-value added activities and the intermediaries. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Study abroad, work abroad, learn languages as soon as possible (since be children). Think global even from primary school. 7. Flatter organizational structure I do not know, perhaps not more than they already do. Certainly can help make a serious project work, which requires access to MBA only to professionals (people that have already worked in a professional rule) with at least 4 years working in dynamic companies. Students have to understood that things have changed, and now it grows just only through aims (objectives), whatever could be the position in the Org Chart 8. Manage multicultural teams Foreign languages and the desire to expose by the individual (personal drive and passion for winning) 9. Information and Communication Technologies I’m not expert in IT topics, I could say hogwash Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost This question is not so clear (I didn’t understand it). I can say something about the knowledge management: it seems that everybody knows everything of it but very few people really apply it. 11. Different generations Leadership training, time management, public speaking Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Courses and conferences focused on topics which take inspiration from the events of recent years 13. Reputation Courses and conferences focused on topics which take inspiration from the events of recent years APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 69
  • 70. 14. Green Economy The student must be enabled to understand things from the data in easily and transparently way. 15. Gender diversity About this matter (gender, age, race diversity ...) we are still in the Middle Ages. There is everything to do start from the schools. In a MBA this topic have to be taught, as a manager has to deal with it through actual way, and a student should not leave the Master without these concepts clearly in mind. 16. Other forms of diversity As I said above, from the gender the issue expands to age, ethnicity, religion etc.. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Leadership. Ability to read data in order to make decisions and get used to work in an easy and transparent way. International exposition. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Assessment of the financial value of a company, strictly in English. Lean Supply Chain (the today's course of industrial systems is obsolete). Do a course in strategic consulting likewise ESSEC (theyr ATKearney consultants who do lectures of the subject). Mathematics, Statistics, Business English ... should be exams for admission, in order to leave more time expendable for business courses (during the ongoing maste). 19. Pedagogical methods About that topic I’m a bit displaced. Surely after the first few months of theoretical training courses it is right to switch on towards a more empathetic style and bidirectional way to doing lesson (like Lipparini / Ghedini). Alumni 20. Best you gained Finance, business assessment, counseling course ESSEC 21. Most useful for professional career Finance, strategy 22. MBA today, what topics In addition to the topics I’ve already mentioned, the public speaking in English, more exchanges with other Business School (3 students in 2004 as too little). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 70
  • 71. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA A really hard project work to be done in team, which has to produce results, maybe abroad, maybe with others MBA’ students. The project work should be remunerated and should has real and clear aims. Participate in the preparation of a real business plan from beginning to the end (business idea, positioning, capex plans, long term production planning, cash flow plan, income statement and revised balance sheet......... everything! ) Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 71
  • 72. Interview summary Category (2) Marella LANARI 27th of May HR director Southern Europe & Brazil At Travelport Travel industry Alumni Luiss Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Cannot name the one most important external factor. It is the whole economy in general, and it caused that the sales went down for all companies in the industry Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries About the dominance of the BRIC’s countries there is not a specific competence linked to this challenge. Flexibility is one of the most important competencies. It is important to understand what other people mean, which requires good communication skills. You learn to be flexible during an MBA, because you relate yourself to different people, and you do not choose who you work with. 3. Blamed managers believes that it does not help to blame people (i.e. the top managers). You have to face reality and understand how you can help your clients in their situation. Small things can make a difference. Like the relationship between manager and client and manager and employees. Teambuilding can help establishing a good relationship between manager and employees. It is important to show the employees that you are there for them in a difficult situation. 4. Governmental intervention The governmental intervention is tricky in Italy, because it is like a Mafia. It is not possible to influence the government or a public company. Managers just need to have a 360 degree outlook in order to know what is happening out of their offices. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 72
  • 73. 5. Low-cost competition Regarding the low cost competition M says that it is not easy to lower prices within their sector. There is an intensive competition, so you need to make your clients important by customizing solutions for them. Managers need to create new ideas and be creative. They need to have good knowledge about the market they are operating in and understand what their business is like. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment In order to fit in an intercultural environment M believes that it is more about soft skills than a competency. Managers need to be open-minded, have good communication skills and be flexible. 7. Flatter organizational structure The fact that companies are becoming flatter implies that managers have to be team leaders and adapt to different situations. They need to be natural leaders and being able to involve people. They should rather lead than manage. For the MBA a 2- days workshop where you practice leadership skills and make the MBTI test would be useful. Then you get to understand why people behave in different ways in certain situations 8. Manage multicultural teams Believes that the competencies needed from a manager to manage multicultural teams are flexibility (take time to the employees) and being present (in spite of different time zones). Further the manager needs to create trust. 9. Information and Communication Technologies In order to prepare students to deal with the changing job design and working conditions influenced by ICT, M suggests that they have a specific course regarding this. It should include real cases from companies, so they can learn the best practice. Further the students should learn to be clear on what they need and being able to summarize and being precise for instance when writing emails. M describes more detailed by saying, that they should focus on what they need, and let other ask questions instead of giving too much information. M thinks that you learn to do the above during an MBA because it is stressful. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost About the employee turnover and preventing critical knowledge from being lost, M says that it is based on motivation. Managers should know their employees and differences. Managers should motivate each employee individually, because they are different. Further managers should understand the importance of saying thank you, taking time to the employees, building good relationships, and make the employees feel that what they do is important. Therefore MBA students should be trained in leadership. 11. Different generations Regarding the different generations in the companies, M says it depends on the country and the culture. In some cultures old people think they are God, and young people are considered as secretaries. Therefore young managers need instruments to show they are doing fine. Further they should be humble and build trust. During an MBA the students often get an injection saying “you are APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 73
  • 74. the best!” But they should take it easy, and understand they need to learn from the old managers. Some MBA graduates are too proactive. They should step calmly. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes This is not related to managerial competencies, but to knowledge. In the MBA, more examples of best-practices should be given. 13. Reputation Contribution of managers to the reputation of the company is possible to a very little extent. New managers can bring new values into the company or they could do something good and valuable for the company. The manager has to give the good example. 14. Green Economy New managers can bring new values into the company or they could do something valuable for the company. The manager has to know that he or she is part of a whole. The MBA should contribute by providing best practices. 15. Gender diversity Italy is a more homogeneous, old fashioned country and its workforce is constructed with a lot of Italians. There is a language barrier for more diverse people coming to Italy. For gender, men still have the priority sometimes. The states tries to influence this by setting ´pink quotes` (quotes of numbers of females within the companies). 16. Other forms of diversity In an MBA there already is the advantage of diversity within the MBA. Therefore, due to going to an MBA the new managers will be more open minded towards diversity. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally The topics within the MBA are already very good. It good be a good idea to add more to contribute to soft skills. And more business cases should be added (since, mrs. L is an alumni it is clear that these conclusions are based on her own experiences). A practical implication of this would be a workshop for two days including practical assignments about developing soft-skills. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Ms. L would teach HR from a personal preference, with a strong focus on people and understanding the different people within the company. She would teach this with lessons about practical experiences, by telling stories to make managers more sensible towards this. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 74
  • 75. 19. Pedagogical methods Case studies, small group work, in-company projects. Alumni 20. Best you gained A total understanding of what is happening in the company (360° view). This is important to have people in the company who will take a lot of responsibility they won´t say immediately don´t ask me that it is not my job. 21. Most useful for professional career Economics (Because this was very new for the interviewee) 22. MBA today, what topics The topics nowadays should be more related on leadership and attention for people within the company. The rest of the topics within the MBA are very important already. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Students need work experience before. Otherwise the students won´t know what they need in term of knowledge. Two years of previous experience is the minimum that is necessary. In that way, the students will appreciate more what they learn, and also the interaction within the lessons will be more rich. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 75
  • 76. Interview summary Category (2) Martin BRANNIGAN June 23rd 2010 Head of Broadcast Operations At Sky Italia Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor The Financial, Banking, global crisis. In broadcasting operations we especially suffer the impossibility to hire people on a permanent basis and this affects the performance and fosters internal conflicts among who has a “good” contract and who has not. We have problems in motivating people. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Language Skills. Cultural Sensitivity: being able to adapt contents from a culture to be aired in another (a successful tv show in the US may be a flop in India). 3. Blamed managers Belief in the System (State, own company, community) --> loyalty to the system ---> acting for the sake of the system. Self serving managers are a problem in any sector and should be controlled. 4. Governmental intervention Good knowledge of regulation. A manager has to know the laws and the opportunities/threats of the regulatory system. 5. Low-cost competition Be good in bundle products and services APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 76
