• Electrical energy loss also occurs in the process of delivering energy from the point of generation to consumption.These are broadly grouped as• transmission losses• substation losses and• distribution losses.
Transmission loss• This is the electrical energy lost owing to the electrical characteristics of transmission lines.• Transmission Energy losses on a large electrical system range from 5-8%.How to Prevent:• Better insulation• Shorter distances between transmitters• by transmitting electricity at higher voltage
Substation loss• This is the electrical energy spent in transforming voltage level step-up or step-down at the grid or distribution substation.ways to improve:• Improve efficiency of transformers.
Distribution loss Two types:1. Technical loss: caused by the resistance of the conductor, transformer and regulator loss, corona loss in extra high voltage or ultra high voltage, dielectric loss especially in under ground cables, energy meter loading loss, power factor loss, voltage drop loss and overload loss.2. Non-technical loss:They are theft or pilferage by metered and unmetered customers, illegal connection, incorrect operation of the meter and illegal use in collaboration with the utilitys personnel and others.ways to improve:• improving distribution line performance • improvements in the equipment such as transformers
Electric Energy Losses: statistics• Currently a significant amount (about 10 percent) of electric energy produced by power plants is lost during transmission and distribution to consumers. About 40 percent of this total loss occurs on the distribution network.• A modest 10 percent reduction in distribution losses would, therefore, save about 65 billion kWh of electricity
Energy loss at building levelEnergy loss at buillding level occurs due to various reasons :1. Use of Less efficient electrical appliances2.High Resistance properties of the wiring used3. the electricity passed along extension cords increases the length of the transmission so a certain percentage of the power is lostways to improve: 1. use efficient low energy electrical appliances 2. Low resistance wires and cables 3. Reduce the length of transmission as far as possible.
Energy loss at building level1. Circuit components: As energy is transmitted along a circuit, a certain percentage of the power is lost. This is due to the energy required to move the electricity from the power generation source to the user.2. Wires and cables : the cables have finite resistance and so there is loss in current flow.3. Lighting4. Electric motors and inverters5. Lifts and escalators6. Alarm systems
• One should buy appliances with green ratings on energy consumption. The following are the symbols to identify such products. They consume 20-30% less than the common products. • Energy Star specifications differ with each item, and are set by either the Environmental Protection Agency or the Department of Energy. All European manufactures and retailers must provide information of energy efficiency for a large portion of household electrical items. It is best to go for products rated ‗A‘ as they are more efficient, more economical and minimize harm to the environment.Energy Star = certifies that certain electrical appliances havelow energy consumption rates below an agreed level when on‗stand-by‘ mode.
LIGHTING• The Energy Star is awarded to only certain bulbs that meet strict efficiency, quality, and lifetime criteria.• Energy Star qualified fluorescent lighting uses 75% less energy and lasts up to ten times longer than normal incandescent lights.• Energy Star Qualified Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lighting:• Reduces energy costs — uses at least 75% less energy than incandescent lighting, saving on operating expenses.• Reduces maintenance costs — lasts 35 to 50 times longer than incandescent lighting and about 2 to 5 times longer than fluorescent lighting. No bulb- replacements, no ladders, no ongoing disposal program.• Reduces cooling costs — LEDs produce very little heat.• Is guaranteed — comes with a minimum three-year warranty — far beyond the industry standard.• Offers convenient features — available with dimming on some indoor models and automatic daylight shut-off and motion sensors on some outdoor models.• Is durable — won‘t break like a bulb.
To qualify for Energy Star certification, LED lighting products must pass avariety of tests to prove that the products will display the followingcharacteristics: • Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies (incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the area lighted by the fixture. • Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based on use of 8 hours per day). • Excellent colour quality. The shade of white light appears clear and consistent over time. • Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting. • Light comes on instantly when turned on. • No flicker when dimmed. • No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power should not exceed 0.5 watts in the off state.
• Products such as fans, refrigerators, HVAC system, washing machines, etc. consume a lot of energy. So care should be taken to first check the ratings of these appliances before installing them to reduce the energy consumption. CFL‘S• A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL; also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube) is a fluorescent lampdesigned to replace an incandescent lamp; some types fit into light fixtures formerly used for incandescent lamps.• CFLs radiate a light spectrum that is different from that of incandescent lamps. Improved phosphor formulations have improved the perceived colour of the light emitted by CFLs, such that some sources rate the best "soft white" CFLs as subjectively similar in colour to standard incandescent lamps• The most important technical advance has been the replacement of electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts; this has removed most of the flickering and slow starting traditionally associated with fluorescent lighting.
