Stephanie Pollack: Smarter Parking, Better Communities
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Stephanie Pollack: Smarter Parking, Better Communities

on

  • 970 views

Presentation given by Stephanie Pollack, Associate Director of Research, Kitty & Michael Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy, at the Metropolitan Area Planning Council's parking conference, ...

Presentation given by Stephanie Pollack, Associate Director of Research, Kitty & Michael Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy, at the Metropolitan Area Planning Council's parking conference, sPARKing New Ideas, Boston, MA, 4/8/14.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
970
Views on SlideShare
369
Embed Views
601

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

1 Embed 601

http://www.mapc.org 601

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Stephanie Pollack: Smarter Parking, Better Communities Stephanie Pollack: Smarter Parking, Better Communities Presentation Transcript

  • Dukakis Center For Urban and Regional Policy Northeastern University School of Public Policy & Urban Affairs www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter A “Think and Do” Tank Smarter Parking, Better Communities Sparking New Ideas Conference 8 April 2014
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter How can we convince cities and towns to adopt smarter parking policies? • Most people don’t think much about parking most of the time • And if they do they tend to think favorably of it – Those with cars like to have convenient, free places to park • So how can we go back to our cities and towns and convince our neighbors to rethink parking policy?
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Talking about parking: The economics case for policy change Minimum-parking requirements are a second wrong that doesn’t make a right. The original wrong is that we’ve never charged automobiles properly for using city streets, either for driving or parking. If you give a valuable resource away for free, the inevitable result is overuse and crowding. . . . In modern Massachusetts, on-street parking is available at low or no cost, and therefore drivers can’t find a parking spot. Low parking costs also ensure there are more drivers congesting the roads. Edward L. Glaeser Source: Boston Globe, July 13, 2013
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Talking about parking: The economic case for policy change
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Talking about parking: The fairness case for policy change 4,733,936 71% 1,230,590 19% 681,618 10% Drivers Underage population Age-eligible non-drivers Drivers per 1,000 driving age population 897 921 914 908 907 903 913 904 891 868 866 875 874 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Massachusetts Parking serves the needs of the subset of the population that owns and drives cars. What about everyone else?
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Not everyone owns a car
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Why do we require parking for cars people don’t own?
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Why do we require parking for cars people don’t own? Source: MAPC
  • The physics of parking
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Talking about parking: The language of physics No two objects can occupy the same space at the same time.
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The choice: Parking or office space? Source: graphingparking.com
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The choice: Parking or high school study space? Source: graphingparking.com
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The choice: Parking or more homes? Source: graphingparking.com
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The fundamental problem: Parking uses up too much space • The United States has somewhere between 10 million and 2 billion parking spaces • In his 2012 book Eran Ben-Joseph notes that if the correct figure is 500 million parking spaces, they occupy 3,590 square miles, an area larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined • If the correct number is 2 billion, the area grows to the size of Connecticut and Vermont combined • Ben-Joseph writes that “in some U.S. cities, parking lots cover more than a third of the land area” Sources: Michael Kimmelman, New York Times, 6 Jan. 2012 Eran Ben-Joseph, Re-Thinking A Lot (2012)
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Non-parking reasons communities might adopt smarter parking Desirable Outcomes for the Community Quality of Life Revenue Economic Activity More Space for the Community to Use For Complete Streets Public Space Development Reduced Land Devoted to Parking On-Street Parking Off-Street Parking
  • Better communities through smarter parking
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Smarter parking policies can create better communities by • Increasing economic activity and tax revenue • Making room for more public space • Enabling Complete Streets • Revitalizing neighborhood shopping districts • Making housing more affordable
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking, economic activity and tax revenue Source: Studies by Christopher MaCahill (now at State Smart Transportation Institute) and Norman Garrick (University of Connecticut)
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking, economic activity and tax revenue
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking, economic activity and tax revenue  Cities forego tax money with every parking spot they require  In Hartford, for example, the city forfeits $1,200 per year per parking space, which amounts to a subsidy of more than $50 million per year for all the parking in downtown Hartford (where total municipal tax revenue totals only $75 million)  In contrast, the subsidy for parking in downtown Cambridge, Mass., amounts to just over $1 million per year on municipal revenues of $50 million
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking into public space: Mission Hill parklet • A parklet is a small, semi-permanent public space created from on-street parking spaces • The parklet in Mission Hill, the first of four planned for the City of Boston, debuted in September 2013 • The parklet took the place of two parking spaces adjacent to “parklet partners” Mike’s Donuts and Lilly’s Gourmet Pasta Express
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking into public space: “Our Happy Block” • 4,300 square feet of a parking lot at Southeast Portland’s Calvary Lutheran Church was “depaved” by a Portland, Oregon non-profit • Neighbors had become concerned that the excessively large surface parking lot was being used by drug dealers and would-be hot-rodders to test their driving skills. • The asphalt was replaced by four rain gardens and nearly 1,300 native plants • The project also helped divert 379,000 gallons of rainwater from storm drains annually
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking into public space: Philadelphia’s “The Porch” • The Porch at 30th Street Station in Philadelphia opened in November 2011, replacing 34 parking spaces and a bland, barren sidewalk • The Porch includes abundant seating, seasonal plantings, programming such as performances and fitness classes and special events such as The Porch Beer Garden and mini-golf • The project was designed and implemented using The Project for Public Space’s LQC approach – Lighter Quicker Cheaper – which involves building pubic spaces by taking small, iterative, and experimental steps to determine what works best, rather than starting with large capital expenses • An extensive post-occupancy study confirmed that The Porch has created a well-used public space and catalyzed new economic activity
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter “The Porch”: The results
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking into public space: The economic benefits
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Complete Streets and parking: Polk Street in San Francisco
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Complete Streets and Parking: Creating protected bike lanes
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Complete Streets and parking: The economic case
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Neighborhood business districts: Parking/Business Improvement Districts • In the 1980s Old Pasadena was a disinvested area filled with pawn shops and vacant buildings • Before 1993, Old Pasadena had no parking meters and because parking was free store employees used the on-street parking and customers had difficulty finding places to park • Today 1,200 parking meters generate $1.5 million in revenue –The city reinvests a portion of the parking meter revenue into infrastructure improvements –The rest goes to pay the city’s share of the cost of a business improvement district which uses its funds to care for and market the area • Today the area has 150 retailers and an average of 30,000 people visit Old Pasadena each weekend – And in an area with 600 residential units, another 2,000 are under construction
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Housing affordability and parking • Requiring large amounts of parking in housing developments makes the housing more expensive, irrespective of resident demand, because the cost of parking is built into the cost of each unit • Parking requirements for new developments may also reduce the total number of units built, because if the requirements make some projects unprofitable some residential developments that might have been built are never built “When parking requirements are removed, developers provide more housing and less parking, and also that developers provide different types of housing: housing in older buildings, in previously disinvested areas, and housing marketed toward non-drivers. This latter category of housing tends to sell for less than housing with parking spaces.“ Research paper by UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking and housing affordability Based on typical affordable housing development costs, one parking space per unit increases costs by about 12.5% and two parking spaces increase costs by about 25% Source: Todd Litman, Parking Requirements Impacts on Housing Affordability (VTPI 2013)
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Parking and housing affordability: Right sizing parking for multifamily housing
  • Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter So when you talk about parking make sure to start by talking about • Economic development • Tax and other revenues • Open space • Complete Streets • Affordable housing • Neighborhood retail And all of the ways that smarter parking helps create better communities