  • 77. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Attitude to work in multicultural teams. Curiosity, the will to investigate the cultures you are dealing with, especially critical factors among the differences with yours. 7. Flatter organizational structure Be able to manage the flat organization without risking to ignore authority and hierarchy. They exist anyway. Manage the chaos. Time management and deadlines. Focus on the processes. Decision making, in the right moment, taking your responsibilities. 8. Manage multicultural teams --9. Information and Communication Technologies Knowledge management: especially in broadcasting and Media, you deal with constantly changing information in a multicultural environment --->be able to avoid excess of detailing, able to skim and get the essential. Have (and be able to use) a Knowledge Management System cascading at all levels of the company. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Provide a career path to employees, career management. Provide learning opportunities, works extremely more efficiently than money. 11. Different generations Mutual respect among generations. While recruiting and retaining, don’t keep the workforce too young, balance generations, retain 50 yrs old people, their brain is young. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes --13. Reputation --14. Green Economy Be receptive to consumer’s sensitivity towards green issues; foster “green movements” within the organization you work in. 15. Gender diversity Be proactive in assuring your organization represents the community: if there are ethnical groups, if there is a certain percentage of women, and so on, the company should have a recruitment policy that is representative of the breakdown of the community. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 77
  • 78. 16. Other forms of diversity As above Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally 1)Make MBA´ers able to define the business they are involved in: UNDERSTAND WHERE YOU ARE 2) Make them be able to develop the company or departmental rhythm that assures the reach of the goals consistent with the business you defined: DECIDE THE TIMING AND THE “HOW” OF GOING FOR THAT BUSINESS 3) Teach how to INNOVATE 18. Occasional teacher, what and how - Innovation of product and process – frontal lessons and short project work - organizational structure and design - people management - internal communication 19. Pedagogical methods Make MBAers work in teams and make each of them be the leader a team once during the program. They have to experience responsibility, to experience eventually a failure but learn what responsibility and accountability is. Alumni 20. Best you gained It was a good preparation but actually I continued to study after. The best they gave me was the attitude towards studying and the hard pace of the MBA made me used to hard working. THE MBA IS ONLY THE BEGINNING AND MBAers SHOULD UNDERSTAND THIS. 21. Most useful for professional career Internationalization, marketing, advertising 22. MBA today, what topics Busines Cases, Company Rhythm, Innovation. CSR lectures, taught by representatives of an NGO; NGO’s should be shown as good places to work within. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA See pedagogical methods APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 78
  • 79. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) The MBA should make student understand that they will have to study all their life: lifelong learning. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 79
  • 80. Interview summary Category (2) Mauro BATTOCCHI June 17th, 2010 Head of International Institutional Affairs At Enel Energy Industry Not an alumni Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor An easy answer would be the financial crisis, which changed the market conditions. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries The most obvious answer is cross-cultural abilities. Managers are trained to reason and work in an Anglo-Saxon way. The same language will mean different things in different countries. People need a competency in cross- cultural techniques, interpretation of the cultures, 360 degree look at culture and the ability to move from one to the other with great flexibility and elasticity How to develop: have an agreement with MBA´s in those countries, start moving out from the usual cycle. Give the possibility of being a bit in these countries. Develop business cases in those countries, cross-cultural classes. Managers have to think out of the box, do not confine students to business theory and practice. For example explain them what time means in different countries. ¨Beyond the language the meanings change¨. 3. Blamed managers Strong ethics. Ethic code: code of integrity is the main pillar of a leadership model. People should reflect upon what it means to make money. Business is integrated in society there are strong expectations about what companies should do, this means that companies need to be up to the image, be honest, personal integrity. 4. Governmental intervention Managers should know how to deal with governments, institutional affairs. Governments do not act like companies. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 80
  • 81. Luiss could work upon develop literature and experience about dealing with governments and institutions (government in general) there is a lack of knowledge on this level. 5. Low-cost competition It means a specific focus on costs, a very tight control. Squeezing as much value as possible from the business. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment They need to be trained in different environments. 7. Flatter organizational structure Working in networks. Hierarchy is more easily studied than networks because those are informal. Try to learn lessons from how people develop informal networks, how people work horizontally without a lot of hierarchy. What are the rules of a successful coordination in this area between a network and a hierarchy? Self-centered people find it very hard to move horizontally, difficulty to interact. Competency is insights into how coordination works. This can be provided by cases but those are not existing already and they need to be developed. 8. Manage multicultural teams Same answer as question 2 and 6. 9. Information and Communication Technologies An MBA could compare different models, but the interviewee would not overestimate this subject. Information overload is a problem, but it is a fact of life. It is something that managers just need to be able to do ´swim or drown`. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost It gets down to talent management, you have to be able to retain the talents. For this, there should be a course within the MBA because it applies at every level within the company (even at team level) it has to do with people management. 11. Different generations The interviewee refers in this question to general diversity. If a manager knows that each single person is different from each other than you have a good manager. How to develop this? It will be important to bring the best practices and show them (large multinationals) they can explain how they dealt with the challenge and its benefits. This is to create a mindset, how: to confront them with reality. Age issue is just one of different issues. To have this mindset you need an incentive, by seeing that it works. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Is seen as a way to respond to social pressure. Get managers to do social activity, put them in the field, philanthropy. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 81
  • 82. This could also be included in an MBA, this could be innovative: put students in a place where they have to do good. IT would be challenging and contribute to their integrity, awareness. It makes managers sensitive to the external world. They can be more compassionate. 13. Reputation Reputation is connected to marketing, brand management. The behavior is about integrity and the sensitivity to the external world. How to teach integrity? You can, but it is very difficult. 14. Green Economy It is about how to deal with the ¨hit of the day¨. In an MBA, bring in people who dealt with it the technologies, challenges and make them highlight how it is relevant nowadays. It is important in terms of the managers sensitiveness to the external world. It makes students more aware about what is outside. 15. Gender diversity See question 11 16. Other forms of diversity See question 11 Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Cross-cultural communication, Strategy; extracting value for the customers, to be a good human being as an all encompassing concept (referring to CSR dealing with your staff, ethics)this has to do with ¨character strengths¨ which is a tool of mental health. How to develop this? Societal work, role plays. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Teach the coordination subject. How to make coordination work instead of a hierarchy and a market. Try to develop case-studies and compare the good and bad examples. 19. Pedagogical methods Case studies and games that help people test their own idea of themselves. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 82
  • 83. Interview summary Category (2) Robert LUCARINI June 11th 2010 Technical project manager Engineering SPA ICT Alumni: Executive MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Changing new technologies, R&D. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Working with companies in these countries. More than a language barrier. Managers should have a neutral approach when dealing with foreign managers. They should understand their rhythm in terms of development and building relationships. What is important is patience, listening to their needs and to plan conferences. 3. Blamed managers Disconnection between top management and workers. The top management should discuss with the middle management in order to get inputs and to understand their needs. Top management should get a more holistic approach and be better at collaborating. 4. Governmental intervention It depends on the government. Managers should just be up to date. 5. Low-cost competition Outsource as much of the hands on work as possible, and consider if it is sustainable. Individualize the company’s offers. Break down the offers into different pieces. One size fits all is not good. Managers should be clever in product development. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 83
  • 84. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment It is up to the manager to break down the barriers. You do not want people to feel excluded, and it is up to the manager to include people. Force people to interact. E.g. teambuilding, make everybody speak, mix the groups. Managers should be open to the cultural surroundings. 7. Flatter organizational structure More project management experience, because it brings everything together. Be open and aware of the surroundings in different departments of the organization. 8. Manage multicultural teams Managers should be neutral and not biased. Create shared expectations among the people and understand each person. Soft skills are important. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Managers should understand what problem needs to be solved. Find out what you feel could help you collaborate better and be more productive. Experience in Excel is a hard skill. MBA students should have an overview of different solutions, and not theories but practical examples. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost The interviewee has seen a lot of people leaving the company already and therefore he experienced some knowledge gaps. Managers should organize time to teach their employees different ways of collaboration to let them share knowledge. 6one suggestion is to expose students to different systems of knowledge sharing. 11. Different generations Managers have to make sure that individual expectations are met between the generations. The older generations have a lot of knowledge which they often don´t want to share. The manager must be able to deal with this and to give new responsibilities to the older persons. They need to be aware and assertive to this aspect. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Make the organization more transparent. 13. Reputation Being able to share information and knowledge. The organization needs to be consistent as a whole. The managers need to keep improve processes to achieve the goals of the organization. 14. Green Economy An elective on this topic could be very helpful in an MBA, geared towards real world case-studies. 6 This implies that managers also need to have skills on the level of collaboration. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 84
  • 85. 15. Gender diversity Managers should not be forced to these kind of equality quota´s. Everything within the company should be based on merit. 16. Other forms of diversity Managers need openness for other cultures. They need to step outside their ¨cultural comfort zone¨. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Communication and presentation skills, knowledge of the main business areas, working under pressure in teams. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how The interviewee would teach product management; the scenarios where product management is needed, different steps of product management, the accompanying software package. The same is answered for the topic of strategy. 19. Pedagogical methods A lecture to student with real world examples is still most efficient. Furthermore, group-work is efficient when it is prepared well and good tools should be provided to the students. Alumni 20. Best you gained Getting comfortable in dealing with top management. 21. Most useful for professional career Finance, organizational design and strategy. 22. MBA today, what topics HRM should be included. And topics about global partnerships. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Having strict deadlines, being forced to collaborate, being responsible, having the challenge of being involved in an ¨in compassionate environment¨. Furthermore the group work and especially the collaboration within the groups was extremely important. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 85