• CFLs have two main components: a gas-filled tube (also called bulb or burner) and a magnetic or electronic ballast. For their principles of operation.• An electronic ballast and permanently attached tube in an integrated CFL• Standard shapes of CFL tube are single-turn double helix, double-turn, triple-turn, quad-turn, circular, and butterfly.• CFLs can also be operated with solar powered street lights, using solar panels located on the top or sides of a pole and light fixtures that are specially wired to use the lamps.• The average rated life of a CFL is 8 to 15 times that of incandescents. CFLs typically have a rated lifespan of 6,000 to 15,000 hours, whereas incandescent lamps are usually manufactured to have a lifespan of 750 hours or 1,000 hours
• For a given light output, CFLs use 20 to 33 percent of the power of equivalent incandescent lamps.• The cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) is a newer form of CFL.Their advantages are that they are instant-on, they are compatible with timers, photocells, and dimmers, and they have a long life of approximately 50,000 hours. CCFLs are an effective and efficient replacement for lighting that is turned on and off frequently with little extended use.• Lights with timers and movement sensors should be installed in public places which consume energy only when the space is in use otherwise turned off.
LED LIGHTS• An LED lamp (LED light bulb) is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light.• LED lamps offer long service life and high energy efficiency, but initial costs are higher than those of fluorescent and incandescent lamps.
LED lamp • An LED lamp (LED light bulb) is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light. • Since the light output of individual light-emitting diodes is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps, multiple diodes are often used together. In recent years, as diode technology has improved, high power light- emitting diodes with higher lumen output are making it possible to replace other lamps with LED lamps. • LEDs are damaged by operating at high temperatures, so LED lamps typically include heat management elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins. • LED lamps offer long service life and high energy efficiency, but initial costs are higher than those of fluorescent and incandescent lamps. • Compared to fluorescent bulbs, advantages claimed for LED light bulbs are that they contain no mercury (unlike aCompact fluorescent lamp or CFL), that they turn on instantly, and that lifetime is unaffected by cycling on and off, so that they are well suited for light fixtures where bulbs are often turned on and off. • LED light bulbs are also mechanically robust; most other artificial light sources are fragile.
Solar powered appliances• Other renewable resource products such as solar cooker, solar water heaters solar lights. Chargers etc. can be used. Thus reducing the conventional energy usage. Photovoltaic solar panels that generate electricity can supplement a home with a renewable source of electricity.
HTS wires• (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that have a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) above 30 K (−243.2 °C)• have 100 times the capacity of conventional wires without energy loss due to electrical resistance• modernize and expand the Nation‘s electricity delivery system• term high-temperature superconductor was used interchangeably with cuprate superconductor for compounds such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) and yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO).
HTS materials• . Cuprate superconductors (and other unconventional superconductors) differ in many important ways from conventional superconductors, such as elemental mercury or lead, which are adequately explained by the BCS theory.• There also has been much debate as to high-temperature superconductivity coexisting with magnetic ordering in YBCO, iron-based superconductors, several ruthenocuprates and other exotic superconductors, and the search continues for other families of materials. HTS areType- II superconductors, which allow magnetic fields to penetrate their interior in quantized units of flux, meaning that much higher magnetic fields are required to suppress superconductivity. The layered structure also gives a directional dependence to the magnetic field response.
Need for advanced cables andconductors• increase the delivery capacity of electricity systems,• to improve the affordability of electric services by reducing the need for new rights-of-way,• to enhance efficiency by reducing energy losses.• And to replace the conventional conductors such as aluminium and copper with a more efficient option
Application-Result-Challenge• HTS technology has been applied to the key aspects of the electricity system—generation, delivery and control.• higher capacity HTS power lines c provide a new approach to building transmission and distribution systems thus reducing the footprint and allowing additional capacity to be placed in service within existing rights-of-way.• to develop economic processing methods for manufacturing ductile wires while using ceramic materials that are characteristically brittle and granular
HTS Fault current limiters (FCLs)• has potential to save utilities money and make the modern grid more efficient by protecting electric grid equipment from damages and by helping to avoid outages.• This added level of protection may, in turn, allow connectivity between power substations to increase grid flexibility and flow control.
limitation• However, to reach their full potential, HTS equipment will require the capability to operate over a wide range of voltage and power, as our current electricity system does.
• Few electrical appliances in building level : Refrigerator Airconditioner Ceiling fans Elevator Lights Heaters Generators Electric devices. Kitchen appliances. Electric motors.
HOME APPLIANCES..• Home appliances are electrical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning.