  • 86. Interview summary Category (2) Roberto MAGNANELLI May 27th 2010 Project and Finance manager At EDF Energies Nouvelles Energy Industry Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor This is the booming of the renewable market in Italy. Increase of tariffs and as a consequence the appealing market within this industry. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Every day we have to face with different cultures , facing different people. This increased the need for an ability to work in complex and multicultural environments, being flexible and patient. This attitude can be developed only by training on the job or specific courses developed abroad or an internship. 3. Blamed managers It is expected that the government will support companies. Behavior of managers is something you cannot expect. It is a way of ´human being`. 4. Governmental intervention Managers should show respect to other people and not only be profit addicted. 5. Low-cost competition With regards to this subject, for a manufacturing company innovation will be more and more important. So within these contexts managers must be very skilled in innovation and R&D. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 86
  • 87. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Managers need to be flexible, patient. They need an awareness that different people can be your competitor and in the same time profitable for the company. Managers must be able to see the business case of diversity within the company. 7. Flatter organizational structure They need the ability to work in teams; to be able to create and manage a team. Public speaking is also very important regarding this topic (making presentations). 8. Manage multicultural teams For this communication skills, relational skills is crucial. Solving conflicts is also very important, since people coming from different countries creates a big risk for misunderstandings. Motivating people is increasingly important and also leadership. This can be developed by having changing teams. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Strong competencies in Excel and knowledge about ´visualization of business models´ is needed. Further, regarding the increasing information overload opposed to managers, it could be important to teach the student how to organize their job rather than to study how devices work. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost It is important that you always have someone within the company who is informed (and has the knowledge). First it is important that people do not leave at all. 11. Different generations The main competencies a student coming form an MBA is that they have a very broad background. When they enter the company others within the company can sometimes feel offended. The young managers need to show some respect for the different existing employees. Within the context of the MBA already there are different viewpoints. In this way an advantage of different generations can already be taken. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes The new managers need to respect the internal code when they are hired. CSR is important, because you need to know who is in charge of controlling that the employees follow the guidelines. 13. Reputation This is an ethic problem. The more a manager grows in their career the more responsible they need to be. There should be courses in CSR during an MBA. 14. Green Economy Renewable will become even more important in the future. There should be elective courses during an MBA about what the renewable market is like. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 87
  • 88. 15. Gender diversity Managers need to respect their colleagues and employees. It is important to have both genders in a company. It is like a melting pot between males and females. In the MBA it is important to have a balance in the classroom. 16. Other forms of diversity There will not be these kinds of problems in the future. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally New managers need to understand what happens in a company (e.g. in finance, HR and so on). They need to be able to work with people with different backgrounds. They can learn that by going abroad. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Finance and renewable energy. Use experience from the job, use case studies and project work. Involve teachers/professionals with different backgrounds and working in different industries. 19. Pedagogical methods The students should work in the field with case studies, use of others or their own experiences and by doing internships. Alumni 20. Best you gained Discovered finance, broaden knowledge about companies. 21. Most useful for professional career Finance and Project management. 22. MBA today, what topics Electives in renewable business, all the existing subjects in different areas (HR, Organization, Project management, Finance etc.) in order to understand what the colleagues in the company are doing. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Work/ doing internships in different companies within different industries, on different projects and with different people. Students must work in a company before they attend an MBA. There should not be lessons 12 month in a row during an MBA, but they should be mixed with internships or other practical experiences. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 88
  • 89. Interview summary Category (2) Vincenzo MONTORI May 28th 2010 Head of Market and Regulation at International Power Oil and Energy industry Luiss MBA alumni Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor The regulatory environment (government and laws setting the rules of your market). Marketing competition environment. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Basic knowledge of social and economic environment of these countries. Economy, social values, behaviour, political structure. Travel and spend time there. Ideally, mix of students coming from these countries in the MBA. 3. Blamed managers It is not the managers that have to change, as they do their job to get their bonuses. It is their mission that should be changed to be aligned with the company’s mission, the control system. Change manager’s motivation system (performance rating in the short/medium/long term). 4. Governmental intervention Managers have to understand the values of collectivity/society/stakeholders, because the government represent the society’s interest. To develop this ability, give more space to study human sciences. This is lacking in MBAs. 5. Low-cost competition Not a matter of low price but right price, compared to competitors. Managers have to find people that can ensure more results and productivity. Quality of HR, selection of right people. Having of course the right technology. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 89
  • 90. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Managers have to acquire multicultural competencies. To make MBA students meet different cultures: countries, gender... Spend time in other countries. Organize courses in international economy/markets, internationalization. 7. Flatter organizational structure This is about the capacity to select people. Managers have to be able to see immediately the points that matter, make summaries of important points. “Get instantly to the point”. You learning through mistakes. 8. Manage multicultural teams Basic knowledge of different cultures. Ability to accept different points of view. Mediation/diplomacy. Keeping people work together. Put MBA students in multicultural environment, stress situations. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Train MBA students on basics of ICT. What is the state of the art of ICT, what they can be used for. Problem-solving using ICT. ICT as a tool. Mix company organization and ICT. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Motivation. Job rotation: make people move a lot. 11. Different generations People who can understand different points of view and diplomacy. To develop this ability, you have to be confronted with people of different generations. Use case studies. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 90
  • 91. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Managers need to understand/forecast the future directions of values of the stakeholders. To develop this during an MBA, give more space to human sciences. 13. Reputation Communication. Behaving according to the values of stakeholders. Forecast stakeholders values in advance to be aligned. During an MBA, make students sensitive to CSR. CSR should not be superficial and strategic but deeply consistent with the organization’s culture. 14. Green Economy Managers should be given analysis tools that enable them to understand better green concept through dividing it into subcategories: finance, environment, production, employment, market development. Managers have to understand exactly what is behind the concept to address each dimension. You cannot be green in everything but you have to be green in some dimensions. During an MBA: managers explaining the real reasons why their company is green (testimonies). 15. Gender diversity Multicultural approach, accepting diversity. Not so important. Be open, mindset. 16. Other forms of diversity No. Every kind of diversity should be dealt with thanks to the same kind of qualities. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Ability to understand all the different languages talked within the company (marketing, finance, law, strategy…). Be ready to learn. Prepare managers to understand company social environment (and its own rules). Thanks to managers’ testimonies. Work on the students’ personality to prepare to be a manager, you need to have the mindset. And be humble too. And also be prepared to manage stress. Testing the capacity, the personality. Make people go through experience so that they know how they react to different situations. A very important competency required not taught in MBA programs is the capacity to relate Inside the organization at all levels. The complexity of the whole organization. « Technical skills are the base to get into a company ». You need to « talk the language talked in companies . You need to talk with marketing, you need to talk with finance, with production, with ICT… ». The soft skills are a means to enhance the technical skills. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 91
  • 92. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Company social systems. Different types of social systems in different kinds of companies. Adapting behaviour to kind of company. Case studies and sharing personal experience. 19. Pedagogical methods Put the student in as many situations as possible that are similar to real professional life (presentations, reward the wrong person…). Replicate real situations and make students go through the experience. To prepare them. Self-awareness. Alumni 20. Best you gained Capacity to face every type of situations (“presenting to my CEO and making photocopies for myself”). The MBA gave me a multi-skills approach. “The MBA class and its 60 people is like a small company. You are often confronted with success and failure”. Relationship with colleagues. Knowing better one’s limits. 21. Most useful for professional career The whole program. No useless classes. 22. MBA today, what topics Technical skills (finance, marketing, law, ICT…). Human sciences classes and more international trade. Social values of stakeholders. Then the behaviour is the most difficult part in the company, an MBA should focus on that. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Stress situations, multicultural relations. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 92
  • 93. Interview summary Category (2) Alfredo IMPARATO June 23rd 2010 CEO and creator of Kombel Electric and electronic systems Industry Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Change of market dynamics, i.e. emergence of new markets. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries Be prepared to these changes. “Language is not a competency anymore, it’s a must.” Have the courage to face something new. To develop this: travel, meet different people. Become sensitive to the importance of opening to other cultures. An MBA can provide instruments. 3. Blamed managers Managers should consider the company as their own. Responsibility. 4. Governmental intervention Have experiences in some public administrations to understand how they function. 5. Low-cost competition It is a marketing competency. Communication to customers about the products. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Travelling. It is a must to be able to understand different cultures. It is about relationship skills, “which is the most important thing in business”. Establish a good and successful relationship. It is crucial to have training about that in an MBA. Field training with a psychologist. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 93
  • 94. 7. Flatter organizational structure People are used to face this situation. 8. Manage multicultural teams Ability to understand other’s background, to know other cultures. Experiencing other cultures. 9. Information and Communication Technologies ICT is also a must. Know basic principles. Knowledge of basic softwares (like SAP). Be used to use software. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Be able to motivate and involve people. Putting the right people at the right place. During an MBA, teach it through key psychological factors. 11. Different generations There are no conflicts or misunderstanding. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes A matter of knowledge. Basic principle should be taught. You should study this. It is not a matter of competencies or attitudes. 13. Reputation Means equity, so it is important. MBA students must learn how important the brand is in the mind of the customers. It should be a subject like marketing or finance. Responsibility is essential. You should consider the company as if it was your own. 14. Green Economy There are two sides. 1: Safe the planet, 2: Business! Technical knowledge about green economy. Know different alternatives. In the MBA they should be presented for the main technical knowledge. 15. Gender diversity Depends on country. A matter of culture. You have to face the issue in order to learn how to manage it. In the MBA you can learn it by working together. The result should be depending on other people, and force corporation. It is a problem in Italy. Men have much time to dedicate to work. 16. Other forms of diversity In the MBA the relationship competency must be stressed. The key of success in business is to establish and maintain a good relationship to others. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 94
  • 95. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Relationship, finance and marketing. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Startup and entrepreneurship. First teach the technical factors. Second work with cases (negative, bad examples). 19. Pedagogical methods Divide in two faces. 1: Technical topics. 2: Cases. How to teach relationship competency: Teach psychological aspects of human mind. Work together in teams they do not decide themselves on cases. It should be a win win situation that encourage corporation. Alumni 20. Best you gained Technical basic elements to do business. E.g. finance, accounting, marketing etc. 21. Most useful for professional career Many! Probably most finance, but the whole experience was useful in itself. 22. MBA today, what topics Network (quality of other students in the class and alumni, selection). Relationship (experience). Technical (instruments) 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Same as 22. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 95
  • 96. Interview summary Category (2) Matteo TOMJANOVICH June 21st 2010 Sales & distribution business area manager At Spa Birra Peroni Alumni: no Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Nowadays markets are steady, the consumer trust is lower. People who have the money are relatively old. Employees don´t have trust in their job (careers are less fixed). Top managers are not ready to deal with the crisis and employees are subject to it 7. Macro-economical crisis. 5. Low-cost competition Not every customer asks for lower prices nowadays. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries This depends on the market. Within the interviewees company, processes are the same within all these countries. Languages such as Chinese should be taught because not many people can speak English in these countries. A manager should know how to deal with their culture. In an MBA a history of these cultures can be provided. 3. Blamed managers The main topic is to change the knowledge about economics. The interviewee sees a lot of manager which don´t know anything about economics. The only way to grow is to stretch costs. Therefore, there should be more emphasis put on finance. 4. Governmental intervention ¨Italy needs a better government¨. A manager should know how to lobby and know about public rights. 7 General story about the environment; most important factor follows this APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 96
  • 97. 5. Low-cost competition Not every customer asks for lower prices nowadays. Customers want value for money. Therefore, new product development is more important. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment This question refers to question 2. ¨You cannot teach respect¨. 7. Flatter organizational structure Managers need interfunctional competencies and being able to develop a horizontal career path. Further, career growth is slower, students should get prepared for this (they need to lower their expectations). 8. Manage multicultural teams Managers need to understand other people´s behavior in terms of culture and why people behaving in this way. ¨Teach them cultures, make them more open-minded¨. 9. Information and Communication Technologies ICT is nowadays extremely speedy and fast. Train managers to work at home. ¨Make a chapter within the MBA about how to deal with technology, but remember that this is changing fast¨. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost This is impossible. Every employee inherit all the knowledge. Employees should share all the knowledge but some things are just not transferable. ¨It is you and yourself which can be valuable¨. 11. Different generations There are a lot of different perspectives within the company. Related to the knowledge about the crisis. For the board the first competencies are sales & finance  develop an entrepreneur. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes It is a question of development. We are I little individualistic. We are influenced by our culture. CSR is used as PR. PR and CSR should be electives in the MBA. The competencies are not the most important, that is the network. 13. Reputation Change your mind and feel the responsibility. I am rude about this: Companies make profit! We need a change of the rules. Capitalism: You have the right to get richer and “steal” from others. But ethics are important. Should be taught by parents not in the MBA. 14. Green Economy APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 97
  • 98. It is the most important topic to be environmental responsible. Government should make rules about this. Competencies depend on the mindset. MBA students should see people starving and they will be aware of CSR. You cannot teach it. 15. Gender diversity This thing is happening. The majority of people hired in my company are girls. Concerning the board it is a matter of time. I am against the quote. There is not so much to teach here. But the gender of teachers in the MBA is important. More female teachers would lead to more respect. 16. Other forms of diversity Diversity happens. Next generation will deal with it. Tell and remind the students during an MBA. Doing internship in the other part of the world is a good idea. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Negotiation. You have to know how to do it. It is everything. You have to understand the others and where they are. Leadership. Finance and sales. Culture of new commerce. We miss something for example about Japan and India. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how Negotiation. Everyone needs to know this to be more effective in communication. Theory and many workshops. Being correct and respectful. 19. Pedagogical methods Testing yourself. Making things happen. Internship, case studies, workshops etc. Alumni 20. Best you gained 21. Most useful for professional career 22. MBA today, what topics 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) The MBA is not very useful. It is very broad and not specialized like universities. Humility is important. It is wrong to think you know better. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 98
  • 99. Interview summary Michele TARDITI June 22nd 2010 Manager strategy & operational excellence At Deloitte Consultancy Industry Alumni: MBA LBS Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Financial crisis, global recession. General: China’s impact on the world trade. Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries An ongoing trend of internationalization. Managers should be more future oriented. Have the ability to work with people from different cultures. It depends on where you want to go, and if you want to be very mobile, if so: You should be multicultural, several languages, study abroad. 3. Blamed managers Need to be honest and be evaluated on medium term objectives not short term. 4. Governmental intervention Work more with public sector. More work for the company leads to increase of costs and needed competencies. Find projects and revenues for government resources. Able to manage the bet team and the process. Strict and formal, therefore you should know how to do it. In the MBA should be a specific module on governments work. 5. Low-cost competition Innovate, know how to reduce costs. Not easy. Have a strong impact on the workforce. Managers do not always have the competencies and cannot see where they go. They find out they are wrong too late. Able to manage change. In the MBA they should start putting these ideas in the heads of the students. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 99
  • 100. Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Same as question 2. Need to be multicultural and know how international trade works. Communicate complex things in a simple way in a foreign language. 7. Flatter organizational structure Need to be more competent. Less people supporting you. For instance managers do secretary tasks and activities, also an financial activities. Broader range of competencies is needed. Managers need to look ahead and plan. They have stronger responsibility. 8. Manage multicultural teams The same as 2 and 6. 9. Information and Communication Technologies Always online and connected, means you work more and faster. Managers need to know how to make the most out of ICT. E.g. blackberry mobiles to managers lead to a different approach. How you want to use it, depends on the leadership style. In the MBA they should learn to use excel, and how to validate results. They should learn to use ppt and make good presentations. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost Need to formalize competencies and knowledge in a database. Keep people who are crucial and apply turn over for marginal employees. I.e. talent management. 11. Different generations Dealing with colleagues. Important to have some negotiation skills and to motivate employees. The MBA should absolutely contribute. Courses about negotiation and motivation. Could be outdoor courses, where you put people in a difficult situation, and make a role play module, where students work in groups. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes CSR is an important theme. Managers need to know what it is. But still it is less important than the topics mentioned before. This topic should be addressed if all the other skills are present. Therefore, it should not be prominent within an MBA. 13. Reputation Not answered. 14. Green Economy Not answered. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 100
  • 101. 15. Gender diversity Men tend to be stable in performance in work on the long run. Still there are more and less competitive men. Though they need the same approach. On the contrary there are two types of women workers. First, there are women who don´t want children, they are hard workers and sometimes even better than equivalent men. Second, there are women who want children, they are good at the beginning but when they have children priorities change, they need to combine work with private life. This means that you need a mix within the company. Managers need to understand this mix within the company. 16. Other forms of diversity Not answered. Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally How to manage your IT. Managers need to be able to work in an intercultural environment (the ability to work in English). The ability to innovate; to foster it within the organization and to be creative, and to focus on cost-reduction. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how This depends on the interviewees experience and not on what is necessary. The interviewee will teach subject on consulting. 19. Pedagogical methods ¨Learning should be interactive¨, which means interactive presentations and exercises. Normal theory should be followed up by practical exercises. Alumni 20. Best you gained The variety of different subjects (finance-law- organization-modulling, etc). in contrast there was not many group work. The interviewee thinks it is important that managers come to speak from different important companies. The interviewee highlights the importance of networking opportunities within the MBA8. Networking is increasingly important because important positions can be reached through this mechanism, it should be addressed within an MBA. 21. Most useful for professional career The organizational dimension. 22. MBA today, what topics Finance, planning & control (for a service company). Sales, knowledge about the sales force and sales channels, marketing (for a commercial company) 8 This is more a general overview about the interviewees experience within the MBA. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 101
  • 102. More group work and group interactions, to be able to understand people. Out of class activities can help for this. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA The manager should enrich his or her knowledge portfolio. A lot of different things are important  this is the concept of an MBA. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 102
  • 103. Interview summary Category (2) Michele PUGLIESE Head of Finance & Investor Relations At Anonima Petroli Italiana (API) Oil Industry Alumni : Executive MBA LBS Comment: In this interview, the interviewee had only 30 minutes so we had to select questions. Part A external factors 1. Most important external factor Part B competencies Economics 2. Economic dominance, BRIC countries 3. Blamed managers This is about moral hazard. Do not know how to change people’s moral. Managers should be more corporative, taking less risk and be closer to the real needs of people (social needs). Not only focus on profit. In the MBA ethics should be a course teaching responsibility and moral. 4. Governmental intervention 5. Low-cost competition Globalization 6. Fit to intercultural environment Depends on people’s behavior, education, where they have traveled etc. Italians are not used to go abroad. Should be more open to intercultural environment. In the MBA the exchange program should be increased. 7. Flatter organizational structure 8. Manage multicultural teams 9. Information and Communication Technologies Everyone knows how to use ICT. The new generation is already used to it. In the MBA should be provided the opportunity to know the best up to date tools. Do not focus too much on ICT in the MBA. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 103