• Home appliances can be mainly classified into following types : 1. Major appliances or white goods 2. Small appliances or brown goods.• Brown goods usually require high technical knowledge and skills, while white goods need more practical skills.
Major appliances :• A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is usually defined as a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation in household.• White goods/major appliances comprise major household appliances and may include air conditioner, dishwasher, clothes dryer, drying cabinet, freezer, refrigirator, kithchen stove..
Small appliances :• Small appliance refers to a class of home appliances that are portable or semi-portable or which are used on tabletops, countertops, or other platforms.
- REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL • The Domestic Sector accounts for 30% of total energy consumption in the country. There is a tremendous scope • to conserve energy by adopting simple measures.It would be useful to know which gadget consumes how muchelectricity. Economic use of home appliances can help inreducing electricity bills.The following table shows the energy consumption of variousappliances normally used at home:
Lighting• Turn off the lights when not in use• Take advantage of daylight by using light-colored, loose- weave curtains on your windows to allow daylight to penetrate the room. Also, decorate with lighter colors that reflect daylight• De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination• Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire room, focus the light where you need it• Compact fluorescent bulbs are four times more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs and provide the same lighting• Use electronic chokes in place of conventional copper chokes
• Fans• Replace conventional regulators with electronic regulators for ceiling fans• Install exhaust fans at a higher elevation than ceiling fans• Electric iron• Select iron boxes with automatic temperature cutoff• Use appropriate regulator position for ironing• Do not put more water on clothes while ironing• Do not iron wet clothes
Kitchen Appliances• Mixers• Avoid dry grinding in your food processors ( mixers and grinders) as it takes longer time than liquid grinding• Microwaves ovens• Consumes 50 % less energy than conventional electric / gas stoves• Do not bake large food items• Unless youre baking breads or pastries, you may not even need to preheat• Dont open the oven door too often to check food condition as each opening leads to a temperature drop of 25°C• Electric stove• Turn off electric stoves several minutes before the specified cooking time• Use flat-bottomed pans that make full contact with the cooking coil• Use Solar Water Heater – a good replacement for a electric water heater
Electronic Devices• Do not switch on the power when TV and Audio Systems are not in use i.e. idle operation leads to an energy loss of 10 watts/device• Computers• Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator.• If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the systems energy.• Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%.• Battery chargers, such as those for laptops, cell phones and digital cameras, draw power whenever they are plugged in and are very inefficient. Pull the plug and save.• Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy
Refrigerator• Regularly defrost manual-defrost refrigerators and freezers; frost buildup increases the amount of energy needed to keep the motor running.• Leave enough space between your refrigerator and the walls so that air can easily circulate around the refrigerator• Dont keep your refrigerator or freezer too cold.• Make sure your refrigerator door seals are airtight• Cover liquids and wrap foods stored in the refrigerator. Uncovered foods release moisture and make the compressor work harder.• Do not open the doors of the refrigerators frequently• Dont leave the fridge door open for longer than necessary, as cold air will escape.• Use smaller cabinets for storing frequently used items• Avoid putting hot or warm food straight into the fridge
Washing machines• Always wash only with full loads• Use optimal quantity of water• Use timer facility to save energy• Use the correct amount of detergent• Use hot water only for very dirty clothes• Always use cold water in the rinse cycle• Prefer natural drying over electric dryers
Air Conditioners• Prefer air conditioners having automatic temperature cut off Keep regulators at ―low cool‖ position• Operate the ceiling fan in conjunction with your window air conditioner to spread the cooled air more effectively throughout the room and operate the air conditioner at higher temperature• Seal the doors and windows properly Leave enough space between your air conditioner and the walls to allow better air circulation• A roof garden can reduce the load on Air Conditioner• Use windows with sun films/curtains• Set your thermostat as high as comfortably possible in the summer. The less difference between the indoor and outdoor temperatures, the lower will be energy consumption.• Dont set your thermostat at a colder setting than normal when you turn on your air conditioner. It will not cool your home any faster and could result in excessive cooling.• Dont place lamps or TV sets near your air-conditioning thermostat. The thermostat senses heat from these appliances, which can cause the air conditioner to run longer than necessary.• Plant trees or shrubs to shade air-conditioning units but not to block the airflow. A unit operating in the shade uses as much as 10% less electricity than the same one operating in the sun.