  • 104. Organizational Demography 10. Prevent critical knowledge from being lost 11. Different generations Depend on the company’s culture and the hierarchy. Hard to prepare in MBA. It is the most difficult thing to deal with a strict rigid structure. Students should learn to be patient. Only real life makes you understand the difficulties. Have your own strong competencies. Corporate Social Responsibility 12. Pressure from stakeholders, expected attitudes Not easy. Sometimes only window dressing. In the MBA should be shown the companies that are doing a true real good job, like non-profit organizations. Managers should have the ability to relate to stakeholders. How to develop relationship skill: Gaming, convincing someone of a CSR subject, and afterward change the roles. But it is linked to the way you are as a person. 13. Reputation 14. Green Economy Learn how green and grey economy can be associated (how to “turn grey into greener”. Go on the field to see how energy is produced.. Understand how the business of green economy works. 15. Gender diversity 16. Other forms of diversity Part C Recommendations for the MBA 17. Three main competencies ideally Multicultural approach. Flexible approach (openness to others’ opinions for example). Be ready to listen. 18. Occasional teacher, what and how How to create relationships in the financial world (with banks, investors, stakeholders). Examine all possible stakeholders and have a single individual approach. Tell people they need to be sincere and convincing and believe in what they do. Study examples of companies, being positive or negative. 19. Pedagogical methods Game in teams, to make people cooperate. And explain to students why this method is used. Alumni 20. Best you gained It helped me to update my knowledge and competencies. APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 104
  • 105. 21. Most useful for professional career Business strategy. 22. MBA today, what topics Relationships and CSR. Relations with stakeholders. 23. Crucial experience during an MBA Attending several one-week internship in different companies. Part D Additional questions (that do not belong anywhere else) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 105
  • 106. Appendix 5: List of competencies mentioned by managers (from analysis qualitative research) FAMILY 1 FAMILY 2 FAMILY 3 FAMILY 4 Hard skills (2) Political ability Business sense Adaptation ability (8) Quick understanding of business situations (3) Understand environment of company (4) Result orientation (1) Problem-solving (3) Ready to take more responsibilities (3) Action-oriented approach (2) Strategic approach (1) Innovativeness (3) Global world view (1) Personal drive/passion for winning (1) Develop strong partnerships (1) Global overview of the business (5) Manage growth (1) Product development (3) Customer orientation (2) Forecasting (5) Understand customer needs of different countries (4) Business planning (2) Associate goals of government with goals of company (1) Lobbying towards government (2) Understand and adapt to governmental way of acting (9) Flexibility (15) Worldwide mobility (10) Deal with and manage complexity (6) Change management (1) Cross-functional cooperation (3) Resist pressure (1) Be ready to change (2) Manage complexity of ICT communication (4) Readiness to learn something new (1) Fast and efficient decision-making (3) Analytical approach (7) Evaluate trade-offs (1) Critical thinking (1) Prioritizing (3) Risk analysis (1) Ability to focus on main information (7) Time management (2) Knowledge of ICT tools (5) Knowledge about Green economy (1) Value chain management (3) Marketing (4) Cost control (1) APPENDIX Diplomacy (4) Professionalism (4) Visibility in the company (2) Transparency (12) Credibility (3) Build legitimacy as leader (3) Networking (3) Negotiation (4) Market yourself (1) LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 106
  • 107. FAMILY 5 Multicultural mindset (18) FAMILY 6 CSR mindset FAMILY 7 Interpersonal skills (Soft skills – 10) Proficiency in English (5) Speak other languages (10) Attention about the outside world (9) Understand the value of multiculturalism (4) Understand different behaviours and ways of looking at things (14) Work and deal with different cultures (16) Intercultural understanding (27) Taking limited risks (2) Understanding diversity and its importance (15) Understand gender diversity and its importance (2) Understand different generations and how they can add value (9) Sensitivity about importance of CSR (23) Understand stakeholders (10) Long-term focus (6) Understand advantage of Green economy (4) Understand impact of Green economy on company’s image (5) Ethic way of doing business (13) Responsibility (9) Integrity (3) Fairness (1) Build trust (4) Build relationships (13) Multicultural team worker (2) Treat different generations differently (5) Listening (5) Respect for experience (4) Communication skills (20) Simple communication (3) Presentation skills (1) Teamworking (11) Collaboration (4) Coaching (1) Conflict management (6) Team management (7) Understanding potential in the team (7) Understand people (9) Motivate others (12) Empowerment (2) Ability to involve others (4) Make people grow (2) Share knowledge (7) Readiness to learn from others (7) Delegation (5) FAMILY 8 Personal characteristics Proactivity (5) Honesty (1) Curiosity (2) Humility (13) Creativity (3) Thinking out the box (4) Autonomy (1) Empathy (2) Charisma (7) Patience (6) Openness (20) Tolerance (3) Respect for other people (2) (x) number of times the group of words is mentioned APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 107
  • 108. Appendix 6: List of managerial competencies created by innovation department EM Lyon 1 Self control 2 Self knowledge 3 Flexibility 4 Intellectual Agility 5 Results oriented 6 Courage 7 Perseverance 8 Autonomy 9 Passionate towards work APPENDIX • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Controls emotions under pressure ; Remains calm when managing a stressful situation ; Is effective in spite of pressure ; Adopts a comforting attitude in crisis situations ; Is simultaneously logical, rational and objective when under pressure. Is humble and modest; Is open to constructive criticism; Has a clear understanding of personal strengths and weaknesses; Learns from errors; Has realistic self-insight and good understanding of self. Adapts management style to different situations ; Adapts management style to the level of competencies and skills of colleagues and employees ; Adjusts degree of managerial intervention according to circumstances; Adjusts degree of supervision according to circumstances; Skilfully persuades others to adopt personal point of view during negotiations. Learns quickly ; Easily assimilates complex information using conceptual or abstract explanations Seeks to acquire new knowledge across a large range of fields Applies generalised learning from one situation or experience to another Integrates a large quantity of information over a short period of time Is quick to act ; Exceeds defined objectives ; Accomplishes a large amount of work over a short period of time ; Values personal and professional accomplishments ; Finds the means to exceed expected results. Defends position in the face of adversity ; Assumes responsibility for own actions and decisions ; Takes necessary decisions, even if unpopular ; Acts according to fundamentally held values; Expresses deep personal convictions. Is energetic ; Simultaneously undertakes many tasks without tiring; Exerts significant effort over a long period of time; Leads long term projects to conclusion; Maintains efforts in spite of difficulties or failures. Sets own objectives ; Takes initiative ; Exudes confidence about judgement and past experience; Is resourceful ; Solves problems alone. Enjoys working ; Seeks to exceed self expectations in whatever is undertaken ; Exhibits total commitment to work; Is intensely involved in professional activities ; Is dedicated to work. LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 108
  • 109. 10 Building credibility • • • • • Inspires trust; Acts with integrity and honesty ; Fulfils commitments and promises ; Is frank and honest ; Is charismatic. 11 Positive outlook • • • • • 12 Dealing with change and ambiguity • • • • • • • Tackles problems in a constructive manner ; Identifies positive aspects of an event ; Inspires confidence in team members about project success ; Maintains an optimistic outlook in face of difficulties ; Exhibits confidence in self and in personal capacity to succeed at whatever endeavour. Moves on even when faced with uncertainty and ambiguity; Is open and flexible in the face of change and novelty ; Adapts to situations as they evolve; Understands and anticipates required changes in own behaviour ; Manages paradoxes and contradictions in the environment. Identifies political mechanisms inside and outside the organisation; Intuitively understands the political interests of actors within the business environment; Skilfully and efficiently manoeuvres in politically complex situations; Adapts relational strategies according to political dimensions of the business environment; Detects power struggles, hidden agendas, alliances, etc. Adapts discourse and behaviour to key contacts and differing audiences; Adapts to applicable norms and values; Displays tact and diplomacy with others; Deciphers the intentions of others; Influences others without using position or giving orders when required. Uses networks as a source of information and support; Creates useful contacts to achieve goals; Develops strategic alliances; Builds ties with influential people in the business environment; Uses own contacts to develop new ones. Promotes project to potential partners; Identifies and involves partners who can provide support or help advance projects; Takes into consideration the needs of project partners when defining project frame; Finds and gathers resources (human, material, financial) required for project success ; Reconciles diverging interests of stakeholders involved in a project. Is ethical in business; Establishes governance practices in line with the company’s culture and strategic objectives; Acts in accordance with the company’s values and mission; Respects a strict code of values that guides actions; Backs up words with concrete action (walks the talk). 13 Political agility • • 14 Social awareness and tact 15 Managing through networks 16 Building support and framing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 17 Ethics and values • • • • • • APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 109
  • 110. 18 Quality Management 19 Client orientation 20 Social responsibility • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 21 Strategic thinking 22 Complex problem solving 23 Decision quality 24 Conflict management 25 Developing others 26 Fostering teamwork APPENDIX • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Establishes quality standards and norms; Implements quality control and assurance procedures; Is rigorous, precise and exact in work undertaken; Constantly seeks out best practices; Implements continuous improvement processes. Is attentive to the needs of clients; Proposes products and services corresponding to client expectations; Grants first priority to client satisfaction; Exceeds clients’ expectations; Adapts working style to meet client demands. Takes decisions that are profitable to the company while simultaneously contributing to society as a whole; Reconciles challenges of value creation, profit maximization and social equity; Actively promotes sustainable development inside and outside the organisation; Acts with consideration of individual, collective and corporate interests; Integrates at a high level social challenges that may initially appear to be contradictory. Develops strategies taking into consideration a large range of factors; Evaluates the business situation in its entirety; Anticipates emerging trends and evolutions; Elaborates a prospective vision of a situation’s long term impacts; Develops an innovative strategic position. Takes time to fully understand all the aspects of a problem; Performs detailed analyses; Considers all information when analyzing a situation; Analyzes complex problems; Consults many sources of information to support decisions and positions. Quickly takes a stand if the situation so requires; Takes a stand based on hypotheses and incomplete information if the situation so requires; Takes decisions under pressure or in emergency situations; Takes calculated risks when faced with an opportunity; Takes decisions that can have a big impact on work or job. Deals with conflicts that emerge; Manages directly and rapidly potential conflicts; Rallies diverging interests involved in a conflict; Eases tensions and pressure between parties; Closes deals or agreements that satisfy different parties involved in a conflict. Designs personal competency development plans for others; Provides opportunities for employees and colleagues to develop their competencies; Guides and accompanies persons in their development; Adapts coaching approach to the needs of each person; Creates the necessary conditions for others to learn effectively. Facilitates cooperation and collaboration between people; Encourages people to help each other in their work activities; Plans meetings or gatherings to stimulate team synergies; Organizes work in order to create healthy interdependence between people; Develops high performing teams. LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 110
  • 111. • 27 Diversity management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 28 Fostering communication 29 Building positive relationships 30 Openness to others 31 Opportunity seeking and taking 32 Innovating 33 Business sense 34 Balancing intuition and logic 35 Business environment adaptability APPENDIX • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Underscores the value of differences (gender, age, religious beliefs, etc.) in teams; Promotes the advantages of diversity in the organisation; Understands and respects the beliefs and values of persons from different cultures or ethnic origins; Makes sure individual differences are effectively used to improve team performance; Is fair and balanced with each person. Encourages colleagues and employees to give and share their opinions ; Consults with stakeholders when making decisions; Is ready to put own positions into question; Integrates the positions of others when making a final decision; Enriches own opinions with the ideas of others. Develops and maintains healthy relations with entourage; Earns the respect and trust of others; Adapts interpersonal style to that of others; Can be easily approached; Initiates and maintains contacts with different types of persons. Seeks to understand the point of view of others; Takes time to listen to personal problems of others; Is kind towards others; Listens to others without passing judgement; Is attentive to the needs and concerns of entourage. Is on the lookout for business opportunities; Evaluates the likelihood that different scenarios actually occur; Takes advantage of opportunities that arise; Concludes agreements at the right moment; Improvises to better take advantage of a situation. Is ingenious and creative; Finds creative solutions to respond to problems encountered; Is original at work; Sees things from a new perspective; Invents new ways of doing things. Keeps well informed of products and services of competitors ; Considers the impact of internal and external factors on the commercial strategy; Keeps well informed of market evolutions and adjusts accordingly; Prioritizes value generating activities; Orients actions taking into consideration notions of breakeven, profitability and growth. Easily interprets the probable evolutions of things; Senses things coming without necessarily having tangible proof; Is attentive to leading indicators of important change; Easily deciphers the intentions of people; Easily perceives the subtleties in the behaviours and intentions of others. Transposes business objectives onto various economic environments; Quickly grasps the rules of the game concerning how business is conducted in different economic environments; Detects business opportunities in diverse economic and cultural settings; Blends into the environment to decipher the business reality of the environment; LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 111
  • 112. • Easily adapts to the business realities in different environments. 36 Creating and conveying an inspiring vision • • • • • 37 Change management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Communicates the business vision in a coherent and exciting fashion; Creates memorable events linked to the implementation of the business mission; Promotes and diffuses the values of the organisation; Gives meaning and sense to the work of each person; Makes sure that each person understands his/her importance and contribution in achieving the business goals. Creates and maintains a favourable climate for change; Emphasizes the advantages of change; Awakens a positive desire in favour of change; Anticipates and recognizes the impacts of change; Calms resistance to change. Has a positive impact on audience during presentations ; Captures the interest of others during presentations; Is convincing in front of an audience; Is at ease when speaking in front of a group; Facilitates and leads dialogue and exchange during presentations. Establishes clear objectives and goals to achieve ; Ensures follow-up of activities ; Reframes and reiterates expectations when required Gives a general direction for individual and team efforts Clearly defines the direction to follow Develops and implements processes for working at a distance Uses best known strategies for multisite management Ensures follow-up of distance based work without physically being present Can influence at a distance Skilfully uses business indicators for managing at a distance 38 Presentation making 39 Managing work processes 40 Managing at a distance 41 Performance management 42 Innovation management 43 Information management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • APPENDIX Implements means and tools to measure performance; Evaluates the performance of business units and individuals under his/her responsibility ; Follows the advancement of established performance indicators; Provides required modifications to correct performance deviations; Uses performance dashboards. Keeps informed of new ways of doing business as proposed by others; Promotes innovation within the organisation; Stimulates creativity in others; Develops and implements continuous improvement processes ; Keeps informed of innovative ideas outside of the organisation. Informs the right people at the right time; Finds and uses the best sources of information; Distinguishes between confidential and public information; Shares necessary information for decision making in a judicious and well thought out manner; Puts in place tools to facilitate communication between colleagues and employees. LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 112
  • 113. 44 Operations management 45 Delegation and empowerment 46 Priority setting and time management 47 Planning • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Organizes and uses resources in an optimal fashion; Checks that all necessary resources are in the right place at the right time; Ensures linkage between colleagues and/or employees that undertake different activities simultaneously; Encourages team effectiveness ; Defines and implements work processes. Takes into consideration the capacities of others when delegating; Clearly explains to each person why a particular task or activity has been delegated to them; Gives clear instructions when delegating; Leaves each person room to manoeuvre when deciding how work is to be done; Clearly explains to each person that he/she is liable for own results. Allocates time according to priorities; Identifies value adding activities within the company; Focuses on the most urgent and important problems; Prioritizes without compromising results; Quickly adjusts priorities when encounters unexpected events. Builds work plans; Breaks down work into precise steps with tasks to complete; Systematically anticipates things to be done; Evaluates the required capabilities and duration of projects; Defines deliverables and deadlines. Source: list of 47 managerial competencies developed by EM LYON Business School and Dolmen Human Capital. (2009). APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 113
  • 114. Appendix 7: Content web-survey Because of the changing external environment, having an influence on companies, the competencies of managers might need to change in the future. With the use of this survey we want to gain insights in the changing needs of companies in terms of managerial competencies for future, in order to make recommendations about the ideal MBA of LBS. Completing the survey won´t take more than 15 minutes. We will make sure that we will use the data in a confidential way. Thank you in advance! Jenneth, Julia, Marcello, Paolo, Solveig 1. Please distribute 100 points (%) among these two dimensions of managerial competencies, regards their general importance for companies in the future. Hard skills % Soft skills % Total % HARD competencies 2. Please distribute 100 points(%)among these dimensions of HARD competencies, regards their general importance for companies in the future. Make sure that the total amount ads up to 100%. Innovation Strategy and organization Economy, finance, accounting Institutions and law Management and HR Entrepreneurship International business Marketing Total % % % % % % % % % SOFT competencies Please read these examples within some families (categories) of SOFT competencies. - Cognitive competencies: intellectual agility, complex problem solving, fast decision-making,strategic orientation, managing work processes, priority setting and time management, planning, balancing intuition and logic APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 114
  • 115. - Political competencies: building credibility, political agility, managing through networks, building positive relationships, creating and conveying an inspiring vision, building support and framing - Entrepreneurial competencies: innovating, result orientation, quality management, opportunity seeking and taking business sense, client orientation, creativity - Adaptation competencies: flexibility, dealing with change and ambiguity, business environment adaptability, change management - CSR mindset: ethics and values, social responsibilities, diversity management, social awareness and tact - Interpersonal competencies: fostering communication, openness to others, conflict management, presentation making, delegation and empowerment - Intrapersonal competencies: developing others, fostering teamwork, self knowledge, self control, autonomy 3. Please distribute 100 points (%) among these families of SOFT competencies, regards their general importance for companies in the future. Make sure that the total amount ads up to 100%. Cognitive competencies Political competencies Entrepreneurial competencies Adaptation competencies CSR mindset Interpersonal competencies Intrapersonal competencies Total % % % % % % % % Please choose within these families of competencies only the THREE most important managerial competencies for companies in the future. 4. Cognitive competencies (choose three options)  Intellectual agility  Complex problem solving  Fast decision-making  Strategic orientation  Managing work processes  Priority setting and time management  Planning  Balancing intuition and logic APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 115
  • 116. 5. Political competencies (choose three options)  Building credibility  Political agility  Managing through networks  Building positive relationships  Creating/conveying an inspiring vision  Building support and framing 6. Entrepreneurial competencies (choose three options)  Innovating  Result orientation  Quality management  Opportunity seeking and taking  Business sense  Client orientation  Creativity 7. Adaptation competencies (choose three options)  Flexibility  Dealing with change and ambiguity  Business environment adaptability  Change management 8. Corporate Social Responsibility mindset (choose three options)  Ethics and values  Social responsibilities  Diversity management  Social awareness and tact 9. Interpersonal competencies (choose three options)  Fostering communication  Openness to others  Conflict management  Presentation making  Delegation and empowerment 10. Intrapersonal competencies (choose three options)  Developing others  Fostering teamwork  Self knowledge  Self control  Autonomy APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 116
  • 117. Appendix 8: Results from web-survey 1. Please distribute 100 points (%) among these two dimensions of managerial competencies Hard skills 49.03 (49.03 %) Soft skills 49.9 (49.9 %) Number of the respondents that saw the question (n) = 68 Number of received answers (#) = 136 2. Please distribute 100 points (%)among these dimensions of HARD competencies Innovation 17.16 (17.16 %) Strategy and organization 17.34 (17.34 %) Economy, finance, accounting 12.52 (12.52 %) Institutions and law 7.99 (7.99 %) Management and HR 13.37 (13.37 %) Entrepreneurship 11.79 (11.79 %) International business 13.16 (13.16 %) Marketing 13.03 (13.03 %) n = 67 # 503 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 117
  • 118. 3. Please distribute 100 points (%)among these families of SOFT competencies Cognitive competencies 19.69 (19.69 %) Political competencies 14.03 (14.03 %) Entrepreneurial competencies 16.34 (16.34 %) Adaptation competencies 16.54 (16.54 %) CSR mindset 11.95 (11.95 %) Interpersonal competencies 14.78 (14.78 %) Intrapersonal competencies 13.59 (13.59 %) n = 59 # 397 4. Cognitive competencies (choose three options) Intellectual agility 26 (44.07 %) Complex problem solving 30 (50.85 %) Fast decision-making 27 (45.76 %) Strategic orientation 27 (45.76 %) Managing work processes 9 (15.25 %) Priority setting and time management Planning 31 (52.54 %) Balancing intuition and logic 9 (15.25 %) 16 (27.12 %) n = 59 # 175 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 118
  • 119. 5. Political competencies (choose three options) Building credibility 51 (86.44 %) Political agility 6 (10.17 %) Managing through networks 47 (79.66 %) Building positive relationships 33 (55.93 %) Creating/conveying an inspiring vision 22 (37.29 %) Building support and framing 16 (27.12 %) n = 59 # 175 6. Entrepreneurial competencies (choose three options) Innovating 41 (69.49 %) Result orientation 26 (44.07 %) Quality management 14 (23.73 %) Opportunity seeking and taking 25 (42.37 %) Business sense 14 (23.73 %) Client orientation 37 (62.71 %) Creativity 18 (30.51 %) n = 59 # 175 7. Adaptation competencies (choose three options) Flexibility 52 (91.23 %) Dealing with change and ambiguity 32 (56.14 %) Business environment adaptability 43 (75.44 %) Change management 41 (71.93 %) n = 57 # 168 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 119