For a given light output, CFLs use 20to 33 percent of the power ofequivalent incandescent lampsElectrical power equivalents for differing lamps  Electrical power consumption Minimum light output Watts (W) lumens (lm) Compact fluorescent Incandescent 9–13 40 450 13–15 60 800 18–25 75 1,100 23–30 100 1,600 30–52 150 2,600
• The cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) is a newer form of CFL. CCFLs use electrodes without a filament. The voltage of CCFLs is about 5 times higher than CFLs, and the current is about 10 times lower. CCFLs have a diameter of about 3 millimeters.• Their advantages are that they are instant-on, like incandescents, they are compatible with timers, photocells, and dimmers, and they have a long life of approximately 50,000 hours. CCFLs are an effective and efficient replacement for lighting that is turned on and off frequently with little extended use (for example, in a bathroom or closet).
Hydro electricity• By far the best way to generate electricity.• Dams are built on rivers and the force of the flowing waters isused to rotate turbines which in turn produce electricity.
ADVANTAGES• It can handle seasonal(as well as daily) high peak loads.DISADVANTAGES• The utilisation of stored water is sometimes complicated by demands for irrigation.
Renewable sources of energy• WIND POWER• High velocity winds make the blades of the wind turbine rotate• This rotation of wind turbine is converted to electrical current by means of a generator.
ADVANTAGES• No pollution, no harmful by-products.• Renewable source of energy.DISADVANTAGES• Inconsistent winds may hinder the energy generation rate.
Solar power• Used for heating, cooking, electricity production ,etc.• The sun‘s rays are trapped in the solar cells and then converted into electricity.
ADVANTAGES• Renewable source• No air or water pollution caused.DISADVANTAGES• No energy is produced during night time.• The initial cost is high. Solar power stations are expensive to build.
Geothermal energy• Literally, geothermal means, "earth heat." Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth.• Hot rocks under the ground heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators.
ADVANTAGES• Once a geothermal plant is build, it is generally self-sufficient energy wise.• Geothermal power plants are generally small and have little effect on the natural landscape.DISADVANTAGES• If done incorrectly, geothermal energy can produce pollutants.• Improper drilling into the earth can release hazardous minerals and gases.• Geothermal sites are prone to running out of steam.
Stored energy• Energy storage is accomplished by devices or physical media that store some form of energy to perform some useful operation at a later time.• The solar, tidal, wind energy produced can be stored and can be used at a later stage when there is an energy shortage.
How to reduce energy consumptionthrough passive techniques
Daylighting and energy conservation• Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy use.• Energy savings can be achieved either from the reduced use of artificial (electric) lighting or from passive solar heating or cooling. Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by simply installing fewer electric lights because daylight is present, or by dimming/switching electric lights automatically in response to the presence of daylight, a process known as daylight harvesting.
Types of daylighting used in architecture:1. WindowsWindows are the most common way to admit daylight into a space. Their verticalorientation means that they selectively admit sunlight and diffuse daylight atdifferent times of the day and year. Therefore windows on multiple orientationsmust usually be combined to produce the right mix of light for the building,depending on the climate and latitude.Different types and grades of glass and different window treatments can also affectthe amount of light transmission through the windows.
2. Clerestory windowsAnother important element in creating daylighting is the use of clerestorywindows. These are high, vertically-placed windows. Clerestories can be used toadmit diffuse daylight that evenly illuminates a space such as a classroom or office.Often, clerestory windows also shine onto interior wall surfaces painted white oranother light color. These walls are placed so as to reflect indirect light to interiorareas where it is needed. This method has the advantage of reducing thedirectionality of light to make it softer and more diffuse, reducing shadows.
3. SkylightSkylight is any horizontal window, roof lantern or oculus, placed at the roof ofthe building, often used for daylighting. Skylights admit more light per unit areathan windows, and distribute it more evenly over a space.With proper skylight design, there can be significant energy savings incommercial and industrial applications. Savings from daylighting can cutlighting energy use by up to 80 percent.
4. Light reflectorsOnce used extensively in office buildings, the manually adjustable light reflector isseldom in use today having been supplanted by a combination of other methods inconcert with artificial illumination. The reflector had found favor where the choicesof artificial light provided poor illumination compared to modern electric lighting.
5. Light shelvesLight shelves are an effective way to enhance the lighting from windows.The light shelf projects beyond the shadow created by the eave and reflectssunlight upward to illuminate the ceiling. This reflected light can contain little heatcontent and the reflective illumination from the ceiling will typically reduce deepshadows, reducing the need for general illumination.
6. Light tubesAnother type of device used is the light tube, also called a solar tube, which isplaced into a roof and admits light to a focused area of the interior. Thesesomewhat resemble recessed ceiling light fixtures. They do not allow as much heattransfer as skylights because they have less surface area.