  • 120. 8. Corporate Social Responsibility mindset (choose three options) Ethics and values 55 (93.22 %) Social responsibilities 51 (86.44 %) Diversity management 34 (57.63 %) Social awareness and tact 33 (55.93 %) n = 59 # 173 9. Interpersonal competencies (choose three options) Fostering communication 35 (59.32 %) Openness to others 41 (69.49 %) Conflict management 43 (72.88 %) Presentation making 15 (25.42 %) Delegation and empowerment 40 (67.8 %) n = 59 # 174 10. Intrapersonal competencies (choose three options) Developing others 43 (74.14 %) Fostering teamwork 37 (63.79 %) Self knowledge 30 (51.72 %) Self control 29 (50 %) Autonomy 32 (55.17 %) n= 58 #= 171 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 120
  • 121. Appendix 9: Main managerial competencies (qualitative and quantitative research) Survey Interviews Survey APPENDIX Family 2 Political abilities -Transparency - Ability to build legitimacy as a leader Family 3 Business sense -Quick understanding of business situations -Global overview of the business Family 4 Adaptation -Flexibility - Mobility (worldwide) - Deal with and manage complexity -Building credibility - Managing through relationships -Client orientation - Innovating - Flexibility Family 5 Multicultural mindset Interviews Family 1 Hard skills - Analytical approach -Fast and efficient decision-making - Ability to focus on main information -Priority setting - Time management - Problem solving Family 6 CSR mindset Family 7 Interpersonnal skills -Speak other languages -Work and deal with different cultures -Understanding different behaviours and ways of looking at things -Sensitivity about CSR -Ethic way of doing business -Understand stakeholders -Build relationships - Communication skills - Teamworking -Social responsibility -Ethics and values -Developping others - Empowerment/ delegation - Conflict management LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Familly 8 Personnal characteristics -Openness - Humility - Openess to others 121
  • 122. Appendix 10: Direct recommendations from managers Subjects Psychology (3) Dynamics of the market (2) Marketing (12) Branding and Reputation (1) Pricing (1) International economics (1) Pedagogical methods Mix of theory and practice (11) Cross-cultural case study (1) Testimonies from Diverse varied managers (15) Project work in teams (14) Role play (3) Debates (2) Competencies to be developed in MBA Pro activity (1) General rules Responsibility (3) Less macro economics (1) Courses in English (2) Idea-based leadership (1) Whole MBA in English (1) Flexibility (3) Provide opportunity to network (3) Less theory in MBA (1) Possibility to build network within the class (2) Less macro economy (2) Competition (1) Working under pressure (6) Humility (1) Long term approach Macro economy (1) Workshop (4) Manage complexity (3) Micro Economy (1) Business planning & development (6) Involving people (1) Creativity (1) Innovation (6) Theatre (1) Comparison of extremes good and bad examples (2) Practical training (6) Strategy (11) Tangible examples (12) Internal communication (1) MBTI-test (1) Cross-cultural communication (2) International Business (6) Interaction (5) Understand different situations (1) Understanding people´s capabilities (1) Listening (1) Games and simulations (10) Patience (1) Organization (12) Case-studies (22) Communication & presentation skills (6) Cultural history (3) Presentations (2) Entrepreneurship (1) Team working (13) Intercultural management (1) Short internships (frequently) (7) Accounting (1) HRM (3) Theory (models and frameworks) (2) Best practices (5) Negotiation (4) Field training with Emotional intelligence (1) Interpersonal skills (12) Professional experience before MBA (4) Intercultural mindset Professors from (15) international business school (2) Hard skills (2) Broad specialization by sector (1) Knowledge about law Compulsory to study (2) abroad (1) Ability to innovate (1) Balanced gender in APPENDIX Team player (1) LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Teambuilding through sports (1) Travel a lot (6) Less classic lectures (2) MBA should be practical (5) Increase relationship MBA and public sector (2) More interaction companies different industries (2) Access to managers (2) 122
  • 123. Motivating people (3) Finance (11) Communication (1) psychologist (1) Being confronted with real situations (1) CSR assignment (2) Problem solving (4) Languages / English (4) classroom (2) Encourage students to read newspapers (1) Increase proportion of international students (6) Diverse teams (1) Project management (2) Government politicians & politics (4) People management (7) Result management (1) Global understanding of company (9) Analytical skills (3) Understand the different languages within the company (1) Internship should correspond with A-Z project (1) Productivity & delocalization (1) Dealing with numbers (1) Relationship (2) Change management (2) Leadership (5) Overview of total business plan (1) Focus on cost reduction (1) Time management (5) International experience through exchange or internship (23) Exchange to very different cultures (6) Change teams (3) Coordination (2) Stress management (3) Delegation (1) Quick decision making (5) Critical thinking (1) Green economy (6) Importance CSR (18) Basic Business ethics (11) Sensitivity to diversity (4) ICT impact on companies and available tools (for managers (17) Interaction foreigners (1) No freedom choosing teams (4) Ethics reflected in all courses (2) Practical use of ICT in group work (2) Include ICT in other subjects (4) Prioritizing (1) Ability work under pressure (6) Self-confidence (1) (self ) Career management (2) Networking (1) Self marketing (1) reasonably ambitious (3) Self-awareness (4) Knowledge about Chinese Language (1) (x) number of times the group of words is mentioned APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 123
  • 124. Appendix 11: Brainstorming rules The Brainstorming Rules by Beaubien (1997) are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quantity is more important than quality All ideas have to be recorded Ideas should not be judged (either positively or negatively) Once mentioned by one member of the team, the idea becomes an idea of the whole team All participants should contribute Then, here are some additional rules selected in order to achieve an efficient brainstorming session: - Be clear about the objective and write it clearly on a big paper that will be put in one part of the room, so that participants can keep it in mind. - Be creative, that is to say not being afraid of saying crazy ideas9. - Make many breaks so as to foster the quality of concentration10. - Share responsibilities within the team: animator/facilitator, focus on objective, recording ideas 9 « Rules for Brainstorming », Center for leadership and community management, George Mason University (Virginia, USA), http://clce.gmu.edu/leadership/rules.html 10 « Brainstorming », http://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 124
  • 125. Appendix 12: Result brainstorming session Teamworking Increase teamwork Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Unexpected change of team before deadline Encourage diversity within teams (gender, age, background, geographic origin) Teams not chosen by students Pre-set rules Teambuilding Make final results depend on group level to encourage team spirit Exams/evaluation Diversity of exam style (oral, written, group, presentation, project-work) Include soft skills in the evaluation of students (as a % of grade) Focus on improvement Improve global collaboration and knowledge-sharing including incentives for improvement of general level in the class Peer evaluation Unexpected exams Value student citizenship and personal involvement (class representative, student associations…) Organization of MBA Bloc structure of MBA program (courses, exam, courses, exam) Balanced spread of project-works during the program Part of the MBA should propose broad specialisation Practical dimension of MBA Reasonable working hours Free afternoon for personal activities (groupwork, sports, medical appointments) Mix of classes, project-works, internship and exchange Workshops Include practical dimension in each course Best practices Include sports (laughing yoga)- short sessions during the day Make students feeling more active and responsible for their learning Case-studies Real life case-studies Strategic HRM Impact of HRM and leadership on business performance APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 125
  • 126. Self-awareness Personal feed-back from professors including personal characteristics Using tools to increase selfawareness (e.g. MBTI) Measure your leadership style Measure communication Internationalization Attract international students Accreditations (so as to attract international students) International professors Interaction with managers and companies outside of Italy Cross-cultural case-studies (highlighting cultural differences) International web-based teamwork (e.g. business game) Create a knowledge-sharing community of MBA students among partnership schools Course about intercultural management (avoiding clichés) Proposing quality newspapers for free or at a low price (national and international) Invite 2-3 different managers coming from different countries and talking about one topic from their cultural perspectives Allow students to bring friends and make the environment more inviting (leisure time) Compulsory academic exchange outside Europe A period abroad should be compulsory to get diploma (internship or exchange) Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students English Recruitment for MBA requiring high English language proficiency (TOEFL, part of interview in English) In case of insufficient level, English crash course before starting MBA All MBA in English ICT Social networks (facebook, twitter) and impact on companies Networking Knowledge about networking Networking events (cocktail/dinner) Networking with alumni Short project-work including all master students of LBS Encourage students to participate in broadening LBS network Thematic business events at LBS Speed-networking among students Diversity/CSR Make students seat next to a different classmate everyday during the first month Involve students in social work projects in contact with companies Knowledge about work-life balance and psychosocial risks for the company Course in business ethics APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 126
  • 127. Course in diversity (showing facts and figures) Course in CSR (window dressing VS DNA values of company) Testimonies and case studies from managers working on CSR (including NGOs) Course about organizational justice Philosophy of business Self-development/ Involvement of students in associations (organization of event, sports, politics, social events) Professors/mentors/coaches providing personal feed-back (behaviour, communication, performance, personal characteristics) Coaching Theatre/improvisation theatre/role play 1 or 2 days workshops (soft-skills, creativity, leadership…) Have students go through challenging and unusual activities to test their limits (mountain climbing) Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class Provide access to cheap tickets for cinema, theatre, sports to students Make students provide feed-back to other students after groupwork Soft skills Split the class in smaller groups (15) for debates and discussions Teach negation skills using simulations and record the students Make groups of students responsible for helping the other members of the group in subjects related to MBA Select students based on potential to develop soft skills Practical training in communication skills Psychology Course about understanding how to achieve high performance as an individual Learn to play to win instead of playing not to lose Courses about: Stress/pressure management Emotional intelligence Behavioural manipulation Consumer behaviour Motivation Knowledge about active listening Communication of delicate information to employees Self career management Include career management as a course: Defining ones career aspirations How to succeed in finding a job APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 127
  • 128. Manage complexity Methodology Course about change management Global Testimonies from diverse managers (varied industries/companies) Invite 2-3 managers speaking about the same topic from different perspectives and animating debate Case studies including companies from different culture, size, industry, structure Hard skills Critical thinking – foster critical reflection Keep sufficient level of finance, strategy, marketing and organization topics Include pricing in marketing Continuous improvement of MBA Evaluation of teaching and content by students Teachers should be inspirational Teachers should have good communication skills Physical environment More welcoming cantine Physical facilities for groupwork (small rooms with flexible furniture) Library in the Viale Pola Campus Creativity Encourage students to make presentation in new creative ways (using videos, role play, prezzi…) APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 128
  • 129. Appendix 13: Selecting the recommendations (linking direct recommendations from managers and brainstorming results to competencies) Competency Subject Pedagogical Method Analytical approach   Methodology Strategy    Case studies Real life case studies Project work Fast and efficient decision-making Focus on main information Credibility  Strategy  (Course about ICT)    Case studies Real life case studies Case studies   Business Ethics Organizational Justice Knowledge about active listening Knowledge about emotional intelligence Business Ethics CSR   Transparency   Networking    Knowledge about emotional intelligence Knowledge about active listening Knowledge about networking General Recommendation  When using case studies foster critical reflection (not only provide best practice).  (Work under pressure)    NGO case studies   Practical training in communication skills         APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Develop selfawareness by using tools like MBTI Personal feedback provided by mentor/coach Develop selfawareness by using tools like MBTI Frequent change of teams Interaction with companies and managers outside of Italy Create a knowledge sharing community of MBA students among partnership schools Networking events Networking with alumni Short group project work across the different master programs Encourage students to participate and broadening LBS’ network Speed networking among students 129
  • 130. Global overview of the business      Strategy Organization Finance Marketing (Course about ICT)       Innovative/creativity  (Innovation)   Case studies Diverse case studies on industries, size, structure and organizational culture -Real life case studies Testimonies from diverse managers Invite 2-3 managers speaking about the same topic from different perspectives and animating debate (Models and frameworks) Team working Testimonies from diverse managers     Quick understanding of business situations     Strategy Finance Marketing Organization     Customer orientation  Flexibility   Consumer behaviour Marketing Stress/pressure management   APPENDIX Provide best practice Testimonies from diverse managers (industries, companies) Diverse case studies on industries, size, structure and organizational culture -(Models and frameworks)  Increase teamworking Diversity of exam styles (oral, written, group, presentation, project-work)  LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Encourage students to make presentations in new creative ways using videos, prezzi, roleplay Foster diversity within teams Attract more international students Attract diverse students Providing quality newspapers for free or at a low price (national and international) Improve global collaboration and knowledge-sharing including incentives for improvement of the general 130
  • 131.     Using tools to increase selfawareness (e.g. MBTI) Cross-cultural case studies (highlighting cultural differences) International webbased teamwork (e.g. business games) Short group project across all master programs at LBS           Worldwide mobility  Deal with and manage  complexity  Methodology Change management    APPENDIX performance level in the class Unexpected exams Personal feedback from professors about personal characteristics Recruitment for MBA taking into consideration diversity of participants Accreditation in order to attract international students Compulsory academic exchange outside of Europe A period abroad should be compulsory (internship or exchange) Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students Make students sit next to a different classmate everyday during the first month (Work under pressure) Compulsory academic exchange outside of Europe A period abroad should be compulsory (internship or exchange) Diversity of exam styles (oral, written, group, presentation, project-work) Cross-cultural case studies (highlighting cultural differences) International webbased teamwork (e.g. LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 131
  • 132.   Speak other languages   business games) Invite 2-3 managers speaking about the same topic from different perspectives and animating debate -(Models and frameworks) International web based teamwork (e.g. business games) Invite 2-3 managers  of different nationalities speaking about a specific topic from their cultural perspective          APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Increase number of international students Recruitment for MBA taking into consideration diversity of participants International professors Interaction with companies and managers outside of Italy Create a knowledgesharing community of MBA students among international partnership schools Compulsory academic exchange outside of Europe A period abroad should be compulsory (internship or exchange) Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students Recruitment for MBA requiring high level of English skills (TOEFL, part of interview in English) In case of insufficient level, English crash course before starting MBA All of the MBA in English 132
  • 133. Work and deal with different cultures   Intercultural management Diversity     Cultural understanding   Intercultural management Diversity     Workshops Cross-cultural case studies (highlighting cultural differences) International webbased teamwork (e.g. business games) Invite 2-3 managers of different nationalities speaking about a specific topic from their cultural perspective Workshops Cross-cultural case studies (highlighting cultural differences) International webbased teamwork (e.g. business games) Invite 2-3 managers of different nationalities speaking about a specific topic from their cultural perspective         Understand different behaviours and ways of looking at things   APPENDIX Course about intercultural management (avoiding clichés) Course in diversity (showing facts and figures)     Increase teamwork Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Real life case-studies Cross-cultural casestudies (highlighting cultural differences) LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010     Increase number of international students Recruitment for MBA taking into consideration diversity of participants International professors Interaction with companies and managers outside of Italy Create a knowledgesharing community of MBA students among international partnership schools Compulsory academic exchange outside of Europe A period abroad should be compulsory (internship or exchange) Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students Teams cannot be chosen by students Foster diversity within teams International professors Increase number of international 133
  • 134.     Sensitivity about CSR      Understand stakeholders Understand diversity and its importance    Knowledge about work-life balance and psychosocial risks for the company Course in business ethics Course in diversity (showing facts and figures) Course in CSR Course about organizational justice Course in CSR Strategy Course in diversity (showing facts and figures)     APPENDIX International webbased teamwork (e.g. business game) Invite 2-3 different managers coming from different countries and talking about one topic from their cultural perspectives Testimonies from diverse managers (varied industries/companies ) Invite 2-3 managers speaking about the same topic from different perspectives and animating debate Involve students in social work projects in contact with companies Testimonies and case studies from managers working on CSR (including NGOs) Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Invite 2-3 different managers coming from different countries and talking about one topic from their cultural perspectives LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010    students Compulsory academic exchange outside Europe A period abroad should be compulsory to get diploma (internship or exchange) Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students  Value student citizenship and personal involvement (class representative, student associations…)  Team cannot be chosen by students Foster diversity in teams Increase number of international students International professors A period abroad should be compulsory to get diploma (internship or exchange)     134
  • 135. Ethic way of doing business   Building relationships    Course in business ethics Course in CSR  Knowledge about networking Course emotional intelligence (People management)        Communication skills    Course in  communication  Teach negotiation skills using simulations and  record the students Knowledge about active listening    Involve students in social work projects in contact with companies Increase teamwork Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Teambuilding Using tools to increase selfawareness (e.g. MBTI) Theatre/improvisatio n theatre/role play Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class Make students provide feed-back to other students after groupwork Increase teamwork Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Personal feed-back from professors including personal characteristics Using tools to increase selfawareness (e.g. MBTI) Theatre/ improvisation theatre/role play Split the class in smaller groups for debates and discussions                 APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Foster diversity within teams Team cannot be chosen by students Make final results depend on group level to encourage team spirit Increase number of international students Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students Networking events (cocktail/dinner) Networking with alumni Make groups of students responsible for helping the other members of the group in subjects related to MBA Team cannot be chosen by students Foster diversity within teams Include soft skills in the evaluation of students (as a % of grade) Increase number of international students A period abroad should be compulsory to get diploma (internship or exchange) All MBA in English Make students seat next to a different classmate everyday during the first month Make students 135
  • 136.       Teamworking       Motivate others Conflict management   Motivation Communication   Increase teamwork Frequent change of teams (1 project = 1 team) Teambuilding Using tools to increase selfawareness (e.g. MBTI) International webbased teamwork (e.g. business game) Theatre/improvisatio n theatre/role play Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class Make students provide feed-back to other students after groupwork Teamwork Teamwork        APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 provide feed-back to other students after groupwork Encourage students to make presentation in new creative ways (using videos, role play, prezzi…) Involvement of students in associations (organization of event) Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class Networking events (cocktail/dinner) Team cannot be chosen by students Foster diversity in teams Make final results depend on group level to encourage team spirit Make groups of students responsible for helping the other members of the group in subjects related to MBA Foster diversity within teams Increase number of international students Develop self136
  • 137.  Openness   Intercultural management Diversity    Teamwork Frequent change of teams Cross-cultural casestudies         Tolerance   Intercultural management Diversity    Teamwork Frequent change of teams Cross-cultural casestudies        APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 awareness by using tools like MBTI Professors providing personal feedback Increase number of international students International professors Compulsory exchange outside Europe Compulsory period abroad Make students seat next to a different classmate everyday during the first month Involve students in social work projects in contact with companies Having students go through challenging and unusual activities Foster diversity within teams Foster diversity within teams Increase number of international students International professors Compulsory exchange outside Europe Compulsory period abroad Involve students in social work projects in contact with companies Having students go through challenging and unusual activities 137
  • 138. Time management  Stress/pressure management    Unexpected exams Diversity of exam styles Mix of classes, project-works, internships and exchanges    Prioritizing  Stress/pressure management   Communication Communication of delicate information to employees Emotional intelligence Behavioural manipulation Communication Emotional intelligence     Teamwork Role play  Knowledge about work-life balance and psychosocial risks for the company Course about motivation (People management)   Increase teamwork Make students provide feed-back to other students after groupwork   Empowerment     Delegation Develop others       Unexpected exams Diversity of exam styles Mix of classes, project-works, internships and exchanges Teamwork Role play        APPENDIX LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010 Make students involved in associations (event management) Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class (Work under pressure) Make students involved in associations (event management) (Work under pressure) Use tools to increase self-awareness Professors mentors providing personal feedback Use tools to increase self-awareness Professors mentors providing personal feedback Improve global collaboration and knowledge-sharing including incentives for improvement of general level in the class Encourage students to be a buddy for exchange students Make groups of students responsible for helping the other members of the group in subjects related to MBA Group organization of special event dedicated to 138
  • 139. Problem solving  Methodology         APPENDIX Increase teamwork Case studies Real life case-studies Include practical dimension in each course Involvement of students in associations (organization of event, sports, politics, social events) Group organization of special event dedicated to develop specific skill for the whole class Case studies including companies from different culture, size, industry, structure -(Models and frameworks) LUISS BUSINESS SCHOOL, JULY 2010  develop specific skill for the whole class Mix of classes, project-works, internship and exchange 139